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Thermal Stresses

Thermal Stresses in Concrete


Thermal Stresses in Concrete

ƒ Introduction

ƒ Importance

ƒ Technological Aspects

ƒ Case Study – LA Cathedral

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
History

ƒ Original work of Roy W. Carlson, R.E. Davis, M.


Polivka, etc.

ƒ How to measure stresses and strain in dams?

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Thermal stresses

E
σt = K r α ∆T
1+ϕ
where:
σt: tensile stress
Kr: degree of restraint
E: elastic modulus
α: coefficient of thermal expansion
∆T: temperature change
ϕ: creep coefficient

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Degree of Restraint ( Kr )

ƒ A concrete element, if free to move, would have no


stress.

ƒ In practice, the concrete mass will be restrained either


externally by the rock foundation or internally by
differential deformations.

ƒ For example, there will be full restraint at the concrete-


rock interface ( Kr = 1.0), however, as the distance from
the interface increases, the restraint will decrease .

ƒ The same reasoning can be applied to determine the


restraint between different concrete lifts.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Degree of Restraint

ƒ When dealing with a non-rigid foundation, ACI-207.2R


recommends the following multipliers for Kr
1
multiplier =
Ag E
1+
Af E f
where:
Ag: gross area of concrete cross section
Af: area of foundation or other restraining element. (For
mass concrete on rock, Af can be assumed as 2.5 Ag.)
Ef: modulus of elasticity of foundation or restraining element.
E: