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Turbo Generators

Generator Bearing

Description

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-5001-0015/1

Turbo Generators

Measuring of Bearing Temperature

Description

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-5003-0011/1

Turbo Generators

Generator Bearing Insulation

Description

THDF, THFF Series

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-5005-0007/1

Turbo Generators

Shaft Seal

Description
The rotor shaft ends are brought out of the
gastight enclosure through double-flow shaft seals.
With this type of shaft seal, the escape of
hydrogen between the rotating shaft and the housing
is prevented by maintaining a cdontinus film of oil
between the shaft and a non-rotating floating seal
ring. To accomplish this, seal oil from two separate
circuits, i.e. the air side and hydrogen side seal oil
circuit, is fed to the seal ring at a pressure slightly
higher than the hydrogen pressure. In addition,
higher pressure air side oil is supplied to the shaft
seal for thrust load compensation of the seal ring.

relatively free to move in the radial direction, but is


restrained from rotating by use of a pin. The seal ring
carrier, bolted to the end shield, is insulated to prevent
the flow of shaft currents. The oil is supplied to the
shaft seal at three different pressures (air side and
hydrogen side seal oil pressures and higher pressure
oil for ring relief) over pipes and the mounting flange
of the seal ring carrier. The air side and hydrogen
side real oil is admitted into the air side and hydrogen
side annular grooves, respectively, of the seal ring
via passage in the seal ring carrier and seal ring. A
continuous film of oil is maintained between the shaft
and the seal ring. The clearance between shaft and
seal ring is such that friction losses are minimized
and an oil film of sufficient thickness is maintains
without an unnecessarily large oil flow. Temperature
rise of the seal oil is therefore small which contributes
to reliable sealing. The babsitt lining of the seal ring
ensure high reliability even in the event of boundary
friction.
The air side seal oil pump delivers the oil at a
pressure maintained at >1.4 bar above the generator
hydrogen gas pressure at the shaft seal by means of
a differential pressure valve ("A" valve)
On the hydrogen side, the hydrogen-saturated seal
oil is circulated in a closed circuit. A pressure

Fig.1
Seal

Seal ring carrier

equalizing valve maintains the oil pressure on the


hydrogen side slightly blow that on the air side, thus
keeping the interchange of oil between the air and

Seal ring
Hydrogen side seal oil

hydrogen sides to a very small value.


Air side seal oil for ring relief is fed to the annular

Air side seal oil


Ring relief oil

groove in the air side seal ring carrier and forced


between the seal ring and the seal ring carrier. In this
way the oil and gas pressure acting on the seal ring

Interchange of Oil in Annular Groove of Shaft

are balanced, and the friction between the seal and


seal ring carrier is reduced. The seal ring is thus free

The double-flow shaft seal is characterized by its


short axial length, its independence from the

to adjust its radial position, Which is important during


the starting and shutdown period. The seal ring will
adjust its position according to the shaft position as

respective axial and radial position of the shaft, and


low hydrogen losses due to absorption by the seal

dictated by the oil film thickness and the vibratory


condition.

oil.
The two halves of the babbitted seal ring float on
the shaft journal with a small clearance and are

The seal ring need follow the axial displacement


of the generator shaft, which is primarily caused by
turbine expansion. The dishing permits the shaft to

guided in the axial direction by a seal ring carrier


resistant to distortion and bending. The seal ring is

slide through the seal ring without impairing the


sealing effect.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-6000-0006/1

Turbo Generators
Shaft Seal

Description

Air
Hydrogenb
Air side seal oil
H2 side seal oil
Pressure oil for seal ring relief

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-6001-0004/1

Turbo Generators

Seal Oil System

Description
failure, the second pump automatically takes over. If
Shaft seals supplied with pressurized seal oil are
provided to prevent hydrogen losses at the shaft and
the ingress of air into the hydrogen-cooled generator.

both pumps fail, the seal oil supply is taken over by


the stand-by pump without any interruption.

Details of the shaft seal are given in a separate


description in this manual.

As long as the seal oil pressure in the annular


gap exceeds the gas pressure in the generator, no
hydrogen will escape from the generator housing.

draws the seal oil from the seal oil storage tank and
feeds it to the shaft seal via coolers and filters. The
seal oil supplied to the shaft seals which drains

The shaft seal is supplied with seal oil by a separate


system consisting of a hydrogen side seal oil circuit

towards the hydrogen side through the annular gaps


between the shaft and the seal rings is first collected

and an air side seal oil circuit. The oil in the seal oil
system is the same as that used in the turbinegenerator journal shown.

in the generater prechambers and then returned to


the seal oil tank.
By dividing the seal oil system into two separate

circuits, the hydrogen losses at the seals are kept to


a minimum. Since the hydrogen side seal oil comes

Air Side Seal Oil Circuit

Hydrogen Side Seal Oil Circuit


During normal operation, the hydrogen side pump

During normal operation, the air side ac pump


draws the seal oil from the seal oil storage tank and
feeds it to the shaft seals via coolers and filters. The

into contact with only the hydrogen gas, it is saturated


with hydrogen and contains no air. Vacuum treatment
of the seal oil and the resulting continuous hydrogen

seal oil supplied to the shaft seals which drains


towards the air side through the annular gaps

losses are thus avoided. The air side seal oil, which
is only in contact with air, becomes saturated with

between the shaft and seal rings is returned to the


seal oil storage tank.
For the air side seal oil circuit, three seal oil

air. By separating the two seal oil circuits, entry of air


to the hydrogen compartment is kept to a minimum
thereby maintaining good hydrogen purity.

pumps are provided with one of the three pumps


always in operation. In the event of a failure of the

One seal oil pump is used for oil circulation in the


hydrogen side oil circuit. In the event of a failure of

pump in service due to a mechanical or electrical

this pump, the seal oil to the hydrogen side annular

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7100-0025/1

gap is derived from the air side oil supply circuit.

As

may be seen on the attached diagram,

When operating is this manner, a slow


deterioration of the hydrogen purity in the generator

differentaial pressure valve "C" ("C" valve) serves to


control the seal oil pressure in the hydrogen side seal

will take place, since the oil flowing towards the


hydrogen side will introduce air, which will come out
of the oil in the hydrogen atmoshere due to the change

oil circuit and operates on the same principle, with


the only difference being that the air side seal oil
pressures are used as singals.

in pressures. In case of prolonged operation, it may


eventually become necessary to improve the hydrogen

The constant differential pressure between the air


side and the hydrogen side oil is controlled by

purity by gas scavenging.

separate pressure equalizing control valves for each


shaft seal. The function of the pressure equalizing
control valve is illustrated in the attached diagram.

Seal Oil Prsessure Regulation

The air side and the hydrogen side seal oil circuits
are, hower, in contact in the annular gaps between

Due to the fact that the air side and hydrogen side
seal oil pressures act in opposite directioins, the valve

the shaft seal. The seal oil pressures at the shaft seal
are set so that the air side seal oil pressure is slightly
higher than the hydrogen side seal oil pressure.

stem is moved upwards or downwards when these


pressures are unbalanced. The valve opens further
with a downward movement of the valve stem (occours

Accordingly, a very small quantity of oil flows from


the air side to the hydrogen side in the annular gap

at rising air side seal oil pressure), resulting in a reise


of the hydrogen side seal oil pressure. Setting of the

resulting in a gradual increase in the amount of oil in


the hydrogen side oil circuit. A float valve in seal oil
tank returns the excess oil to the seal oil stroge tank.

desired differential pressure to be maintained by the


valve is done by a corresponding preloading of the
control piston.

The interchange of oil between the two circuit is so


small that the aforementioned advantages of two

separate circuit are not impaired.


Oil pressures which exceed the generator gas
pressure are required to ensure proper sealing of the

The oil drains from the air side of the shaft seals
discharges to the generator beadring space and is
returnde to the turbine oil tank via the seal oil storage

generator. With the seal oil pumps in operation, the


seal oil pressure is controlled by differential pressure

tank together with the bearign oil.


The oil drained from the hydrogen side of the shaft

valves "A" ("A" valve). The first "A" valve controls the
seal oil pressure after two equal-priority ac air side
seal oil pumps. The pressure after the standby seal

seals is discharged into the generator prechambers.


The prechambers reduce the oil flow which permits
the escape of entrained gas bubbles and defoaming

oil pump is separately controlled by the second "A"


valve. Depending on the valve setting and the singnal

of the oil. Down-stream of the prechambers the oil


flows are combined and returned into the seal oil tank.

oil pressure prevailling (seal oil pressure and


hydrogen casing pressure), a larger or smaller amount
of oil is returned to the suction pipe so that the

Float valves keep the oil level in the tank at a


predetermined level. If an excessive amount of oil is
supplied to the seal oil tank, a float valve allows some

required seal oil pressures is established at the shaft


seals.

oil to return to the seal oil storage tank.


The small amount of hydrogen escaping from the

The function of the "A" valves is illustrated in the


attached diagram. Since the gas pressure and the
signal oil pressure act in opposite directions, the valve

generator together with the oil does not present a


danger to the generator surrounding since the oil
drained on the hydrogen side is returned to the turbine

stem is moved upwards or downwards when these


pressure become unbalanced. The valve cone is

oil tank only via the seal oil storage tank where the
majority of the entrained hydrogen is removed. The

arranged so that the valve closes further for a


downward movement of the valve stem (occurs at
rising gas pressure or falling seal oil pressure). This

seal oil storage tank is connected to the bearing vapor


exhausters which also vent the generator
prechambers.

oil flow throttling results in a rise of the air side seal


oil pressure at the shaft seals. Setting of the desired

differential pressure (set valve) to be maintainde by


the valve is done by a coresponding preloading of the
main bellows. The preloading is adjusted with a

To ensure free movement of the seal ringl, the


shaft seals are provide with pressure oil for ring relief.
The oil supply for ring relief is obtainde from the air

compression spring, the upper end of which is rigidly


connected to the valve yoke, while its lower end is

side oil circuit. The required pressure setting for each


shaft seal is accomplished separately.

linked to the valve stem by means of an adjusting nut.

2.1-7100-0025/2

Seal Oil Drains

Seal Ring Relief

BHEL, Hardwar

BHEL, Hardwar

Turbo Generators

Pressure Equalizing Control Valve

Description

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7104-0001/1

Turbo Generators

Differential Pressure Valve A

Description

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7101-0002/1

Turbo Generators

Differential Pressure Valve C

Description

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7103-0002/1

Turbo Generators

Seal Oil Diagram


List of Valves For Seal Oil System

Description
SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

MKW 01
AA 503

Gate Vlave

80

2.5

CS

FL

Shut off Seal Oil Pumps

Pipe Line

2.

MKW 01
AA 505

Needle Valve

15

2.5

CS

SC

Shut Off Valve For SOST


Drain

Pipe Line

3.

MKW 01
AA 505

Needle Valve

15

2.5

CS

SC

Shut Off Valve in U Loop


Drain

Pipe Line

4.

MKW 03
AA 001

Float Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Float Valve For Seal Oil


Tank Drain

Seal Oil Unit

5.

MKW 03
AA 022

Float Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Float Valve For Seal Oil


Seal Oil Unit
Tank, Supply From Air Side
Circuit

6.

MKW 03
AA 501

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve in Drain


Seal Oil Unit
Line of Seal Oil Tank Circuit

7.

MKW03
AA 503

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve For Seal


Seal Oil Drain Loop

Seal Oil Unit

8.

MKW 03
AA 503

Needle Vlave

15

2.5

CS

SC

Drain Valve For H2 Side


Seal Oil Drain Loop

Pipe Line

9.

MKW 03
AA 504

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve in Drain


By Pass lIne at Seal Oil
Tank

Seal Oil Unit

10. MKW 03
AA 505

Globe Valve

20

2.5

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve For Oil


Level Indicator For Seal
Oil Tank

Seal Oil Unit

11. MKW 03
AA 506

Globe Valve

20

2.5

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve For Oil


Level Indicator, Bottom

Seal Oil Unit

12 MKW 11
AA 001

Relief Valve

20

2.5

cs

FL

Relief Valve For AC Seal Oil Seal Oil Unit


Pump-1 (Air Side)

13 MKW 11
AA 002

Diff. Pressure
Regulating Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

For Maintaining Constant


Pressure Difference

Seal Oil Unit

14 MKW 11
AA 507

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Impulse of DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

15 MKW 11
AA 003

Check Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Check Valve After AC Seal


Oil Pump-1 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

16 MKW 11
AA 508

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve in By Pass


Line

Seal Oil Unit

17 MKW 11
AA 501

Gate Valve

80

4.0

CS

FL

Inlet to Seal Oil Pump-1


Air Side

S.O. Pump Unit

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7111-7379/1
0197E

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

FUNCTION

18 MKW 11
AA 505

Gate Vlave

50

4.0

CS

BW

Shut off Valve inOil


DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

19 MKW 11
AA 506

Gate Valve

10

2.5

CS

BW

Shut Off Valve in Oil


Impule Line of DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

20 MKW 11
AA 004

Shut Off Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

Non Return Shut Off Valve


After Air Side Seal Oil
Pump-1 & 2

Seal Oil Unit

21 MKW 11
AA 504

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve Before


DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

22 MKW 13
AA 001

Relief Valve

20

2.5

CS

FL

Relief Volve For Seal


Oil Pump (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Pump Unit

23 MKW 13
AA 002

Diff. Pressure
Regulating Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

For Maintaining Constant


Pressure Difference

Seal Oil Unit

24 MKW 13
AA 003

Check Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Check Valve After H2 Side


Seal Oil Pump

Seal Oil Unit

25 MKW 13
AA 501

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve Before H2


Side Seal Oil Pump

Seal Oil Unit

26 MKw 13
AA 503

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valcve For Seal


Seal Oil Unit
Oil Before H2 Side Coolers

27 MKW 13
AA 505

Globe Balve

10

2.5

CS

BW

Shut Off Valve in Air Side


Impulse Line

Seal Oil Unit

28 MKW 13
AA 511

Globe Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve in H2 Side


Seal Oil Drain Line

Seal Oil Unit

29 MKW 13
AA 507

Globe Valve

10

2.5

CS

BW

Equalising Valve in Bypass


of Impulse Line

Seal Oil Unit

30 MKW 13
AA 508

Needle Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Vent Valve at


DPRV (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

31 MKW 13
AA 509

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Vent Valve at


DPRV (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

32 MKW 13
AA 510

Gate Valve

25

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve in H2 Side


Seal Oil Unit
DPRV Bypass Line to S.O.T.

33 MKW 13
AA 506

Globe Valve

10

2.5

CS

BW

Shut of Vlave in H2 Side


Impulse LIne

Seal Oil Unit

34 MKW 21
AA 001

Relief Valve

20

0.0

CS

FL

Relief Valve For Seal Oil


Pump-2 (Air Side)

S.O. Pump Unit

35 MKW 21
AA 002

Check Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Check Valve After Seal Oil


Pump-2 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

36 MKW 21
AA 501

Gate Valve

80

4.0

CS

FL

Inlet to Seal Oil Pump-2


(Air Side)

S.O. Pump Unit

2.1-7111-7379/2
0197E

LOCATIOIN REMARK

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

37 MKW 21
AA 503

Gate Vlave

50

4.0

CS

FL

Air Side & H2 Side Oil


Interconnection

Seal Oil Unit

38 MKW 23
AA 503

Globe Valve

25.0

CS

SC

H2 Implulse to DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

39 MKW 23
AA 504

Globe Valve

25.0

CS

SC

H2 Impulse to DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

40 MKW 31
AA 001

Relief Valve

20

2.5

CS

FL

Relief Valve For Seal Oil


Pump-3 (Air Side)

S.O. Pump Unit

41 MKW 31 Globe Valve


AA 506

10

2.5

CS

BW

Shut Off Valve in Oil


Impulse Line of DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

42 MKW 31
AA 002

Diff. Pressure
Regulating Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

For Mianitaining Constant


Pressure Difference

Seal Oil Unit

43 MKW 31
AA 507

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil IMpulse Vent of


DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

44 MKW 31
AA 004

N.R. Shut Off


Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

Non Return shut Off Valve


After Air Side Seal Oil

Seal Oil Unit

45 MKW 31
AA 504

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve Before


DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

46 MKW 31
AA 505

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve After DPRV

Seal Oil Unit

47 MKW 31
AA 003

Check Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Check Valve After Seal Oil


Puni-3 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

48 MKW 31
AA 501

Gate Valve

80

4.0

CS

FL

Inlet to Seal Oil Pump-3


(Air Side)

S.O. Pump Unit

49 MKW 51
AA 501

Double Change
Over Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Change Over Valve at


Seal Oil Cooler (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

50 MKW 51
AA 502

Double Change
Over Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Change Over Valve at


Seal Oil Cooler (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

51 MKW 51
AA 503

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Filler Valve For Air Side


Seal Oil Cooler

Seal Oil Unit

52 MKW 51
AA 504

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Drain Valve at


Air Side Cooler-2

Seal Oil Unit

53 MKW 51
AA 505

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Drain Valve at


Air Side Cooler-1

Seal Oil Unit

54 MKW 51
AA 506

Water Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Drain Valve


at Cooler-2 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

50

1.6

CS

FL

Change Over Valve For Seal


Oil Filter-1 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit With Filtyer

55 MKW 51 Double Change


AA 512
Over Valve

BHEL, Hardwar

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

2.1-7111-7379/3
0197E

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

56 MKW 51
AA 513

Double Change
Over Valve

50

1.6

SC

FL

Change Over Valve For Seal


Oil Filter-2 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit With Filter

57 MKW 51
AA 508

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Vant Valve


at Cooler-2 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

58 MKW 51
AA 510

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Vent Valve From


at Cooler-2 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

59 MKW 51
AA 511

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Vent Valve From


at Cooler-1 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

60 MKW 51
AA 507

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Drain Valve


at Cooler-1 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

61 MKW 51
AA 509

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Vent Valve


at Cooler-1 (Air Side)

Seal Oil Unit

62 MKW 53
AA 501

Double Change
Over Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Change Over Valve at


Seal Oil Cooler (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

63 MKW 53
AA 502

Globe Valve
Over Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Change Over Valve at


Seal Oil Cooler (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

64 MKW 53
AA 503

Globe Valve
Over Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Filler Valve For H2 Side


Seal Oil Cooler

Seal Oil Unit

65 MKW 53
AA 504

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Drain Valve at H2


Side Cooler-2

Seal Oil Unit

66 MKW 53
AA 557

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Drain Valve at H2


Side Cooler-1

Seal Oil Unit

67 MKW 53
AA 506

Needle Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Drain Valve


at Cooler-2 (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

68 MKW 53
AA 513

Double Change
Over Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Change Over Valve for Seal


Oil Filter-2 ( H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit With Filter

69 MKW 53
AA 507

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Drain Valve


at Cooler-1 (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

70 MKW 53
AA 509

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Vent Valve


at Cooler-1 (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

71 MKW 53
AA 510

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Vent Valve


at Cooler-1 (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

72 MKW 53
AA 511

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Seal Oil Vent Valve


at Cooler-1 (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

73 MKW 53
AA 512

Double Change
Over Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Change Over Valve for Seal


Oil Filter-1 ( H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

74 MKW 53
AA 508

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Cooling Water Vent Valve


at Cooler-2 (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

2.1-7111-7379/4
0197E

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

75 MKW 71
AA 511

3-Way Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

3-Way Valve, TE (Air Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

76 MKW 71
AA 512

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve For Seal


Oil, TE (Air Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

77 MKW 71
AA 512

Gate Valve

10

2.5

CS

BW

Shut Off Valve in Seal Oil


S.O. Valve Rack
Imppulse Line, TE (Air Side)

78 MKW 71
AA 514

3-Way Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Vent For Equalising Valve


TE (Air Side)

79 MKW 71
AA 521

3-Way Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

3-Way Valve, EE (Air Side) S.O. Valve Rack

80 MKW 71
AA 522

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve For Seal


Oil, EE (Air Side) ThroFM

S.O. Valve Rack

81 MKW 71
AA 523

Globe Valve

10

2.5

CS

BW

Sjit Pff Va;ve om Sea; Po;


Impulse Line EE (Air Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

82 MKW 71
AA 524

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Vent For Equalising Valve


EE (Air Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

83 MKW 71
AA 551

Needle Valve

15

2.5

CS

SC

First Shut Off Valve For


Pipe Line
Pr. Measurement Before Air
Side Manifold

84 MKW 71
AA 552

Needle Valve

15

2.5

CS

SC

First Shut Off Valve For


Air Side Seal Oil Pressure
Measurement, EE

Pipe Line

85 MKW 71
AA 553

Needle Valve

15

2.5

CS

SC

First Shut Off Valve For


Air Side Seal Oil Pressure
Measurement, EE

Pipe Line

86 MKW 73
AA 011

Equalising
Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

Equalising Valve For Seal


Oil Pressure, TE (H2 Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

87 MKW 73
AA 021

Equalising
Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

Equalising Valve For Seal


Oil Pressure, TE (H2 Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

88 MKW 73
AA 511

3-Way Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

3-Way Valve, TE (H2 Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

89 MKW 73
AA 512

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve For Seal


Oil, TE (H2 Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

90 MKW 73
AA 513

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Vent For Equalising Valve


S.O. Valve Rack
Impulse Line, TE (H2 Side)

91 MKW 73
AA 514

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Vent For Equalising Valve


TE (H2 Side)

92 MKW 73
AA 521

3-Way Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

3-Way Valve, EE (H2 Side) S.O. Valve Rack

93 MKW 73
AA 522

Gate Valve

50

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve For Seal


Oil, EE (H2 Side)

BHEL, Hardwar

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

S.O. Valve Rack

S.O. Valve Rack

S.O. Valve Rack

2.1-7111-7379/5
0197E

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

94 MKW 73
AA 523

Globe Valve

10

2.5

CS

BW

Shut Off Valve in Seal Oil


Inpulse Line, EE (H2 Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

95 MKW 73
AA 524

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

BW

Vent For Equalising Valve


EE (H2 Side)

S.O. Valve Rack

96 MKW 76
AA 511

3-Way Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Multiway Shut Off Valve


For R.R. Flow Meters (TE)

S.O. Valve Rack

97 MKW 76
AA 512

Gate Valve

25

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve After


R.R. Flow Meter (TE)

S.O. Valve Rack

98 MKW 76
AA 513

Regulating
Valve

25

4.0

CS

FL

Regulating Valve For


Ring Relief Oil, TE

S.O. Valve Rack

99 MKW 76
AA 521

3-Way Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Multiway Shut Off Valve


For R.R. Flow Meters (EE)

S.O. Valve Rack

100 MKW 76
AA 522

Gate Valve

25

4.0

CS

FL

Shut Off Valve After


R.R. Flow Meter (EE)

S.O. Valve Rack

101 MKW 76
AA 523

Regulating
Valve

25

4.0

CS

FL

Regulating Valve For


Ring Relief Oil, TE

S.O. Valve Rack

102 PGB 51
AA 501

3-Way Valve

65

1.6

CS

FL

3-Way Valve f=For Cooling


Water Inlet (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

103 PGB 52
AA 501

Regulating
Valve

65

1.6

CS

FL

Regulating Valve After


Seal Oil Cooler-1, H2 Side

Seal Oil Unit

104 PGB 52
AA 502

Regulating
Valve

65

1.6

CS

FL

Regulating Valve After


Seal Oil Cooler-2, H2 Side

Seal Oil Unit

105 PGB 61
AA 501

3-Way Valve

65

1.6

CS

FL

3-Way Valve f=For Cooling


Water Inlet (H2 Side)

Seal Oil Unit

106 PGB 62
AA 501

Regulating
Valve

65

1.6

CS

FL

Regulating Valve After


Seal Oil Cooler-1, H2 Side

Seal Oil Unit

107 PGB 62
AA 501

Regulating
Valve

65

1.6

CS

FL

Regulating Valve After


Seal Oil Cooler-2, H2 Side

Seal Oil Unit

Legend
FL = Flanged
SC = Screwed
CS = Carbon Steel
SS = Stainless Steel
CA = Cast Stell

2.1-7111-7379/6
0197E

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

Bearing Vopor Exhauster

The bearing vapour exchauster establishes a


vacuum in the generator bearing compartments
which prevents the escape of oil from the bearing
compartments along the shaft. In addition, the
bearing vapour exhausted draws off any hydrogen
gas which may be admitted into the bearing
compartments in the event of a shaft seal failure.
The bearing vapour exhauster embodies optimum
safeguards permitting it to be used for extracting
hydrogen gas from the bearing compartments.
The exchauser is driven by a three-phase motor
attached perpendicular to the exhauster housing.
Flanged connections are provided for the suction and
delivery pipes.
The fan impeller is directly mounted on the motor
shaft. The shaft is sealed with a double-acting
grease-lubricated axial seal which works via a
packing washer which is forced in the axial direction
against the seal collar. A spring provides for a highly
flexible seal.

1
2
3

Drive motor
Regressing device
Suction branch

4 Delivery branch
Fig.1
Bearing Vapour Exchauster

BHEL, Hardwar

Packing washer

2
3
4

Seal collar
Motor shaft
Motor flange

5
6

Regressing device
Exhauster housing

Fan ampler

Fig.2

Bearing Vapour Exhauster

2.1-7120-0004/1

Seal Oil Pumps

General
Oil lubricated radial seals at the rotor shaft ends
prevent the hydrogen gas from escaping from the

generator to the atmosphere.


Seal oil pumps are used to supply the seal oil to

dare closely meshed and run with a close clearance


in the casing insert. The pump casing accommodates
the casing insert and is closed off by covers at the

the shaft seals in a closed circuit.

Construction and Mode of Operation

The seal oil pumps are three-screw pumps. One


double-thread driving rotor and two driven idler screw

drive end and nondriver end.


The crew pump is suitable for rigorous service and,
due to the absence of control parts sensitive to dirt,
allows for relatively large variations of seal oil
viscosity.
High speeds are readily attainable because all
moving parts perform rotary movements only.
The main components of the pump are illustrated
in the sectional view of a screw pump.
By internalising, the helical passages in the rotors
are divided into compartments completely sealed
which, while rotating progress completely uniformly

1
2
3

Idler screw
Driving rotor
Dummy pastor

Shaft seal (sliding ring gland)

Fig.1

Screw Pump With Relief Valve

and without undue stressing from the suction to the


discharge end, thus acting like a piston. Dummy
pistons compensate for the axial thrust on the thread
flank faces at the discharge end. Axial thrust on the
deep-groove ball bearing is thus eliminated.
The idler screw are hydraulically driven due to
suitable screw dimensioning. The thread flanks
transmit only the torque resulting from fluid friction,
which ensures very quiet running.
The screw pumps are driven by electric motors
through a coupling. The motor speed and rating are
matched to the expected delivery flow and heads.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7123-0005/1

Seal Oil Cooler and Seal Oil Filter

Seal Oil Coolers


The air side and hydrogen side oil coolers are
each full-capacity coolers. One is always in
operation, while the second one serves as a standby. The seal oil flow can be changed over from one
cooler to the other by means of two interlocked threeway rotary transfer valves.

Seal Oil Filters

The seal oil filters are arranged directly after the


seal oil coolers. The filters have a fine mesh screen
which serves to prevent damage to the shaft seals
by foreign particles entrained in the oil. By connecting
two separate filters in series, one if the two filters
can always be maintained in operation, supplying
filtered oil to the shaft seals. The changeover valve
assembly at the filters allows one filter to be out of
service for cleaning without interruption of the oil
flow.

1
2

Filter housing
Differential pressure

5
6

Valve lever
Transfer valve assembly

indicator
Valve assembly

Pressure

equalizing valve
4 Oil outlet flange

Position

indicator
Fig.1

BHEL, Hardwar

Seal Oil Filter

2.1-7130-0003/1

Seal Oil Filter

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

BHEL, Hardwar

Position indicator
Eyebolt
Filter valve
Strainer
Filter houshing
Support
Vent plug

8
9
10
11
12
13

Drain plug
Changeover valve assembly
Oil outlet flange
Valve lever
Oil inlet flange
Signal line for differential
Pressure

2.1-7132-0005/1

Turbo Generators

Differential Pressure Meter System

Description
1. General
The pressures of the hydrogen side and air side seal
oil circuits are applied to dirrerential pressure
measurement devices. A complete system for
measurement of the seal oil differential pressures
consists of the following components.
Differential pressure transmission lines
Equalizing valve assambly
Dufferential pressure gauges
The seal oil pressurs are transmitted to the

BHEL, Hardwar

diaphragms of the pressure gauges via the transmission


lines and equalizing valve assembly. Vents are provided
at the pressure gauges.
2. Dirrerential Pressure Meters for Direct Indication
The two input pressures to be compared act on the
diaphragms on bothe sides, With the force set up by the
differential pressure producing a deflection of the elastic
body. The resulting movement is transmitted to the
pointer mechanism for direct indication of the differential
pressure. The point has a deflection of 270 degrees.

2.1-7150-0012/1

Turbo Generators

Gas System

Description

1.

General
The gas system consists of the following
components :
CO2 bottle rack
H2 bottle rack
N2 bottle rack
Gas dryer
Gas valve rack
The design of the gas system complies with
the safety regulations according to VDE 0530.
Part 3 and with the German pressure vessel
code.
2.

Hydrogen Supply
The hydrogen for the generator is supplied
from a hydrogen bottle rack. The hydrogen
should have a minimum purity of 99.7 %.
2.1 H2 Bottle Rack
The H2 bottles are connected to the manifold
on the bottle rack. Valves on the bottles and
valves on the manfold allow replacement of
individual bottles during operation. The hydrogen
is stored in the steel bottles at a very high
pressure. The hydrogen gas available in the
manifold at bottle pressure is passed to two
parallel-connected pressure reducers for
expansion to the required intermediate pressure
and is then passed to pressure reducers on the
gas valve rack for expansion to the pressure
required for generator operation. Relief valves
on the low-pressure sides of all pressure
reducers are connected to an outlet pipe system
through which any excess hydrogen is passed
to the atmosphere. All pressure reducers are of
identical design. Single-stage construction of the
pressure reducers ensures a constant pressure,
even under low or no flow conditions, and allows
large volume flow quantities of hydrogen to be
reduced in pressure during the hydrogen filling
procedure.
3.

Carbon Dioxide Supply


As a precaution against explosive mixtures,
air must never be directly replaced with hydrogen
during generator filling not the hydrogen replaced
directly with air during the emptying procedure.
In both cases, the generator must be scavenged
or purged with an inert gas, carbon dioxide(CO2)
being used for this purpose.

BHEL, Hardwar

3.1 CO2 Bottle Rack


The carbon dioxide is supplied in steel bottles
in the liquid state. The bottles should be provided
with risers to ensure complete emptying. The
arrangement of the CO2 bottle rack corresponds
to that of the H2 bottle rack. The liquid CO 2, which
is stored under pressure, is fed to the gas valve
rack via a shutoff valve.
3.2 CO2 Flash Evaporator
At the gas valve rack the liquid CO 2 is
evaporated and expanded in a CO 2 flash
evaporator. The heat for vaporization is supplied
to the flash evaporator electrically. A temperature
control is provided so that freezing of the flash
evaporator is prevented, and the CO2 is admitted
into the generator at the proper temperature. One
safety valve each on the high-pressure and lowpressure sides protects the pipe system against
inadmissible high pressure.
4

Compressed air Supply


To remove the CO2 from the generator, a
compressed air supply with compressed air filter
is connected to the general air system of the
power plant.
Under all operating conditions, except for
CO2 purging, the compressed air hose between
the filter and the generator pipe system should
be disconnected. This visible break is to ensure
that no air can be admitted into a hydrogen-filled
generator.
5. Gas Valve Rack and
Gas Monitoring Equipment
5.1 Gas Valve Rack
To aid in operation of the gas system, the
gas valve rack is furnished with a mini diagram
on the face of the panel.
The valves used in the gas system have
rubber/metal-sealed valve seats to ensure gas
tightness.
5.2 Casing Pressure Measurement
For measuring and checking the gas pressure
in the generator, the gas rack is provided with a
pressure transmitter and pressure gauges for
local measurement. For safety, the pressure
transmitter is of an explosion proof design.

2.1-7200-0027/1
0999E

5.3 Electrical Purity meter System


The transmitter for the CO 2/H2 purity meter
system on the gas valve rack is also of an
explosion proof design. The meter system
operates on the thermal conductivity method. The
meter system measures the H2 content of the gas
in the generator as well as the composition of
gas mixtures (CO2/air and H 2/CO2) during filling
and emptying of the generator.
5.4 Mechanical Purity Meter System
The second purity meter system is a
mechanical type and uses the physical
relationships between the hydrogen pressure, the
speed of the generator fan, and the specific
gravity of the medium. This meter system,
therefore, functions only at rated speed.
5.5 Gas Analysis
In addition, facilities are provided for gas
sampling for chemical analysis of the gas in the
generator.
6. Gas Dryer
A small amount of the hydrogen circulating
in the generator for cooling is passed through a
gas arier. The gas inlet and gas outlet pipes of
the gas dryer are connected at points of the
generator with different static heads(differential
fan pressure), so that the gas is forced through
the dryer by the differential pressure only.
The gas dryer is a pressure- resistant
chamber filled with moisture absorbent material.
The absorbent material can be reactived at any
time when the generator is running by means of
a heater, a fan and changeover valves.
7. Nitrogen(N2 ) Supply
On a water-cooled turbine generator an
additional nitrogen supply is required for:
*

Removing the air above the water level in the


primary water tank during initial operation of

2.1-7200-0027/2
0999E

*
*
*

the primary water system.


Removing the oxygen dissolved in the
primary water during filling of the primary
water system.
Removing the hydrogen gas above the water
level in the primary water tank during
shutdown of the primary water system
Removing the hydrogen gas dissolved in the
primary water during shutdown of the primary
water system.

The N2 purge during initial operation ensures


a complete removal of the oxygen from the
primary water circuit, thus eliminating the risk of
corrosion attack.
The N 2 purge during shutdown prevents the
formation of an explosive hydrogen-air mixture
During operation hydrogen may enter into the
primary water tank by diffusion at the insulating
hoses.
The nitrogen available from a bottle is passed
to a pressure reducer for expansion and admitted
into the primary water tank via the N2 supply line.

BHEL, Hardwar

BHEL, Hardwar

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

Turbo Generators

Gas Diagram

Description

List of Valves for Primary Water System

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

MKG 05
AA 501

Globe Valve

15

4.0

CR

SC

To Mechnaical H2 Purity
Meter

Pipe Line

MKG 05
AA 502

Globe Valve

15

4.0

CR

SC

To Mechnaical H2 Purity
Meter

Pipe Line

MKG 09
AA 520

Globe Valve

15

4.0

CR

SC

To Core Monitor

Pipe Line

MKG 09
AA 521

Globe Valve

15

4.0

CR

SC

To Core Monitor

Pipe Line

MKG 11
AA 561

Globe Valve

25.0

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet to


MKG 11/AA001

H2 Distributer

MKG 11
AA 531

Monifold Valve

25.0

CR

SC

H2 Distributer Manifold

H2 Distributer

MKG 12
AA 501

Globe Valve

25.0

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet to


MKG 12/AA001

H2 Distributer

MKG 15
AA 502

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet to


MKG 19/AA001

Gas Unit

MKG 15
AA 504

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CS

SC

For Connecting H2 Duistri


buter to Gas Unit

Gas Unit

10 MKG 15
AA 501

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Outlet From


MKG 12/AA001

H2 Distributer

11 MKG 16
AA 501

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Outlet From


MKG 12/AA001

H2 Distributer

12 MKG 17
AA 504

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

For Connecting Gas Unit to Gas Unit


Station H2 Plant

13 MKG 17
AA 506

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet to


MKG 19/AA002

Gas Unit

14 MKG 19
AA 501

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet From


MKG 19/AA001

Gas Unit

15 MKG 19
AA 502

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet From


MKG 19/AA002

Gas Unit

16 MKG 25
AA 519

3-Way Valve

50

1.6

CR

FL

Shut Off to H2 Supply to

Gas Unit

17 MKG 25
AA 502

Globe Valve

50

2.5

CR

FL

Exhaust

Gas Unit

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7211-379/1
0197E

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

18 MKG 25
AA 501

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet to AF

Gas Unit

19 MKG 25
AA 511

Globe Valve

25.0

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet to Gas


Analyser Cabinet

Gas Unit

20 MKG 25
AA 512

Globe Valve

25.0

CR

SC

For Taking Sample of Gas


Analyser Cabinet

Gas Unit

21 MKG 25
AA 518

3-Way Valve

50

1.6

CR

FL

Shut Off CO2 Supply to


Exhaust From TG

Gas Unit

22 MKG 25
AA 507

3-Way Valve

12

1.6

CR

SC

For Calibration of Gas


Analyser

Gas Unit

23 MKG 25
AA 509

Globe Valve

25

2.5

CS

SC

Shut Off at Outlet to AF

Gas Unit

24 MKG 31
AA 503

Gate Valve

25.0

CR

SC

Inlet to Pressure
Regulator

N2 Distributer

25 MKG 31
AA 502

Globe Valve

25.0

CR

SC

N2 Distributer Manifold

N2 Distributer

26 MKG 35
AA 501

Globe Valve

25.0

CR

SC

Outlet of Pressure

N2 Distributer

27 MKG 31
AA 531

Globe Valve

25.0

CR

SC

CO2 Distributer Manifold

CO2 Distributer

28 MKG 51
AA 561

Globe Valve

10

25.5

CR

SC

Shut Off at Inlet to CO2


Vapouralser

CO2 Vapouralser

29 MKG 51
AA 011

Sefety Relief
Valve

17.5

CS

SC

To Release Excess CO2


Pressure at Inlet to
CO2 Vapouralser

CO2 Vapouralser

30 MKG 59
AA 001

Safety Relief
Valve

32

0.6

CS

FL

To Release Excess Co2


CO2 Distributer
Pressure at CO2 Vapouriser
Outlet

31 MKG 69
AA 501

Gas Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Shut Off at Inlet to Gas


Drier

Pipe Line

32 MKG 69
AA 504

Gas Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Shut Off at Intlet to Gas


Drier

Pipe Line

33 MKG 69
AA 505

Gas Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Shut Off at Outlet to Gas


Saparator in Gas Drier
Inlet Line

Pipe Line

34 MKG 69
AA 502

Gas Valve

15

1.6

CS

SC

Shut Off in Saparator


Drain

Pipe Line

35 MKG 69
AA 503

Globle Valve

25.0

CR

SC

Sampling Gas at Drier


Inlet Line

Gas Unit

36 MKG 69
AA 527

Non Return
Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Non Return in Air Line to


Drying Tower

Gas Unit

2.1-7211-379/2
0197E

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

SL. VLV
NO.DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

37 MKG 69
AA 502

3-Way Double
C/O Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Shut Off at Intlet to Gas


Drier

Pipe Line

38 MKG 69
AA 529

3-Way Double
C/O Valve

50

1.6

CS

FL

Shut Off at Intlet to Gas


Drier

Pipe Line

Legend
FL = Flanged
SC = Screwed
CS = Carbon Steel
CR = Cromium Steel
GM = Gun Metal

BHEL, Hardwar

RT = Room Temperature

2.1-7211-379/3
0197E

C0 2 Flash Evaporator

connected to terminals in the terminal box mounted


1

General
C0 2 is used to displace air from the generator
before hydraogen filling and to displace hydrogen

external to the flange. The opposite flange contains


the inlet and outlet to the cooled copper pipe of the
evaporator. The horizonntally arranged housing is

from the generator before filling the generator with


air.

filled with heat transmitting liquid to ensure a better


heat trasfer to the copper pipe coil and thus to the

Since the C0 2 is available in the liquid state, it


must be expanded into a gas before use. The C0 2 is
expanded in a C0 2 flash evaporator located on the

C02 flowing through the pipe coil.


The heat transmitting liquid is filled into the C0 2
flash evaporator through the expansion vessel

gas valve rack.To prevent icing of the flash


evaporeator it is electrically heated.

mounted on top of the housing. For protection against


excessive heating a thermostat maintaining a constant

temperature is arranged in the housing holding the


heat transmitting liquid. For protection against
excessive pressures in the C0 2 line, one relief valve

Design features and mode of operation

The C0 2 flash evaporator consists of a tubular


housing closed by flanges at both ends. One flange

is arranged before and after the C0 2 flash evaporator.


The orifice at the C0 2 out let of the expansion

carries electreical heating elements which are

vessel provides for an expansioin of the C02 obtained


from the bottles to a pressure of 25 to 7 psig. Heating
of the C0 2 in the copper pipe coil is sufficient to prevent
icing of the expansion device at the prevailling flow
velocities.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Thermometer
Vent for heat transmitting liquid
Copper pipe coil
Insulation
Expansioin vessel
Relief valve before C02 flash evaporator
Thermostat

Fig.1

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Shutoff valve before C0 2 flash evaporator


C0 2 inlet
C0 2 outlet
Housing
Heating element
Drain for heat transmitting liquid
Terminal box

C0 2 flash evaporator

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7230-0011/1

Gas Dryer

A pressure gauge shows when the gas dryer is


Any possible moisture contained in the hydrogen
in the generator is removed by a gas dryer. A gas
flow, set up by the differential pressure of the

depessurized. The changeover valve should then be


moved to the heating position.

generator fan, circulates hydrogen through the gas


dryer chamber which is filled with absorbent material.

Position of four-way valve during drying

The absorbent material is provided with a


humidicator. A change in color (blue/pink) as seen
through the sight glass tells the operator when it is
necessary to change over the cock from the drying
to the heating position. The absorbent material can
be reactivated at any time by heated air which is
supplied by a heater and fan. The changeover valves
are coupled so as to avoid incorrect operation and
provided with a limit switch which activates the heater
and fan.
To waste gas system

1
2

Multi-way valve
Pressure large

Gas dryer chamber


with absorbent material

4
5
6

Gas dryer heater


Gas dryer fan
Air filter

Fig.1

Gas Dryer Schematic

An intermediate pressure relief position is


provided for changeover from the drying position to
the heating position. When the changeover valve is
moved to the pressure relief position, the hydrogen
gauge pressure is allowed to go the zero. Via a
pressure relief hole communicating with the
atmosphere.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7260-0019/1

Pressure Equalizing Control Valve

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Gas dryer heater


Gas dryer fan
Temperature transmitter, heater
Connectionto atmosphere
Pessure garge
Gas outlet
Changeover lever
Gas inlet
Temperature gauge
Gas inlet
Filter for hot inlet air
Fan motor
Sight glass with cover

Gas Dryer Type: 8.70

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7262-0001/1

Primary Water System

General
The losses occurring in the

stator winding,
terminal bushings and
phase connectors
are dissipated through direct water cooling. Since
the cooling water is the primary coolant to dissipate
the losses, it is designated as primary water.
The primary water is circulated in a closed circuit
by centrifugal pumps.
The primary water system basically consists of
the following components:
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary

water
water
water
water

supply unit
coolers
valve rack
tank

The primary water supply unit combines the following


components for primary water supply to the
generator:
Primary water pumps
Primary water filters
Conductivity transmitter
Water treatment system
Volume flow, pressure and temperature transmitters.

distilled water
fully demineralized water from boiler feed water
treatment plant
condensate
Since the primary water comes into direct contact
with the high-voltage stator winding, it must have an
electrical conductivity of 0.5 to 1 mho/cm. The water
in the primary water circuit is therefore treated in a
water treatment system. Fully demineralized water
from the boiler feed water treatment plant and
condensate may only be used if no chemicals. Such
as ammonia, hydrazine, phosphate, etc. were added
to the water or condensate.
3 Primary Water Circuit
Fig. 1 shows a simplified schematic of the primary
water system. Note that the diagram shows that the
external portion of the system may be operated
through a bypass line, with no primary water flowing
through the water-cooled generator components.
The primary water is circulated by one of the two
pumps on the primary water supply unit. Both primary
water pumps are of full-capacity type. The electric
control circuit of the pumps is arranged so that either
pump may be selected for normal service.
The primary water is drawn from the primary water
tank and passes to a primary water manifold (inlet)
via coolers and filters and from there to the stator

The complete primary water system, its components and


their relationship are shown in the Primary Water Diagram.

Primary Water Quality


The primary water system may be filled with
oxygen free, mechanically clean

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7300-0009/1

bars via teflon hoses. The primary water leaving the

Since the primary water tank is the lowest pressure

stator winding is passed through similar teflon hoses


to another primary water manifold (outlet) and is then

point in the system, has a relatively high water


temperature, a large water surface and sufficient

returned to the primary water tank. A separate flow


path from a point before the stator winding inlet cools
the bushings and phase connectors.

retention time, intensive degassing of the primary


water is ensured. The hydrogen gas in the primary
water tank is vesnted to atmosphere via the primary

Primary Water Tank


The primary water tank is mounted on the stator

water valve rack and a pressure regulator. The


pressure regulator can be adjusted to set the gas

frame on antivibration pads and is covered by the


generator lagging. The purpose of the primary water
water tank is to remove the hydrogen in the primary

pressure in the primary water tank.


The water level in the primary water tank can be
read at a water level gauge. Additionally, a

water after is leaves the stator winding. The hydrogen


occurs in the primary water due to diffusion through

capatitance type measuring system is provide for


activating an alarm at minimum and maximum water

the telflon hoses which connect the stator winding to


inlet and outlet manifolds.

level.

BHEL, Hardwar

BHEL, Hardwar

Primary Water Diagram


List of Valve for Primary System

SL. VLV
NO. DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

MKF 01
AA 321

Water Vallve

20

1.6

SS

MKF 01
AA 251

Water Valve

20

1.6

SS

MKF 01
AA 210

Globe Valve

10

2.5

MkF 01
AA 311

Water Valve

20

MKF 01
AA 326

Water Valve

MKF 01
AA 301

END
CONN

LOCATIOIN REMARK

Shut off Valve Before


Water Level Gauge, Top

P.W.Tank

FL

Vent Valve at Level


Transmitter

P.W.Tank

SS

SC

Drain Valve at Level


Trainsmitter

P.W. Tank

1.6

SS

FL

Shut off Valve Before


P.W.Tank
Water Level Gauge, Bottom

20

1.6

SS

FL

Shut off Valve Before


Level Transmitter, Top

P.W.Tank

Water Valve

20

1.6

SS

FL

Shutt off For Oulet From


Level Transmitter

P.W.Tank

MKF o1
AA 316

Water Valve

20

1.6

SS

FL

Shutt off Valve For Inlet


Level Transmitter

P.W. Tank

MKF 01
AA 306

Water Valve

20

1.6

SS

FL

Shutt off Valve For Inlet


tp Level Transmitter

P.W.Tank

MKF 12
AA 502

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Drain Valve Before Pump-1 P&F Unit

10 MKF 12
AA 504

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Outlet of Stator Water


Pump-1

P&F Unit

11 MKF 12
AA 501

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Inlet to Stator Water


Pump-1 MKF 12/AP001

P&F Unit

12 MKF 12
AA 001

Non Return
Valve

100

1.6

SS

FL

Non Return at Outlet of


Stator Water Pump-1

P&F Unit

13 MKF 22
AA 001

Non Return
Valve

100

1.6

SS

FL

Non Return at Outlet of


Stator Water Pump-2

P&F Unit

14 MKF 22
AA 501

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Inlet to Stator Water


Pump-2 MKF 22/AP001

P&F Unit

15 MKF 22
AA 502

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

FL

Drain Valve Before Pump-2 P&F Unit

16 MKF 22
AA 504

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Outlet of Stator Water


Pump-2

P&F Unit

17 MKF 52
AA 531

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Primary Water Vent Valve


For Cooler-1

Pipe Line

18 MKF 52
AA 541

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Primary Water Vent Valve


Before Coolers

Pipe Line

BHEL, Hardwar

FL

FUNCTION

2.1-7311-7422/1
0197 E

SL. VLV
NO. DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

19 MKF 52
AA 581

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Drain Valve at Filter-1

P&F Unit

20 MKF 52
AA 512

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Primart Water Shut Off


Valve After Cooler-2

Pipe Line

21 MKF 52
AA 582

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Vent Valve at Filter-1

P&F Unit

22 MkF 52
AA 552

Needle Valve

15

25.0

SS

SC

Cooleing Water Drain Valve Pipe Line


Cooler-2

23 MKF 52
AA 502

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Primary Water Shut Off


Valve Before Cooler-2

Pipe Line

24 MKF 52
AA 562

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Cooleing Water Vent Valve


at Cooler-2

Pipe Line

25 MKF 52
AA 544

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Primary Water Drain Valve


(Manifold)

Pipe Line

26 MKF 52
AA 511

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Primary Water Shut Off


Valve Before Cooler-1

Pipe Line

27 MKF 52
AA 561

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Cooleing Water Vent Valve


at Cooler-1

Pipe Line

28 MKF 52
AA 532

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Primary Water Vent Valve


For Cooler-2

Pipe Line

29 MKF 52
AA 590

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Inlet to Water Filter-2

P&F Unit

30 MKF 52
AA 591

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Drain Valve at Filter-2

P&F Unit

31 MKF 52
AA 592

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Vent Valve at Filter-2

P&F Unit

32 MKF 52
AA 593

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Outlet From Water Filter-2

P&F Unit

33 MKF 52
AA 501

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Primary Water Shut Off


value Before Cooler -1

Pipe Line

34 MKF 52
AA 522

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Primary Water Drain Valve


For Cooler-2

Pipe Line

35 MKF 52
AA 521

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Primary Water Drain Valve


For Cooler-1

Pipe Line

36 MKF 52
AA 578

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Vent Valve After PW


Coolers

Pipe Line

37 MKF 52
AA 580

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Inlet to Water Filter-1

P&F Unit

38 MKF 52
AA 545

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Primary Water Vent Valve Pipe Line


(Manifold)

39 MKF 52
AA 551

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Cooling Water Drain Valve Pipe Line


at Cooler-1

2.1-7311-7422/2
0197 E

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

SL. VLV
NO. DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

40 MKF 52
AA 583

Globe Vallve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Outlet From Water Filter-1

P&F Unit

41 MKF 60
AA 522

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Drain Primary Water


Make UP Line

P&F Unit

42 MKF 60
AA 510

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Drain Valve After


ION-Exchanger

P&F Unit

43 MkF 60
AA 506

Globe Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

Shut Off Valve in Make Up


Line

P&F Unit

44 MKF 60
AA 512

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Vent Valve at Fine Filter

P&F Unit

45 MKF 60
AA 503

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Vent Valve Before


ION-Exchanger

P&F Unit

46 MKF 60
AA 517

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Drain Valve For Water


Treatment System

P&F Unit

47 MKF 60
AA 520

Globe Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

By Pass Valve in Make Up


Line

P&F Unit

48 MKF 60
AA 511

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Drain Velve After

P&F Unit

49 MKF 60
AA 509

Globe Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

Shut Off Valve After


ION-Exchanger

P&F Unit

50 MKF 60
AA 519

Globe Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

Shut Off Valve After Water


Treatment System

P&F Unit

51 MKF 60
AA 502

Regulating
Valve

25

2.5

SS

SC

Control Valve For Water


Treatment System

P&F Unit

52 MKF 60
AA 201

Globe Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

Make Up Drain Valve

Pipe Line

53 MKF 60
AA 501

Regulating
Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

Make Up Drain Valve

Pipe Line

54 MKF 60
AA 003

Non Return
Valve

25

1.6

SS

FL

Check Valve in Make Up


Line

P&F Unit

55 MKF 60
AA 001

Relief Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

Relief Valve in Make Up


Line

P&F Unit

56 MKF 60
AA 513

Globe Valve

25

2.5

SS

FL

Shut Off Vavle After Fine


Filter

P&F Unit

57 MKF 80
AA 504

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Shut Off Vavle For Gen.


By Pass

P.W.Tank

58 MKF 80
AA 503

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Shut Off in Main Circuit


Discharge Line

P.W.Tank

59 MKF 80
AA 121

Globe Valve

100

2.5

SS

FL

Shut Off at Inlet to Gen.

P.W.Tank

BHEL, Hardwar

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

2.1-7311-7422/3
0197 E

SL. VLV
NO. DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

61 MKF 82
AA 001

Globe Vallve

100

1.6

SS

FL

Shut Off Valve in Primary


Water Outlet of Stator

62 MKF 82
AA 501

Regulating
Valve

100

1.6

SS

FL

Regulating Valve Befofe


Stator Winding

63 MKF 82
AA 504

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Transmitter at Stator Outlet

64 MKF 82
AA 505

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow Pipe Line


Transmitter at Stator Outlet

65 MKF 82
AA 506

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve For Press.


Pipe Line
Measurement Before Stator
Outlet Winding

66 MKF 82
AA 507

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Transmitter at Stator Outlet

67 MKF 82
AA 508

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow


Pipe Line
Transmitter at Stator Outlet

68 MKF 82
AA 512

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Isolation Valve For Generator


D.P. Gauge

69 MKF 82
AA 513

Needle Valve

10

2.5

SS

SC

Isolation Valve For Generator


D.P. Gauge

70 MKF 83
AA 501

Regulating
Valve

40

1.6

SS

FL

Regulating Valve Before


Bushing

Pipe Line

71 MKF 83
AA 502

Globes Valve

40

1.6

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After


Bushing

Pipe Line

72 MKF 83
AA 503

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Trainsmitter MKF83/CF001A

73 MKF 83
AA 515

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Trainsmitter MKF83/CF001B

74 MKF 83
AA 504

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow


Pipe Line
Trainsmitter MKF83/CF001A

75 MKF 83
AA 516

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow


Pipe Line
Trainsmitter MKF83/CF011B

76 MKF 83
AA 506

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow


Pipe Line
Trainsmitter MKF83/CF011A

77 MKF 83
AA 517

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Trainsmitter MKF83/CF021B

78 MKF 83
AA 508

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow


Pipe Line
Trainsmitter MKF83/CF021A

79 MKF 83
AA 514

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow


Pipe Line
Trainsmitter MKF83/CF001B

80 MKF 83
AA 505

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Trainsmitter MKF83/CF011A

81 MKF 83
AA 507

Needle Valve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Trainsmitter MKF83/CF021A

2.1-7311-7422/4
0197 E

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

P.W.Tank
Winding
Pipe Line

SL. VLV
NO. DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM. NOM.
BORE PRESS
MM
MPA

BODY
MATL

END
CONN

FUNCTION

LOCATIOIN REMARK

82 MKF 83
AA 513

Needle Vallve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve Before Flow Pipe Line


Transmitter MK83/CF001B

83 MKF 83
AA 518

Needle Vallve

15

2.5

SS

SC

Shut Off Valve After Flow


Transmitter MK83/CF021B

Pipe Line

84 PGB 71
AA 501

Gate Vallve

250

1.6

CS

FL

Cooling Water Inlet of


Cooler-1

Pipe Line

85 PGB 71
AA 502

Gate Vallve

250

1.6

CS

FL

Cooling Water Inlet of


Cooler-2

Pipe Line

86 PGB 72
AA 501

Gate Vallve

250

1.6

CS

FL

Cooling Water Outlet of


Cooler-1

Pipe Line

87 PGB 72
AA 502

Gate Vallve

250

1.6

CS

FL

Cooling Water Outlet of


Cooler-2

Pipe Line

Legend
FL = Flanged
SC = Screwed
CS = Carbon Steel
SS = Stainless Steel
SS = Stainless Steel
CA = Cast Steel

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7311-7422/5
0197 E

Primary Water Pumps

Design Features of Primary Water Pumps


The primary water for cooling the stator winding,
phase connectors and terminal bushings circulated
in a closed system. To insure uninterrupted generator
operation, two full-capacity primary water pump sets
are provided. Either pump can be in service with
other acting as the standby. The state by pump is
ready for service and is automatically started without
interrupting the primary water circulation if the
operating pump fails.
The primary water pumps are of a single-stage
centrifugal type with spiral and overhung implore.

Fig.1

Sliding-Ring Gland

The pump suction is arranged axially. While the


discharge is directed radially upwards. The spiral
casing is flanged to the bearing housing. The pump
imperil is provided with relief holes close to the hub
so that no axial thrust is carried by the bearings. The
point where the pump shaft passes through the pump
casing is sealed by means of a water-cooler slidingring gland. The cooling water is supplied to the slidingring gland through a by pass line from the pump
discharge. The pump shaft is supported in oillubricated antifrictioin bearings. The oil level in the
bearing housing can be checked at an oil sight glass.
The pump is connected to the three-phase ac motor
by a flexible coupling covered by a coupling guard.
The sliding-ring gland consists of a stationary part,
which is rigidly connected to the pump casing, and
rotating part attached to the shaft. The contact face
between the two parts is the sealing face. The
stationary part is connected to the pump insert and is
composed of the seal ring and the Z-ring. The ceramic
Z-ring face toward the rotating part is lapped. The
sliding ring of the rotating part is made of resinimpregnated graphite. The face of the sliding ring is
likewise lapped. The saft rotation is transmitted to the
sliding ring through a bellows connected to the sliding
ring. Shaft sealing is accomplished by the rear portion
of the bellow which is fitted tightly on the shaft. The
shaft rotation is transmitted to the sliding ring by the
bellows catch ring and catch sleeve. The bellows is
pressed against the sliding ring by the compression
ring, and the sliding ring is pressed against the Zring through a spring supported on the shaft collar.
The design of this sliding-ring gland permits a free
movement of the rotating sliding ring relative to the
Z-ring.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7320-0009/1

Primary Water Cooler

efficient heat exchange and protects the tubes from


The primary water cooler is of a straight tube
type. One tubesheet is stationary, while the other
tubesheet is a floating type. The floating tubesheet

vibrations and bending.


The cooler shell is stainless steel with welded
flanges for connection to the flanges on the water

is sealed by O-Ring.

channels. The pipe nozzles for the primary water inlet


and outlet are welded to the shell. Each cooler shell

Tube bundle is free to move in response to


temperature change.
The water channel at glands can be removed

has vent and drain connection.


To vent and drain the tube side of the primary
water coolers, the water channels are equipped with

without draining the primary water.


The tube bundle consists of round tubes
expanded into the tubesheets. Baffles installed on
the tube bundle result in a transverse flow of cooling
water across the tubes. This achieves a more

BHEL, Hardwar

vent and drain connections.


Tube bundle, cooler shell and water channels are
bolted together. The larger tubesheet is mounted
between the shell flange and the water channel.
The primary water cooler sections are
inlerconnected on their primary water sides via valves.

2.1-7330-0008/1

Turbo Generators

Primary Water Treatment System

Description

The water treatment system serves to


maintain a low electrical conductivity of the
primary water. The water treatment system is
connected in parallel to main circuit and contains
a mixed-bed ion exchanger with series connected
fine filter, an integrating flow meter and a
conductivity transmitter.
1.

Mixed-Bed Ion Exchanger


The mixed-bed ion exchanger consists of a
tank filled with anion and cation exchanger tank
prevent the escape of the resins into the piping
system. A fine filter after the ion exchanger
retains any resin particles. An alarm is initiated
when the filter is contaminated.
The water flow passing through the ion
exchanger is measured by means of an
integrating flow meter after the filter. After the
ion exchanger part of the flow is passed through
a conductivity transmitter for checking the resin
activity.
2.

Ion Exchanger Resins


The ion exchangers consist of chemically and
highly active synthetic resins.
The base substances of the exchanger resins
are polymers. The polymer in the cation
exchanger contains highly acid groups, while the
polymer in the anion exchanger is composed of
highly basic groups.

BHEL, Hardwar

The exchanger resins are thus capable of


accepting ions from the primary water while
simultaneously releasing equivalent amounts of
other ions(hydrogen ions from the cation
exchanger and hydroxyl ions from the exchanger)
to the primary water. This process takes place
through the ion exchanger.
The combination of highly acid cation
exchangers and highly basic cation exchangers
forms a multitude of small demineralization units,
resulting in a high-purity deionate.
The capacity of the mixed- bed of the ion
exchanger is limited by the number of ion it can
exchange. This capacity is primarily determined
by the type of exchanger used, but also depends
on the quantity of reactivating agent, the rate of
flow and the water temperature.
When the resins are exhausted, they must
be replaced by new resins.
After removal from the primary water
treatment system, the resins can be reactivated.
3. Adding Make-up Water to the Primary
Water Circuit
Any loss of primary water in the total circuit
can be compensated for by introducing make-up
water upstream of the mixed-bed ion exchanger.
The quantity of make -up water is totaled at a
volumetric water meter and is indicative of the
tightness of the primary water system.

2.1-7340-0002/1
0999E

Alkalizer Unit
for Primary Water Circuit

General
Even with the use of oxygen-poor water, copper
corrosion in the primary water circuit water circuit of
water-cooled windings cannot be completely avoided;
in isolated cases the corrosion products reduce the
cross-sectional flow area of the water distribution
system. Besides, the formation of conductive
desposite can occur in the rotating water inlet and
outlet hoses of water-cooled rotor windings.
The severity of the corrosion attack can be largely
reduced by alkalizing the oxygen-poor water. Also,
the system becomes less susceptible to disturbances
resulting from air in-leakage.
Operating the generator with alkaline water at pH
8 to 9 improves its reliability land availability.
Operation at alkaline pH is ensured by a selfregulating alkalizer unit for feeding dilute sodium
hydroxide solution (NaOH).
2

Mode of Operation
Dilute sodium hydroxide solution is injected into
the low-conductivity primary water circuit where it
remain as dissolved, dissociated sodium hydroxide
solution. OH ion connectration determines the pH
value.
The ion exchanger in the water treatment system,
i.e. mixedbed filters with H + cation exchangers and
OH anion exchangers, remains in service
continuously. It removes all copper, iron, chloringe,
carbon dioxide ions, etc. from the water, However, it
also removes the Na + ions from the sodium hydroxide
solution. This elimination of sodium, which is
proportional both to the volumetric flow rate through
the ion exchanger and the NaOH concentration, must
be compensated by continuous feeding of dilute
sodium hydroxide solution.

The alkalizer unit is arranged in the treatment


circuit Sodium hydroxide solution is injected into the
treatment circuit where it is mixed with the water in
the treatment circuit and raises its conductivity. The
water has the highest purity at the feed point
downstream of the ion exchangers. The conductivity
of the mixed water is only determined by the
concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution and
provides a reference quantity for the pH valve. The
relationship between pH and conductivity under ideal
conditions is illustrated in Fig.1
Following the admission on alkaline water, the
conductivity in the treatment circuit is monitored.
Conductivity must be maintained constant as required
for obtaining the specified alkalinity. Conductivity in
primary water circuit likewise approaches a constant
value after several hours.
3 Hydraulic Circuit
The hydraulic circuit of the alkalizer units is
illustrated in Fig.2
The diaphragm pump extracts the NaOH solution
from the NaOH tank and delivers it to the treatment
circuit via a spring-loaded feed valve. The treatment
circuit and especially the fine filter down steam of the
treatment circuit homogenize the concentration of the
solution injected into the circuit by shot feeding. The
volume flow meter in the treatment circuit stops the
diaphragm pump via a limit switch when the volumetric
flow rate drops below a predetermined limit value. A
vent on the diaphragm pump enables starting without
back pressure and venting of the unit for activation.
Low NaOH level in the tank is sensed with a level
detector to activate an alarm. A soda lime filter in the
tank vent binds the carbon dioxide contained in the
inlet air and prevents the formation of carbonates in
the NaOH solution.

1
2
3

Diaphragm pump
4 Level detector
NaOH tank
5 Soda lime filter in tank vent
Feed valve
6 Vent
(check valve)
7 Treatment circuit
Fig.2
Schematic Diagram of Alkalizer Unit

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7341-0009/1

The tank has a capacity to store the sodium

This avoids over feeding due to faults or incorrect

hydroxide solution required for a service period of several


months.

operation of the alkalizer unit. After the pump has been


stopped the conductivity of the water is promptly decreased

by ion exchanger in the mixed-bed filter.


The alkalizer unit provides warning limits for

Control and Monitoring


An interlock using the volumetric flow rate in the

treatment circuit as a criterion prevents starting of the


diaphragm pump and NaOH feeding into the treatment

low conductivity in primary water circuit


low conductivity in leakage water circuit

circuit under no-flow or empty conditions. The feed rate of


the diaphragm pump is controlled by changing the stroking
rate dependent on the conductivity in the treatment circuit

low level in NaOH tank.

using a controller and stroking rate transducer.


The diaphragm pump is stopped as soon as the

Via potential-isolated contacts the following alarm


conditions can be signalled to the control room either as

which are displayed in the control cabinet.

single alarm or as group alarm:


conductivity in treatment circuit or
conductivity in primary water circuit

low conductivity in leakage water circuit

exceeds a predetermined maximum valve, or as soon as

low conductivity in primary water circuit


low NaOH level in tank

the

loss of supply voltage.

conductivity in treatment circuit or


volumetric flow rate in treatment circuit drops below a
minimum valve.

NaOH tank

2
3

NaOH tank cap


Diaphragm pump

4
5
6

NaOH tank vent with lime filter


Feed valve (check valve)
Alarm and operating control

Cable fracture is signalling

8
9

Analog/digital converter
Tale perm D con verger

10

Signal transmitter

Fig.

panel
device

2.1-7341-0009/2

Alkalizer Unit

Primary Water Filters

2
1

Main Filter
The primary water system includes a strainertype main filter with magnet bars. The filter screen
of the strainer has a mesh size of 75 m (3 mils)
and is supported by a perforated sheet-metal
cylinder. The magnet bars consist of a magnet carrier
and a number of permanent magnets. The high-grade
permanent magnets have an unlimited useful service
life. The magnet bars are arranged so that a strong
magnetic field is set up between them. The primary
water must pass through this magnetic field so that
all iron particles come within the range of the
magnetic bars, and are thus attracted and retained.
The magnet bar are protected by stainless steel
sleeves from which they can be removed with the
aid of eyebolts. On contamination of the strainer-type
filter, which is indicated by an alarm initiated at
excessive differential pressure, the filter should be
cleaned.

BHEL, Hardwar

Fine Filter
A fine filed with one-way filter element giving a

degree of filtration of 5 m (0.2 mils) is installed after


the mixed-bed ion exchanger in the primary water
treatment system.
The filter element consist of cellulose fibbers
bonded with synthetic resin to achieve stability. The
fibres are distributed in the element in such a way
that their porosity is highest on the cuter
circumference of the element and decreases
continuously towards the filer interior. Therefore,
filtration takes place in depth, and the solid matter is
his in the entire volume of the element. The coarser
particles are removed at the highly porous outer
surface, while the smaller particles are arrested in the
element body at varying depth, depending on their
size. On contamination of the filter, which is indicated
by an alarm initiated at excessive differential
pressure, the filter element should be removed and
replaced with new one.

2.1-7343-0002/1

Seal Oil Cooler

1. Upper tubesheet
2. Support plate
3. Return water channel
4. Partition ring
5. Inspection port
6. Tubel bundle
7. Cooler shell

BHEL, Hardwar

8. Cooling water connection


9. Cooler base
10. Water channel
11. Lower tubesheet
12. Oil outlet
13. Oil inlet

2.1-7131-0003/1

Primary Water Main Filter

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7344-0001/1

Primary Water Fine Filter

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7345-0002/1

Protective Screens at
Primary Water Inlet and Outlet
THDF Series

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-7349-0003/1

Coolant Temperature Control

Due to load variations during operation and the resulting


thermal expansions and contractions, the generator is

cold primary water as given in the design data of the primary


water cooler.

subjected to stresses.
In order to reduce these stresses, the hydrogen cooling
circuit and the primary water cooling are each provided

After startup and runup to rated speed, the cooling water


supply to the hydrogen coolers should be opened only when
the temperature of the hydrogen gas has reached the preset

with a temperature control system to control the cooling


gas and primary water temperatures so that the active

cold gas reference. The temperature difference between


cold gas and hot gas is determined by the no-load losses.

generator components are maintained at the proper


temperature level.
The requirements for the temperature control systems

The cooling water supply to the primary water coolers


should be opened only when the generator is carrying load,
since only then current-dependent heat losses will have to

are described below :

be dissipated.
The temperature control systems are cold coolant

cold

hot

Cold gas temperature or cold primary water


temperature
Hot gas temperature or hot primary water

temperature control schemes with variable set point as a


function of the stator current. Set point adjustment is
2
selectable between I and I or with an exponent between

mean

temperature
Mean temperature of hot and cold gas or of

one and two. With rising stator current, the set point is
reduced, so that the mean value (mean) of hot and cold

hot and cold primary water


hot - cold with generator carrying full load.

coolant temperatures assumes a nearly constant value,


as shown in Fig. 1.
The difference between the setting values of the two

The temperature rise at full load is the temperature


difference between the hot and cold hydrogen gas as given

set points corresponds to half the temperature rise of the


0
hydrogen cooling gas at no-load, with 5-10 K (9-18 F) to

in the hydrogen cooler design data or between the hot and

be taken as a guiding value.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8010-0002/1

order to avoid any condensation of moisture contained in


In order to maintain a low temperature level in the
generator, the reference should be set at the lowest

the gas on the generator components carrying primary


water.

possible value, ensuring that the cold coolant temperature


0
0
will not drop the minimum level of 10 C (50 F) even when
the generator is carrying full load.

The control valve must be absolutely tight when in the


closed position to ensure that the coolant temperature will
not drop while the generator is being shut down.

Parallel shifting of the curves shown in Fig. 1 is possible


by adjustment of the cold coolant references. The

For details on the operation and technical features of


this equipment, see equipment suppliers operating

temperature of the cold primary water must, however,


always be higher than the temperature of the cold hydrogen
cooling has over the entire load range of the generator in

instructions.
The required temperatures for setting the coolant
temperature control system must be observed.

2.1-8010-0002/2

Turbo Generators

Safety Equipment

Operation

for Hydrogen Operation

The use of hydrogen as coolant in the generator calls


for special safety equipment to ensure that hazardous

seperated from each other.


The seal oil drained from the seal oil tank (hydrogen

operating conditions which might endanger personnel or


the plant will not occur.
The safety and protective measures provided for the

side circuit) passes into the seal oil storage tank. After
remaining in this tank for a predetermined time, the
degassed oil is admitted to the turbine oil tank together

generator are described in detail in this section. The


required measuring and alarm equipment is discussed

with the bearing oil via a loop seal.


The measures outlined above have the following

elsewhere in this manual [1].


During normal operation, leaks may develop which
result in a continuous escape of hydrogen. Long-time

effects:

experience has shown that no operational restrictions are


required as long as the hydrogen losses do not exceed 12
3

The bearing compartments and the oil drain pipes are


vantilated continuously so that no explosive hazard will
arise during normal operation.

m (s.t.p.) during any 24-hour period. The surroundings of


the generator and the hydrogen supply system should not
be endangered if should engineering principles were

During normal operation, practically no hydrogen will


enter the turbine lube oil tank via the loop seal together
with the seal oil drained from the shaft seals, since the

followed in plant design and provision is made for ample


ventilation of these areas so that the formation of localized

hydrogen is already extracted in the seal oil storage


tank.

hydrogen pockets or explosive hydrogen-air mixtures is


precluded.
particular precautions are taken with respect to a failure

The isolating action of the loop seal prevents the


hydrogen escaping due to small leakages from flowing
into the turbine through the only partly filled oil drain

of the seal oil system. A special vapor exhauster creates a


slight vaccum in the generator bearing compartments to

pipe.

prevent the escape of oil vapor from the bearing


compartments along the shaft. Any hydrogen collecting in
the bearing compartment will be drawn off by the exhauster

The seal oil storage tank is continuously vented via the


vapor exhauster provided for the bearing compartments.
The exhauster creats a slight vaccum in the seal oil storage

and vented.
Operation of the exhauster is monitored by a flow

tank so that the oil saturated with hydrogen is degassed.


After remaining in this tank for a predetermined time, the

transmitter with limit switch. If the exhauster fails, the


second exhauster on standby is automatically started.
To prevent the hydrogen which enters the bearing

degassed oil is admitted to the turbine oil tank together


with the bearing oil via a loop seal.
This continuous vantilation of the seal oil storage tank

compartment from escaping via the oil drain pipes, the drain
oil is returned to the turbine oil tank via the seal oil storage

prevents the formation of any explosive hydrogen-airmixture.

tank and a loop seal. This loop seal is permanantly filled


with oil to prevent the escape of gas. The loop is designed
to withstand momentary pressure surges.

To avoid anydanger to the unit to the hydrogen supply,


only two hydrogen bottles should be opened if the bottle
supply is used.

The bearing oil circuit and the seal oil circuit are

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8310-0001/1

SL.
NO.
1

Turbo Generators

List of Valves

Operation

For vent Gas System

VLV
DESG
MKF 91

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM.
BORE

NOM BODY
PRESS MATL

END FUNCTION
CONN

LOCATION REMARKS

Safety Valve

2.5

CS

SC

Shut Off at PW Tank

Pipe Line

Globe Valve

20

2.5

CS

SC

PW Tank Gas Exhaust

Pipe Line

AA 003
2

MKF 91
AA 506

MKF 91
AA 513

Globe Valve

20

2.5

CS

SC

PW Tank Gas Exhaust

Pipe Line

MKF 91
AA 505

Globe Valve

20

2.5

CS

SC

PW Tank Gas Exhaust

Pipe Line

MKQ 31
AA 301

Globe Valve

2.5

CS

SC

Isolating Valve

Pipe Line

MKQ 31

Disphragm valve

80

2.5

GM

FL

Shut Off at inlet of

Pipe Line

AA 501
7

MKQ 32

Vapour Exhauster
Disphragm valve

80

2.5

GM

FL

AA 501
8

MKQ 31

MKQ 32

Pipe Line

Vapour Exhauster
Non-Return valve

80

2.5

CS

FL

AA 001
9

Shut Off at inlet of

Shut Off at Outlet of

Pipe Line

Vapour Exhauster
Non-Return valve

AA 001

80

2.5

CS

FL

Shut Off at Outlet of

Pipe Line

Vapour Exhauster

Legend
FL = Flanged
SC = Screwed
CS = Carbon Steel
CR = Cromium Steel
GM = Gun Metal
RT

= Room Temperature

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8311-7379/1

Turbo Generators

Generator Mechanical Equipment

Operation

Protectoin

Tripping Criteria

Primary water flows through the stator winding, terminal


bushing and phase connectors. Secondary cooling water

Turbogenerators require comprehensive safety and


supervisory devices to prevent damage and long forced
outages.

flows through the hydrogen coolers located in the stator


end shields. Generator operation will only be endangered
by these coolants in the event of large leakages. As a result

The protective equipment detects dangerous operation


conditions at an early stage and prevents them from

of the high hydrogen pressure. Little water will emerge from


a small leak. Hydrogen will, however, enter into the water

developing into damaging conditions. The protection


relieves the operating personnel from making the necessary
fast decisions.

circuit. The hydrogen loss can be derived from the hydrogen


consumption of the generator.
Operation of the generator will be seriously endangered

The following criteria are sensed by the generator


mechanical equipment protection and processed by the

in the event of a major ingress of water which will collect in


the generator terminal box. Due to the restricted volume of

generator protection circuits:


1.1 High Cold Gas Temperature in Generator

the compartment the liquid ca rise quickly, resulting in a


terminal short-circuit or ground fault. In order to prevent
such a failure, two level detectors are conected to the

1.2 Liquid in Gene rator Terminal Box

generator terminal box to activate the generator mechanical


equipment protection before a critical level is reached.

1.3 High Hot Air Temperature in Exciser Unit


2.3 Exciter Unit Protection Against Overheating
1.4 High Seal Oil Inlet Temperatures

The protection circuit covering criterion 1.3 prevents


overheating of the exciter in case of insufficient cooling

1.5 High Primary Water Inlet Temeperature

(failure of exciter coolers).

1.6 Low Primary Water Flow Rate at Sector Outlet

2.4 Shaft Seal protection Against High Seal Oil Inlet

1.7 Low Primary Water Flow Rate at Bushing Outlets


Each of these criteria activates a turbine trip. The
generator is disconnected from the system and de-excited

Temperature
High seal oil inlet temperature endangers proper sealing
performance of the shaft seals. High seal oil temperature,
as may, for instance, be experienced on failure of the seal
oil coolers, results in a reduction of oil viscosity. The gas

through the two-channel reverse power relay.

may penetrate the seal oil film at the shaft seal contact
face and allow the hydrogen to enter the bearing

compartment.

Protection Circuits

2.1 Generators Protection Against Overheating byHigh

2.5 Protecting of Water-Cooled Components Against

Cold Gas Temperature


The protection circuit covering criterion 1.1 prevents

Overheating
The protection circuit covering criterian 1.5 prevents

insufficient cooling and thus overheating of the hydrogencooled components in case of high cooling gas
temperature.

insufficient cooling and thus overheating of the water-cooled


components in case of high primary water inlet temperature.

2.2 Generator Protection Against Internal Ground Fault

2.7/2.7 Protection of Water-Cooled Components


Against Insufficient primary Water Supply

or Terminal Short-Circuit
The generator may be damaged by loaks in
components through which primary or secondary cooling

The protection circuits covering criteria 1.6 to 1.7


prevent overheating and damage to the stator winding,
phase connectors and bushing in case of insufficient

water or seal oil flows inside the generator.

primary water supply.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8320-0002/1

Tripping Scheme for Generator


Mechanical Equipment Protection
Lequid in generator teminal box

High cold has temperature

High got air temperature


in main exciter

High seal oil temperature


downstream of cooler
High primary water flow rate
at stator outlet
Low primary water flow rate
at bushing outlet

Alarm is initiated when the electrical generator protection system is tripped. Individual alarms for each criterion are proveded.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8321-0002/1

Generator Mechanical Equipemtn Protection


Two-out-or-Two Protection Circuit
With Functional Test

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8323-0001/1

Turbo Generators

Electrical Generators Protection

Operation

Generators are high-quality mechines for securing the


best possible continuity of power supply. In addition to a

Rapid fault detectioon is required for the following


reasons:

suitable techinical design and responsible mode of


operation, provision must therefore be made for automatic
protection facilities. This protectron must ensure a fast and

An interruption of the field circuit with arcing releases


high amounts of energy in the form of heat which may
cause severe burning.

selective detection of any faults in order to minimize their


dangerous effects.

A one-line-to-ground fault may develop to a double


ground fault, resulting in dangerous magnetic

The protective equipment must be designed so that


anyserious fault will result in an immediate disconection
and de-excitation of the generator. Faults which do not

unbalances, especially on four-pole generators.


To minimize the consequential damage, it is

cause any direct damage must be brought to the attention


of the operating staff, enabling them to operate the unit

recommended to provide two=pole and four-pole


generators with a protection circuit featuring a delayed

ioutside the critical range or to take precautionary measures


for shutdown.
Generators may be endangered by short-circuits,

response. In the core of four-pole generators, the rotor


ground fault protection must always operate of avoid the
hazard of sudden, esxtremely high vibrations due to

ground faults, overvoltages, underexcitation and excessive


thermal stresses.

magnetic unbalances.

The folliowing protective equipment is recommended:

Relay time:

Differential protection

approximately 1 s

Underexcitation Protection

Breakdown of insulation between different stator phase


windings results in an internal short-circuit. The fault is

Failure of the voltage regulator, maloperation of the


generator or transformer control system and generator

detected by a differential relay which initiates immediate


isolation and de-excitation of the generator. In order to
obtain a high sensitivity, the protected area should include

operation in a system with capacitive load may result in a


reduction of the excitation required to ensure system
stability below a predetermined minimum value. Short-

the generator only.

circuits or interruptions in the field circuit result in a complete


loss of field and thus in instability of the generator. This

Operaing value:
Relay time:

causes higher temperature rises in the rotor and core end


end portions, rotor overvoltage, system swims and torisional
vibrations of the shaft.

0.2-0.4/N
< 60 ms

In certain cases, the generator may also be included in


the differential protection for the main transformer and

A momentary excursion beyond the steady-state


stability limit must not necessarily result in a loss of stability.

station service feeder. Generator faults are then detected


by two differential protection devices.

Therefore it is advisable to design the under-excitation


protection so that a warning will be given when the steadystate stability limit is reached. The generator will be shut

Stator Ground Fault Protection


Breakdown of insulation between the stator winding and

down after a few seconds only.


The protection must operate instantaneously if a loss

frame results in a stator ground fault. If possible, the stator


ground fault protection should cover the complete winding.
including the neutral point of the generator. The protection

of field occurs when the steady-state stability limit is


reached.
If the loss of field cannot be detected directly (e.g.

is to initiate immediate isolation and de-excitation of the


generator.

exciters with rotating diodes), it is recommended to


introduce a second stator criterion covering the range of

Relay time:

the permeance values 1/xd and 1/xd and to provide for


instantaneous tripping when this criterion is exceeded.

<1 s

The load resistance of a fround transformer and any


required boost to raise the neutral point potential should

be selected so that ground current due to a fault will amount


to less than 15 A.

stressing of the generator. For this reason, an overcurrent


protection should be provided which operates on failure of
the system protection.

Rotor Ground Fault Protection

BHEL, Hardwar

Overcurrent Protection
System faults may result in inadmissible thermal

A definite-time delay overcurrent relay may be used

2.1-8330-0002/1

for this purpose,however, its relay time should longer than

Since the frequency deviation due to a system

that of the system protection.

disturbance is normally accompanied by a voltage


deviation, the protection should be designed on the basis

Operating value: 1.3/N


Relay time:
6-8 s maximum

of the permissible load characteristic of the generator on


frequency and voltage deviations.
9 Reverse Power Protection

To avoid long relay times, it is recommended to equip


large generators with an inverse-time-delay (impedence0

A rise in system frequency for any reason whatsoever


result in closing of the control valves, and the turbine is

relay. This relay is energized by overcurrent and operates


with long or short-time setting, dependent on the location
of the short-circuit.

driven by the motoring generator. Since the turbine is then


no longer supplied with cooling steam, the unit must be
disconected from the system. The relay must be provided

If connected to the generator neutral point, the overcurrent protection serves as back-up protection for the

with a time delay of approximately 20s to prevent undesired


response to system swings (long time setting).

differential protection.

Specific faults in the turbine-generator interior initiate


emergency tripping. The steam supply to the turbine is
interrupted. A reliable criterion og perfectly tight closure of

Load Unbalance Protection

Generators operating in an interconected system are


normally subjected to small load unbalnced only. However,

the emergency stop valves is the flow of power from the


system back into the generator.

all one-and two-line-to-ground faults occuring in the system,


phase breakages or circuit breaker failures are in fact load
unbalances which may result in unduly high thermal

Disconnection of the unit from the system by the


generator circuit breaker with a time delay of 4s is only
permissible after the reverse power has been drawn by

stressing of the rotor.


It is recommended to provide a two-stage load

the generator (short-time setting).

unbalance protection. When the continuously permissible


load unbalance is reached, an alarm is given, whereas a
time-dependent isolation from the system occurs when this

Operating value: about 50-80& of revese power


Relay time:
long-time setting: approximately 20 s
short-time setting: approximately 4s

value is exceeded.
In case of large units, it is recommended to provide a

10 Overvoltage Protection

protection with unbalanced load/time characteristic.


Operating value and relay time should be matched to the
load unbalanced/time characteristic applicable to the

The use of surge duverters on the high-voltage side of


the unit transformer is considered sufficient for protecting
the generator against stmospheric overvolatage and

particular generator.

switching surges in the system.


With a view to a possible flashover from the high-voltage

Rise-in-voltage Protection
Rejection of partial or complete system loads causes a
voltage rise, followed byan increase in the prime mover

winding to the low-voltage winding inthe unit tranformer, it


is, however, advisable to proide surge diverters for the
generator too, which shoud be connected between the

speed. This may result in the generator and the apparatus


conected to it being endangered by undully high voltages.

phases and ground.


Normally, the surge diverters are installed inthe direct

Maloperation during manual voltage regulation of the


generator may also result in inadmissible voltage stressing
of these devices. Due ot the sudden voltage variations

vicinity of the unit transformer. It is assumed that switching


surges due to a load isolator or circuit breaker connected
between the generator and transformer will not endanger

resulting from switching operations, it is advisable, at least


in the case of large units, to provide a two-stage rise-in

the generator.
Care should be taken toprovide exlosion-proof suge

voltageprotection,i.e.:

diverters or suitable constructional measures in order to


avoid danger to persons or nearby pnat components.

with high (1.45 UN ) operaing value and instaneous

Design priciple:

tripping;
with low (1.2 UN) operaing value and delayed tripping.

Reseal voltage:

Under-Frequency Protection
Major disturbances in an interconected system may

result in operation of the generator at under-frequency. At


rated voltage, the generator can be continuously operated
at rated k VA up to 95% of rated frequency.
To avoid excessive magnetic and thermal stressing, it
is recommended to provide an under-frequency protection.

2.1-8320-0002/2

approximately 1.2-1.4 UN
(allowing for power-frequency

overvoltage on load rejection)


Power-frequncy
sparkover voltage: approximately 2 U N
(<test voltage for stator winding,
e.g. VDE 0530,
UP = 2 U N + 1 kV)
Impulse sparkover
voltage
<4 U N

Tripping Scheme for


Electrical Generator Protection

Differential protection

Stator ground fault protection

Rotor ground fault protection

inderexcitation protection
without loss of field
with loss of field

Overcurrent protection

Unbalance load protection

Rise-in-voltage protection

Under-frequency protection

Reverse power protection


Long time
Short time (operates only at TT)

TT

Turbine trip

GCB

Generator circuit breaker

FB

Field breaker

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8331-0001/1

Arrangement of Brush Holders for


Rotor Grounding System

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8351-0002/1

Turbo Generators
Operation

Measuring Devices and


Supervisory Equipment
Introduction

The supervisory equipment consists of alarms and


measuring devices. The measuring devices give a visual

are combined to form one supervisory.


Closely associated with the supervisory equipment are

indication of the system parameters, the alarm devices


initiate visual or sudible signals in the event of a controlled
quantity falling below or exceeding the predetermined limit

regulating systems, automatic controls and protective


devices which provide for a reduction of the manual
supervisory work.

values. In many cases, the measuring and alarm devices

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8400-0002/1

Temperature Tranducers
Resistance Temperature Detectors
and Thermocouples

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)


RTDs are used for temperature measurements on the

1.1.2 Four-Wire Connection


If the two element leads are not alike or if the three-

generator, e.g. to measure the slot temperatures and the


cold gas and hot gas temperatures. Both RTDs with fourwire connection and double-element RTDs with eight-wire

wire method of compensation would be too costly a foruwire circuit should be used. Fig.2 shows the circuit diagram
of the foru-wire method.

conection are used.


When making measurements with RTDs the resistance
element is exposed to the temperature to be measured.
The RTS works on the change in electrical resistance of a
conductor by the following formula:
R = Ro. (1+a.T)
where
Ro = reference resistance at O0c
a = temperature coefficient and
T = tempreature in 0c

Leads R L 1 and R L2 form the pair of lead wires to the


RTD Pt 100, while the other set of lead wires RL3 and RL4
from the RTD are connected to amplifier V. Being a normal
differential amplifier, it amplifies only the voltage drop
across the RTD to the required output voltage level.
Due to the mostly very high input resistance of amplifier
V, the resistance of lead wires RL3 RL4 from the RTD to
the amplifier is negligible, even if it would be substantially
in-creased be the provision of a safety barrier (explosion
protection).
2 Thermocouples
The standard reference resistance of the platinum
resistance element is 100 ohmsl. The temperature

Thermocouples are used for temperature


measurements on generator, e.g.to measure the generator

coefficient amounts to a=3.8510 -3 deg-1. this mean value


for the range O -100 0c.
1.1Circuit Connections

and exciter bearing temperatures. Thermocouples are


mainly employed where small constants require fast
temperature indication.

The two-wire connections to far commonly used involes


errors in case of leads. Long leads are exposed to different

2.1 Principle
Temperature measurement with thermocouples is

temperatures, and the lead resistances then reach values


in the order of the resistance of the RTD element.
1.1.1 Three-Wire Connection

carried
out
as
follows:
Two conductors of dissimilar materials,i.e.the positive
and the negative conductor (thremoelectric elements) are

If a third lead is connected to the element in addition to


the two element leads, automatic compensation for lead

joined at one end (hot junction) so as to produce an


electromotive force (emf), i.e.a thermoelectric emf(inmV).

wire resistance including its changes can be achieved by


resistance of the two leads forming the pair to the element
are always the same.

The magnitude of the emf is dependent upon the


temperature difference betweenthe temperature to be
measured and that of the other two ends of the conductors.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8410-0004/1

cu-cuNi
Fe-CuNi
NiCr-Ni

brown
blue
green

PtRh-Pt white
NiCr-Constantan red
To use the thermoelectric emf for temperature
measurement the free ends of the conductors are exposed
to a constant temperature (cold juction temperature) and
connected to a millivoltemeter calibrated in 0c.

The insulating sleeve of the positive lead is provided


withe a red mark in addition to the color code.
2.3 Cold Junction
For measureing a temperature by mean of a
thermocouple, the cold junction temperature must be know.
A cold junction at a temperature of 0 0c can be very earily
proeuced by melting tures of 20 0C and 500C ia also
possible. Note that in these cases certain corrections must
be added to the calibration 0 0C.To do this, add the
thermoelectric emf due to the cold junction temperature to
the obtain the total thermoelectric emf.

2.2 Compensating Leads


The compensating leads serve to extend the
thermocouple up to the cold junction. When exposed to a
temperature up to 200 0 C they produce the same
jthermoelectric emf as the associated thermocouple.See
DIN 43710 for calibration data and limits of error of
compensating leads.
The compensating leads used for the different
thermocouples are identified by colors:

2.1-8410-0004/2

The cold junction can, however, also implemented by

To obtain a simpler circuit, the large number of

using a Pt100 RTD for determination of the actual


temperature. The temperature is referred to the calibration

thermocouples used on the generator can be connected


to a doublepole measuring point selector switch enabling

figure for o0C by electronic means. The electronic cold


junction also avoids the temperature error due to the
junction between the compensating leads and the copper

the resective thermocouple to be connected to a


compensator for measurement.

leads.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8410-0004/3

TurboGenerators
Description

Temperature Tranducers
Rod-Type Thermostats

Rod-Type thermostats are used for detecting


temperature limits. These instruments utilize the coefficients
of thermal expansion of two dissimilar metals.
Whene exposed to a temperature rise a rod arranged
inside a tube and fitted to one of it feature a lliner expansion
different from that of the surrounding tube. As a result of
this, a movements initiated in a switching head at the other
end of the detector tube which in turn actuates a
changeover contact. This changeover contact operates on
rising and falling temperature when the set value is reached.
The contacts are connected to the detector tube through a
mechanism providing for sudden changeover. Since the
rod-type thermostats are employed for temperature
detection in pressurized surroundings, they must alwas be
used in connection with protective tubes.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8410-0005/1

TurboGenerators

Supervision of Generator

Description

The most essential measuring and supervisory devices


at the generator serve for:

temperature monitoring
detection of liquid in generator interior.
Temperature Monitoring

Stator Liquid Detection


Liquid (cooling water from hydrogen coolers, primary

water or seal oil) entering the generator housing is sensed


by level detectors assembled in gastigh housing located
on the seal oil valve rack. See Figs.2 and 3.

1.1 Stator Slot Monitoring


The slot tempreture are measure withe resistance
temperature detectors (RTDS). This platinum measuring
wire is embedded in a molded plastic body which provides
for insulation and pressure relief.
The RTDS are embedded directly in the stator slots
between the bottom and top bars at points where the
highest temperature are expected.
The RTDS are characterized by a constant temperature
vs. resistance characteristic, high mechanical strengh and
insensitivity to electrical and magnetic fields.

When pipes from several low-level points of the generator


are connected to a common level detector, sight glasses
are provided in the inlet pipe to identify the source of the
liquid.

1.2 Cold and Hot Gas Temperatures


The temperatue of the hot and cold gases are
measured by RTDS upstream and downstream of the
hydrogen coolers, and the limit values are sinsed
downsteam of the coolers for use with the hydrogen
temperature control system.
Temperature detectors located in the generator interior
are mounted in gastight protective tubes welded to the
stator frame.
1.3 primary Water Temperatures
The temperature of the hot primary water in the turbineend water manifold of the stator winding is measured withe
manifold of the stator winding is measured with resistance
temperature detectors. The temperature detectors are
welded to the water manifold in protective tubes exposed
to the primary water.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-842 0-0003/1

BHEL, Hardwar

The generator terminal box has two leakage detection


pipes acting on the generator protectors. The two pipes
extend serval inches above the bottom of the generator
terminal box and are interconnected so that both detectors

2.1-8420-0003/2
0984E

will respond if the box should be in an inclined position.


These detectors are utilized as tripping criteria for the
generator mechanical equipment protection, whereas all
other detectors initiate only alarms.

SL.

VLV

NO.

DESG

Turbo Generators

List of Valves

Operation

For Generator system

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM.

NOM

BODY

END

FUNCTION

LOCATION

REMARKS

BORE PRESS MATL CONN

MKA 24
AA 511

Globe Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

By-Pass of Valve
MKA 24/AA 501

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

MKA 24
AA 502

Globe Valve

15

25.0

CS

SC

Outlet of Sight Glass


MKA 24/BR 506

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

MKA 24
AA 501

Globe Valve

50

2.5

CS

SC

Inlet of Sight Glass


MKA 24/BR 506

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

MKA 23

Globe Valve

15

25.0

CS

SC

Outlet of Sight Glass

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

AA 512
5

MKA 23

MKA 23/BR 516


Globe Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

AA 511

Inlet of Sight Glass


MKA 23/BR 516

MKA 23
AA 502

Globe Valve

15

25.0

CS

SC

Outlet of Sight Glass


MKA 23/BR 506

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

MKA 23
AA 501

Globe Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

Inlet of Sight Glass


MKA 23/BR 506

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

MKA 22
AA 502

Globe Valve

15

25.0

CS

SC

Outlet of Sight Glass


MKA 22/BR 506

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

MKA 22

Globe Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

Inlet of Sight Glass

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

Sela Oil Valve

Rack

AA 501
10

MKA 21

MKA 22/BR 506


Globe Valve

15

25.0

CS

SC

AA 502

Outlet of Sight Glass


MKA 21/BR 506

11

MKA 21
AA 501

Globe Valve

50

2.5

CS

FL

Inlet of Sight Glass


MKA 21/BR 506

12

PGB 31
AA 574

Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-D Inlet
Ventilation

Pipe Line

13

PGB 32
AA 571

Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-A Outlet
Ventilation

Pipe Line

14

PGB 32

Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-B Outlet

Pipe Line

AA 572
15

PGB 31

Ventilation
Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

AA 572

Cooler-C Inlet

Pipe Line

Ventilation

16

PGB 31
AA 573

Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-C Outlet
Ventilation

Pipe Line

17

PGB 31
AA 551

Globe Valve

10

2.5

CS

SC

Cooler-A Drain

Pipe Line

18

PGB 31
AA 551

Needle Valve

10

2.5

CS

SC

Cooler-B Drain

Pipe Line

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8423-0001/1

SL.
NO.

VLV
DESG

TYPE OF VALVE

NOM.
NOM BODY END FUNCTION
BORE PRESS MATL CONN

LOCATION

19

PGB 31
AA 553

Needle Valve

10

2.5

CS

SC

Cooler-C Drain

Pipe Line

20

PGB 31
AA 554

Needle Valve

10

2.5

CS

SC

Cooler-D Drain

Pipe Line

21

PGB 31

Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-C Drain

Pipe Line

Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-A Inlet

Pipe Line

AA 571
21

PGB 31
AA 571

Ventilation

22

PGB 32
AA 504

Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

Shut off at Outlet of


Cooler-D

Pipe Line

23

PGB 32
AA 503

Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

Shut off at Outlet of


Cooler-C

Pipe Line

24

PGB 32
AA 502

Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

Shut off at Outlet of


Cooler-B

Pipe Line

25

PGB 32

Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

Shut off at Outlet of

Pipe Line

AA 501
26

PGB 31

Cooler-A
Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

AA 504

Shut off at Inlet of

Pipe Line

Cooler-D

27

PGB 31
AA 503

Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

Shut off at Inlet of


Cooler-C

Pipe Line

28

PGB 31
AA 502

Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

Shut off at Inlet of


Cooler-B

Pipe Line

29

PGB 31
AA 501

Globe Valve

200

1.6

CS

FL

Shut off at Inlet of


Cooler-A

Pipe Line

30

PGB 32

Globe Valve

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-C Outlet

Pipe Line

AA 573
31

PGB 32

Ventilation
Globe Valve

AA 574

Legend
FL
SC
CS

= Flaged
= Screwed
= Carbon Steel

SS
CA

= Stainless Steel
= Cast Steel

2.1-8423-0001/2

25

1.6

CS

FL

Cooler-D Outlet
Ventilation

Pipe Line

REMARKS

Turbo Generators

Supervision of Bearings

Description

Generator Bearing Temperatures


The generator bearing temperatures are measured with

thermocouples located in the bearing lower hawer. The


actual measuring point is located at the babbitt/sleeve
interface. Measurement and recording of the temperatures
are performed in conjuction with the turbine supervision.
The overall turbine protection is tripped when the maximum
permissible temperature is exceeded.
2 Vibration Monitoring
The generator and exciter rotes are manufacured with
high precision and carefully balanced.
The unavoidable residual unbalance will, however,
result in vibrations during opertion, which are transmitted
to be stator frame and foundation via the bearings.
To permit a reliable assesment of the running condition,
vibration pickups are located at the bearubgs. Measurement
and recording of the vibrations are performed in conjunction
with the turbine supervision. The overall turbine protection
is tripped when a predetermined amplitude is exceeded.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-8440-0004/1

Turbo Generators

Supervision of Seal Oil System

Description

The location of the transmitters of the measuring


and supervisory equipment in the seal oil system is
shown in the seal oil Diagram[1].
The most essential measuring and supervisory
devices in the seal oil are:

Level detectors
Pressure and differential pressure gauges
Temperature detectors
Volume flow measuring devices

Level Detectors
Within the seal oil system

the oil levels in the TE and EE prechambers


the oil levels in the seal oil tank
the oil levels in the seal oil storage tank

A pressure switch signals the takeover of the seal


oil supply by seal oil pump 3.
Local indication is required for pressure setting of
the A2 valve and for visual examination.

Pressure and Differential Pressure Gauges


The following pressure measuring points are
provided:

Pressure downstream of air side seal oil pump 1

On failure of seal oil pump 1, a pressure switch


activates air side seal oil pump2, If the latter is not ready
for operation, air side oil pump 3 is automatically started.
Local indication is required for pressure setting of
the A1 valve and for valve and for visual examination.

Pressure downstream of air side seal oil pump 2

On failure of seal oil pump2, a pressure switch


activates air side seal oil pump1. If the latter is not ready
for operation, air side seal oil pump 3 is automatically
started.
Local indication is required for pressure setting of
the A1 valve and for visual examination.

BHEL, Hardwar

Pressure downstream of air side seal oil pumps

Readings from this pressure gauge are required for


pressure setting of the A1 and A2 valves.

H 2 casing pressure

This pressure gauge reading is required for setting


the pressure differential between the air side seal oil
pressure and the H 2 casing pressure.

are supervised.
A high oil level in the generator prechambers, due
to an increase in the amount of seal oil on the hydrogen
side of the shaft seal, results in an alarm is initiated when
the probe is immersed in oil.
A low oil level in the seal oil tank is monitored such
that an alarm takes place when the probe is no longer
covered with oil. This prevents dry running of the
hydrogen side seal oil pump.
A low oil level in the seal oil storage tank-only
feasible during the startup phase- results in an alarm for
protection of the air side pumps. The alarm is initiated
when the probe is no longer covered with oil.

Pressure downstream of air side seal oil pump 3

Seal oil pressure downstream of oil orifice

At this pressure gauge the seal oil pressure, set by


means of the control orifice, can be observed.
Seal oil pump 3 is activated via a differential
pressure transducer, which detects the pressure
differential between the generator casing pressure and
the air side seal oil, and a pressure switch when pressure
falls below the preset setpoint value. An additional
pressure switch initiates miscellaneous alarms and is
used for Off control the hydrogen side seal oil pump.

TE and EE ring relief pressure

The pressure gauges indicate the relief pressure sit


by means of the manual control valves.
In addition, pressure transmitters are provided for
further processing of the pressure signals.

Pressure downstream of hydrogen side seal oil pump

A pressure switch signals a failure of the oil supply.


The reading is required for setting of the C valve
and for visual examination.

Pressure in hydrogen side seal oil circuit of shaft seal

This pressure gauge serves for local observation of


the set seal oil pressure at the shaft seal.
Pressure Differentials are Sensed at the Following Points:
Pressure differential between the air side seal oil
before TE and EE shaft seals and the generator casing
pressure is sensed by transducers which initiate an alarm
on falling pressure differential, Local indication is provide
for manual adjustment of the pressure regulating valves
and for visual examination.

2.1-8450-0005/1
0999E

Differential Pressure Indication at Air - Cooled


Hydrogen Side Seal Oil Filters
The indicators display the degree of filter
contamination and activate an alarm at present pressure
differentials.
3.

Temperature Detectors

TE and EE.
Seal oil temperature upstream and downstream of
air side and hydrogen side seal oil coolers.

The following temperature are also monitored with


rod type thermostats, which activate an alarm for high
seal oil temperature.

The following temperatures are measured locally


with thermometers :

Seal oil temperature downstream of air side and


hydrogen side seal oil coolers.

Seal oil temperature upstream and downstream of


air side seal oil coolers.
Seal oil temperature upstream and downstream of
hydrogen side seal oil coolers.
Cooling water temperature upstream and
downstream of air side and hydrogen side seal oil
coolers.

4.

Volume Flow Meter System

In addition, the following temperatures are measured


by means of resistance temperature detectors for
remotes indication :

The following volume flows are measured for


comparison measurements :

Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume

flow
flow
flow
flow
flow
flow

of
of
of
of
of
of

EE sea ring relief oil


TE sea ring relief oil
air side seal oil, EE
air side seal oil, TE
hydrogen side seal oil, EE
hydrogen side seal oil, TE

Seal oil temperature in hydrogen side seal oil drain,

2.1-8450-0005/2
0999E

Also refer to the following section


[1] 2.1-7111 Seal Oil Diagram

TurboGenerators
Description

The location of the transmitters of the measuring and


wupervisory equipment in the gas system is shown in the
Gas Diagram [1].
The essential measuring and supervisory devices in
the gas system are :





Purity meter systems


Volume flow meter system
Pressure gauge
Temperature detectors

Electrical Gas Purity Meter System


The electrical gas purity meter system measures the
purity of the hydrogen gas in the generator as well as the

Supervision of Gas System

 H 2 bottle pressure
The bottle pressure can be read at the pressure gauge.
The pressure switch activates a signal at low H2 pressure.
In addition, the pressure is sensed with a pressure
transmitter, the electrical signal being used for remote
control and supervision.


The bottle pressure can be read at a local pressure


gauge.


composition of the gas mixtures (CO 2/air and H 2/CO2)


during filling of the generator. The electrical gas purity meter
system is also used when removing the hydrogen from the
generator, where the hydrogen is replaced with carbon
dioxide and the carbon dioxide in turn with air. The gas
required for the measurement is taken from the generator
or from the filling lines, respectively, and, on completion of
the measurement, is discharged to the atmosphere through
a vent line.
For details on the electrical gas purity meter system,
see separate description [2].
The electrical gas purity meter system is equipped with
a limit switch which provides a signal to initiate an alarm
when the purity drops below a preset value.
2

Mechanical Gas Purity Meter System


A mechanical gas purity meter system is supplied to

operate independently of the electrical gas purity meter


system.
This meter system is a mechanical type and utilizes
the physical relationship between the H 2 casing pressure
and the differential fan pressure, which in turn depends on
the fan speed (constant) and the density of the medium
handled the fan.
For details on the mechanical gas purity meter system
see separate description [3].
3


Volume Flow System


Measuring gas volume flow

For comparison measurement, a precisely defined


measuring gas flow must be admitted to the electrical gas
purity meter system. The measuring gas volume flow can
be read locally at the flow meter.

N 2 bottle pressure

H 2 pressure at pressure reducers.


For observation of the pressure settings.

Defferential pressure at rotor fan

The differential pressure at the rotor fan can be


observed at a local pressure gauge.


H 2 cssing pressure

The pressure is sensed by pressure transmitters, the


electrical signal of one pressure transmitter being used for
remote control and supervision. The signals of the
remaining two transmitters are converted into alarm and
control signals.
The H2 casing pressure dan be read at a local pressure
gauge.


Pressure in gas dryer chamber


The pressure in the gas dryer circuits can be observed

at local pressure gauges.


For aetails on the pressure transmitters, see separate
description [4].
5

Temperature detectors
Within the gas system, temperature detectors are used

for supervision of the gas dryer and CO2 flash evaporator.


The temperatures of the gas dryer heater and of the
heat transfer liquid in the CO2 flash evaporator are detected
by means of thermostats and used for control functions. In
addition, the temperature of the heat transfer liquid in the
CO2 flash evaporator is indicated locally by a thermometer.
For details of the thermostats, see separate description
[5].
Also refer to the following sections

Pressure Gauges
The following measuring points are provided :

CO2 bottle pressure

[3] 2.1-7250Mechanical Gas Purity Meter System

The bottle pressure during CO2 filling can be obseved

[4] 2.1-8412Pressure Transmitters

at a local pressure gauge.

BHEL, Hardwar

[1] 2.1-7211Gas Diagram


[2] 2.1-7240Electrical Gas Purity Meter System

[5] 2.1-8410Temperature Detectors

2.1-8460-0009/1

Turbo Generators

Supervision of Primary Water System

Description

The location of the transmitters of the measuring


and supervisory equipment in the primary water system
is shown in the Primary Water Diagram[1].
The essential measuring and supervisory devices
in the primary water system are:

Conductivity meter system


Level monitoring system
Volume flow meters
Pressure gauges
Temperature detectors

Conductivity Meter System


The conductivity of the primary water is monitored:

Downstream of ion exchanger


Upstream of primary water inlet of generator

The measuring point downstream of the ion


exchanger checks the ion exchanger for proper
performance.
The measuring point in the primary water inlet of
the generator permits the conductivity of the entire
cooling system to be assessed.
Both measuring devices are equipped for indication
and alarm.
Level Monitoring System
The water level in the primary water tank by
capacitive method, a high or low water level initiating an
alarm.
A local water level gauge is located in parallel to
the electrical monitoring system.

The two pressure measuring points are equipped


with pressure switches and required for automatic control
of the two primary water pumps.
in addition, a pressure gauge is provided
downstream of each pump for local observation of the
pressure.

This pressure measuring point is equipped with


pressure switches and a local pressure gauge. The
pressure switches initiate an alarm at rising primary water
pressure.
The pressure gauge is provided for local
observation.

Volume Flow Meter System


The primary water volume flows of the
stator winding and
bushings

are measured and indicated by a differential pressure


flow meter system. If the flow falls below a minimum
value, an alarm is activated. If the flow continues to fall,
the generator mechanical equipment protection is
tripped.
The amount of primary water flowing though the ion
exchanger is monitored by a local flow meter. The
amount of water added to the system during operation
is determined by of a water meter.

Gas pressure in primary water tank

A pressure switch activates an alarm at rising gas


pressure in the primary water tank.
In addition, a pressure gauge is provided for local
observation of the tank gas pressure.

Differential pressure across main filter


Differential pressure across fine filter
Barton cells with switches display the degree of filter
contamination on a dial. In addition, contacts
activate an alarm on filter contamination at preset
differential pressure.

Pressure upstream of stator winding

Temperature Detectors
The following temperatures are measured locally by
means of thermometers:

Primary water temperature downstream of coolers


Cooling water temperature upstream and
downstream of coolers
Primary water temperature downstream of bushings

Resistance temperature detectors are used to


measure the followings temperatures for further
processing according to different methods:

Pressure Gauges
Pressure or pressure differentials are sensed at the
following measuring point in the primary water cooling
circuit:

Primary water temperature upstream and


downstream of coolers
Primary water temperature downstream of stator
winding
Primary water temperature downstream of bushings

In addition, a rod-type thermostat monitors the


following temperature:

Pressure downstream of primary water pump 1


Pressure downstream of primary water pump 2

BHEL, Hardwar

Primary water temperature downstream of coolers

Also refer to the following section


[1] 2.1-7311 Primary Water Diagram

2.1-8470-0003/1
0999E

Turbo Generators

Supervision of Exciter

Description

The most essential measuring and


supervisory devices at the exciter are:
Temperature monitoring system
Fuse monitoring system
Ground fault detection system
Excitation current measuring device
1

Temperature Monitoring System


The exciter is provided with devices for
monitoring the temperatures of the cold air after
the exciter cooler and the hot air leaving the
rectifier wheels and hot air leaving the rectifier
wheels and main exciter.
2

Fuse Monitoring System


The indicator flags of the fuses on the
rectifier wheels may be checked during operation

BHEL, Hardwar

with the built-in stroboscope.


3

Ground Fault Detection System


Two sliprings are installed on the shaft
between the main exciter and bearing. One is
connected to the star point of the three-phase
winding of the main exciter and the other to the
frame. These sliprings permit ground fault
detection.
4

Excitation Current Measuring Device


The excitation current is measured indirectly
through a coil arranged between two poles of the
main exciter. The voltage induced in this coil is
proportional to the excitation current thus
enabling a determination of the excitation current.

2.1-8490-0001/1
0999E

BHEL, Hardwar

Exciter

Design
Feature
The exciter consists of

Rectifier wheels
Three-phase pilot exciter
Cooler
Metering and supervisory equipment

Fig. 1 Shows the basic arrangement of the exciter. The


three-phase pilot exciter has a revolving held with
permanent magnet poles. The three-phase ac generated
by the permanent-magnet pilot exciter is rectified and
controlled by the TVR to provide a varable dc current for
exciting the main exciter The three-phase ac induced in
the rotor of the main exciter. The three-phase ac induced
in hte rotor of the main exciter is rectified by the rotating
rectifier bridge and fed to the field winding of the generator
rotor of the main exciter is rectified by the rotating rectifier
bridge and fed to the field winding of the generator rotor
through the dc leads in the rotor shaft.

Fig. 2 Exciter Rotor

Automatic voltage regulator

Pemanent magnet pilot exciter

Sliprings for field groung fault detection

Qualdrature-axis measuring coil

Three-phse main exciter

Diode rectifier set

Three-phase lead

Multikontakt conector

Rotor winding of turbogenerator

10 Stator winding of tubogenerator

Fig. 1 Basic Arrangement of Brushless Excitation System


With Rotating Diodes

BHEL, Hardwar

The exciter shown in fig. 2 corresponds to ht basic


arrangement described above.
A common shaft carries the rectifier wheels, the rotor of
the main exciter and the permanent-magnet rotor of the
pilot exciter. The shaft is rigidly coupled to the genrator
rotor. The exciter shaft is supported on a bearing between
the main and pilot exciters. The generator and exciter totors
are thus supported on total of three bearings.
Mechanical coupling of the two shaft assemblies results
in simultaneous coupling of the dc leads in the central shaft
bore through the Multikontakt electrical contact system
consisting of plug-in bolts and sockets. This contact system
is also designed to compensate for length variations of the
leads due to thermal expansion.
2

Rectifier Wheels
The main-components of the rectifier wheels are the
silicon diodes which are araanged in the rectifier wheels in
a three-phase bridge circuit. The internal arrangement of
a diode is illustrated in Fig. 3. The contact pressure for the
silicon wafer is produced by a plate spring assembly. The
arrangement of the diods is such that this contact pressure
iis increased by the cintrifugal force during rotation.

2.1-9100-0021/1

The direct current from the rectifier wheels is fed to


these leads arrnaged in the center bore of the shaft via
radial bolts.
The three-phase alternating currents is obtained via
copper conductors arranged on the shaft circumference
between the rectifier wheels and the three-phase main
exiciter. The conductors are attached by means of banding
clips and equipped with screw-on lugs for the internal diode
connections. One three-phase conductor each is provided
for the four diodes of a heat sink set.
3

Three-Phase Main Exciter

Fig. 3 Silicon Diods


Fig. 4 shows additional components contained in the
rectifier wheels. Two diodes each are mounted in each
aluminum alloy heat sink and thus connected in parallel.
Associated with each heat sink is a fuse which serves to
switch off the two diodes if one diods fails (loss of reverse
blocking capability).

Fig. 5 Main Exciter

Fig. 4 Rectifier Wheel


For suppression of the momentary voltage peaks arising
from commutation, each wheel is provided with six RC
network consisting of one capacitor and one damping
resistor each, which are combined in a single resinencapsulated unit.
The insulated and shrunken rectifier wheels seve as
dc buses for the negative and positive side of the rectifier
bridge. This arrangement ensures good accessibility to all
components and a minimum of circuit connections. The
two wheels are identical in their mechanical design and
dffer only in the forward direcitons of the diods.

2.1-9100-0021/2

The three-phase main exciter is a six-pole revolvingarmature unit. Arranged in the stator frame are the poles
eith the field and damper winding. The field winding is
arranged on the laminated magnetic poles. At the pole shoe
bars are provided. Their ends being conected so as to form
a damaper winding Between two poles a quadrature-axis
coil is fitted for inductive measurement of the exditer
current.
The rotor consists of stacked laminations, which are
compressed by through bolts over compression rings. The
three-phase winding is inserted in the slots of the laminated
rotor. The winding conductors are transposed within the
core lengt, and the end turns of the roteor winding are
secured with steal bands. The connections are made on
the side facing the rectifier wheels. The winding ends are
run to a bus ring system to which the three-phase leads to
the rectifier wheels are also conected. After full
impregnation with synthetic resin and curing, the complete
rotor is shrunk onto the shaft. A journal bearing is arranged
between main exciter and pilot exciter and has forced oil
lubrication from the turbine oil supply.

Three-Phase Pilot Exciter

The three-phase pilotexciter is a 16 pole revolving-field


unit. The frame accommodates the laminated core with the
three-phase winding. The rotor consists of a hub with
mounted poles. Each pole consists of 12 separate
permanent magnets which are housed in a non-magnetic
metalic enclosure. The magnets are braced between the
hub and the external pole shoe with bolts. the rotor hub is
shrunk onto the free shaft end.

The main exciter enclosure receives cool air from the


fan after it passes over the pilot exciter. The air enters the
main exciter from both ends and is passed into ducts below
the rotor body and discharged through radial slots in the
rotor core to the lower compartment. The wrm air is then
returned to the main enclosure via the cooler sections.
Fig. 7 Permanent-Magnet Pilot Exciter
6

Replacement of Air Inside Exciter Enclosure


When the generator is filled with hydrogen (operation

or standstill) an adequate replacement of the air inside the


exciter enclosure must be ensured. The air volume inside
the exciter enclosure requires an air change rate of 125m3/h.
While the generator is running, the air leving the exciter
enclosure via the bearing vapor exhaust system and the
leakage air outlet in the foundation provides for a pullthrough system. The volume of air extracted from the
cooling air circuit is replaced via the filters located at the
top of the enclosure.
When the generator is at rest, the air dryer of the exciter
unit discharges dry air inside the exciter enclosure. The air
leaves the exciter enclosure via the leakage air filter and
the leakage air oulet at the shaft as well as via the bearing
vapor exhaust system if this system is in sevice.

Fig. 6 Stator of Main Exciter


5

Cooling of Exciter
The is air cooled. The cooling air is cirvulated in a closed

circuit and recooled in two cooler sections arranged


alongside the exciter.
The complete exciter is housed in an enclosure draw
the cool air in at both ends and expel the warned air to the
compartment beneath the base plate.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9100-0021/3

Rectifier Wheels
ELR Series (More Than 60 Diodes)

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9102-0002/1

Rectifier Wheels and Coupling


ELR Series (Up to 120 Diodes)

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9103-0003/1

Permanent-Magnet
Pilot Exciter Rotor and Fan

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9104-0002/1

Exciter Cross Section

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9110-0029/1

BHEL, Hardwar

Stroboscope for Fuse Monitoring

The fuses on the rectifier wheels may be checked during

of flshes can be interrupted at any time by actuating the

operation with the stroboscope. A separate flash tube is


provided for each wheel (A and B). The tubes, which are
supplied through a common control unit, are permanently

Feed of Return pushbutton. Following this, a stationry


image is obtained which ensures accurate checking of a
single fuse. After approximately two minutes, the

installed in the rectifier wheel enclosure. This permits easy


monitoring whithout any adjustment outside the exciter

stroboscope is automatically switched off. If this period


should not be sufficient for fuse checking, switching on the

enclosure being required.


Fig. 1 shows the basic arrangement of a fully
transistorized stroboscope The electronics required for

stroboscope for another two minutes without delay can be


repeated for any desired number of times by depressing
the On pushbutton.

montrol of the light singals are contained in the control unit


and in the tubular lamps. The tubular lamps are connected

The stroboscope contains four plug-in printed circuit


boards which can be readily replaced in order to remedy

to the control unit by cables.


The stroboscope is located in the rectifier wheel and
exciter enclosure so that the fuses may be observed from

any faults.
The capacitor and high-voltage transformer required
to produce the firing pulses for the flash tubes are located

outside the exciter enclosure while controlling the


stroboscope.

on a printed circuit board which is accommodated in the


handle of the flash lamp.

To synchronize the sequence of flashes with the generator


rotation, the system frequency is utilized to activate the
flashes. A doyuble synchronous motor, controlled through

The operating elements are located on the front panel


of the control unit for ease of operation. A depressed
pushbutton is indicated by an illuminated dot in the

two pushbuttons and connected to two potentiometers and


IC's, causes the flash to be timed so that a slow-motion

pushbutton head.
Tthe line connector, the two connectors for the flash

observation of the fuse becomes possible.


The Observation period for one full revolution of the
rectifiier wheel (3600) is approximately 25 seconds. At

lamps and the fuse are located on the back of the control
unit.
All connectors have a mechanical lock and are

approximately 450 0, the flash is reset to its initial rate, and


the observation can be repeated. The continuous sequence

protected agaist dust and splashwater. The cables are run


in flexible metal hoses for protection against mechanical
damage.

1
1 Flash tube 1 (A wheel)
2 Control unit
3 Pushbutton for flash tube 1
4 Pushbutton for flash tube 2
Fig.1

567 8

5 Feed pushbutton
6 Pilot lamp for control voltage
7 Return pushbutton

10
8 On pushbutton
9 Off pushbutton
10 Flash tube 2 (B wheel)

Components and Operating Elements of Stroboscope

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9140-0002/1

TurboGenerators
Description

General
A dryer (dehumidifier) and an anicondensation heating

system are provided to avoid the formation of moisture


condensate inside the exciter with the turbine-generator at
rest or on turning gear.

Exciter Drying

2.1

Operating Principle of Adsorption Dryer


The dehumidification takes place in a slowly rotating

dryer wheel (approximately 7 revolutions per hour). The


honeycomb dryer wheel consists of a magnesium silica
alloy containing crystalline lithium chloride. The inlet side
of the dryer wheel is subdivided so that 1/4 is available for
regeneration and 3/4 for the adsorption section.
2.1.1 Adsorption Section
The air to be dehumidified passes throungh the
adsorption section of the dryer wheel, with part of the
moisture contained in the air being removed by the
adsorbent material, i.e. lithium chloride. The moisture is

Fig. 1 Exciter Dryer


Fig. 2 Schematic Diagram
2

Mode of Operation
The dryer dehumidifies the air within the exciter

enclosure. The dryer wheel is made of a nonflammable


material. On its inlet side, the wheel is provided with a

removed as a result of the pratial pressure drop existing


between the air and the adsorbent material.
2.1.2

Regeneration Section

system of tubular ducts, the surfaces of which are


impregnated with a highly hygroscopic material.
The tubular ducts are dimensioned so that a laminar

In the regeneration section of the dryer wheel, the


accumulated moisture is removed from the dryer wheel by
the heated regeneratiion air.

flow with low pressure loss is obtained even at high air


velocity.

Continuous rotation of the dryer wheel ensures


continuous dehumidification of the air within the exciter.

The moisture absorbed by the dryer wheel is removed


in a regeneration section by a stream of hot air derected
through the wheel in the opposite direction of the inlet air

and then discharged to the atmosphere.


After regeneration, the dryer wheel material is again
capable of absorbing moishture.
The adsorption of moisture and regeneration of the
dryer wheel material take place simultaneously, using

Anticondensation Heating System


An anticondensation heating system to support the
dryer is installed in the exciter baseframe. The heaters are
rated and arrgned so that the temperature in the exciter
interior.

separate air streams, which ensures a continous drying of


the air.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9150-0003/1

TurboGenerators
Description

Ground Fault Detection System


for Exciter Field Circuit

The field ground fault detection system detects highresistance and low-resistance ground faults in the exciter

develop. For this reason, the field ground fault detection


system consists of two stages and operates continuously.

field circuit. It is very important for safe operation of a


generatork, because a double fault causes magnetic
unbalances with very high currents flowing through the

Ifthe field ground fault detection system detects a


ground fault, an alarm is activated at R E < 80 k (1st stage).
If the insulation resistance between the exciter field civuit

faulted part, resulting in its destruction within a very short


time. It is therefore an essential requirement that even simle

and ground either suddenly or slowly drops to RE < 5 k


the generator electrical protection is tripped (2nd stage).

ground faults should activate an alarm and protective


measures be initiated, if possible, before the fault can fully

The generator is thus automatically disconected from


the system and de-excited.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9180-0001/1

Measuring Brush Holder for


Ground Fault Detection

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9181-0002/1

Brush Holders for


Ground-Fault Detection System

BHEL, Hardwar

2.1-9182-0001/1

Turbo Generators

Operating ans Setting Values

Operation

General

Strict observance of the operating and setting values


is a prerequiste for reliable operation of the turbogenerator.

The operating ans setting values initially specified in


this manual are based on experience under due

Separate tables are provided for the various design


groups of the generator and its auxiliaries. They show the
transmitters activating the controls and alarms as well as

consideration of the specific site conditions, such as static


head in case of pressure measuing points or thermal
characteristics in case of temperature measuring points.

the transmitters acting on the generator protection circuits.


The Remark column contains additional information

These calculated values are intended as guiding values


for making the preliminary settings during initial

on controls, temperatures and pressures.


All operating and setting values refer to rated output
of generator and maximum colling water temperatures

commissionning of the unit.


These settings require certain corrections to account
for the actual conditions. The final settings obtained after

under steady-state conditions.

startup and initial load operation are to be entered in the


Operating Value column.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4000-0005/1

Turbo Generators
Operation

BHEL, Hardwar

Gas Quantities

2.3-4010-0001/1
1083E

Turbo Generators
Operation

BHEL, Hardwar

Measuring Point List of Generator

2.3-4030-0001/1
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/2
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/3
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/4
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/5
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/6
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/7
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/8
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/9
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/10
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/11
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/12
0197E
2.3-4030-0001/10
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/13
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/14
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/15
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/16
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/17
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/18
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/19
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/20
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/21
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/22
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/23
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/24
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4030-0001/25
0197E

2.3-4030-0001/26
0197E

BHEL, Hardwar

1.

Turbo Generators

Running Routine

Operation

General

Operating Log
During initial startup and during normal operation, the

turbogenerator should be noted separately. Such notes may


be useful in determining the cause of any subsequent

hydrogen-colled turbogenerator, auxiliaries and all


instruments and controls should be monitored to assure
continuous reliable operation. The observations and

trouble and speeding up corrections.

readings should be recorded. A typical operating log is


contained in these operating instructions.This table will, of

The Generator should be continuously monitored from


startup ton shutdown. During initial startup, all checks

course, have to be adapted to the particular conditions of


the plant. The important requirement is that all checks and
readings be made at certain predetermined intervals and

should be made at frequent intervals. Hourly readings may


be taken after completion of the initial period.
A generator at standstill is considered to have been

preferably at the same load point. Any special conditions


regarding the operation of the hydrogen-cooled

taken into service and must be continuously monitored after


one supply system was placed in operation.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.

Normal and Special Operating Conditions

2.3-4100-0002/1

Turbo Generators

Operating Log

Operation

Generator Supervision

Job name ............................................................ Sl. No. ............................................ Remark .............................................

Operating values*

Unit

Active power

MW

Reactive power

Mvar

Stator current

kA

Stator voltage

kV

Rotor current

Speed

Generator gas pressure

kg/cm
Slot 1

Slot temperature

3
4

6
Primary water

Measuring point 1

outlet temperature
TE water manifold

C
C

Measuring point 2

measuring point 3

Measuring point 1

TE Measuring point 2

Measuring point 3

Stator core
temperature

Measuring point 1
EE Measuring point 2

Gas temperature

C
C
C

Coolers a/b

cold

Coolers c/d

cold

Coolers a/b

hot

Coolers c/d

hot

0
0

Inlet
temperature

0
0

EE After coolers c/d


Bearing oil

Measuring point 3

EE After coolers a/b

Outlet

Generator bearing
temperatures
Shaft lift oil pressure

Generator bearing vibration

TE
EE

C
C
C
C

0
0

Date

-1

Tag
Number

C
C

TE

EE

TE

kg/cm

EE

kg/cm

TE ahv

EE ahv

2
2

Data should be recorded during steady-state conditions after constant operation for several hours.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4120-7347/1

Turbogenerators

Operation Log

Operation

Seal Oil System

Job name ............................................................ Sl. No. ............................................ Remark .............................................

Operating values*

Unit

Air side pressure after seal oil pumps

kg/cm

Hydrogen side pressure after seal oil pump

kg/cm

Air side seal oil pressure after orifice

kg/cm

Air side seal oil pressure

Hydrogen side seal oil pressure

Seal oil differential pressure

Ring relief oil pressure

Air side seal oil volume flow

Hydrogen side seal oil volume flow

Ring relief oil volume flow


Seal oil temperatures,

Hydrogen side seal

EE

kg/cm

TE

kg/cm

EE

kg/cm

TE

mbar

EE

mbar

TE

kg/cm

EE

kg/cm

TE

kg/s

EE

kg/s

TE

kg/s

EE

kg/s

TE

kg/s

EE

kg/s

Outlet

TE

Seal oil temperatures,

Inlet

Outlet

Inlet
Outlet, H2 side cooler 1
Cooling water
temperatures

Outlet, H2 side cooler 2

Outlet, air side cooler 1

Outlet, air side cooler 2

EE

oil drain temperature

air side seal oil coolers

kg/cm

Date

TE

Inlet

hydrogen side seal oil cooler

Tag
Number

Data should be recorded during steady-state conditions after constant operation for several hours.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4150-7347/1

Turbogenerators

Operation Log

Operation

Gas System

Job name ............................................................ Sl. No. ............................................ Remark .............................................

Operating values*

Unit

H2 boottle pressure

kg/cm2

CO2 boottle pressure

kg/cm2

N2 boottle pressure

kg/cm2

H2 purity (elec. purity meter system)

% H2

H2 purity (mech. purity meter system)**

% H2

Gas flow for measuring H2 purity

I/h

H2 casing pressure

kg/cm2

Temperature before gas dryer

Pressure before gas dryer

Tag.
Number

C
C

Data should be recorded during steady-state conditions after constant operation several hours.

**

To be recordced only on failure of electrical purity meter system.

BHEL, Hardwar

Date

2.3-4160-7347/1

Turbogenerators

Operation Log

Operation

Primary Water System

Job name ............................................................ Sl. No. ............................................ Remark .............................................

Operating values*

Prinary water flow

Primary water
pressure
Primary water
conductivity

Unit

Date

Generator inlet

Stator winding outlet

Bushing outlet

Before coolers

After collers

Stator winding oulet

dm3/s

Bushing outlet U

dm3/s

Bushing outlet V

dm3/s

Bushing outlet W

dm3/s

Treated water

dm3/s

Stator winding inlet

kg/cm2

After PW pumps 1/2

kg/cm2

After main filter

S/cm

After ion exchanges

S/cm

C
C
C
C

Primary water level in primary water tank

Gas pressure in primary water tank

kg/cm2

BHEL, Hardwar

Tag.
Number

2.3-4170-7347/1

Turbogenerators

Operation Log

Operation

Exciter Supervision

Job name ............................................................ Sl. No. ............................................ Remark .............................................

Operating values*

Cooling air
temperature

Main exciter

Unit

Cold air

Hot air

Rectifier wheels Hot air

r Coolers e/f
Cooling wate
temperature Cooler e
Cooler f
Exciter bearing twmperature

Inlet

Outlet

Outlet

Measuring Point 1
Measuring point 2

Bearing oil outlet temperature

C
C
C

Exciter shaft vibration

Relative

Exciter bearing vibration

Absolute

Shaft lift oil pressure

Date

Tag
Number

kg

Data should be recorded during steady-state conditions after constant operation several hours.

BHEL, Hardwar

2.3-4190-7347/1

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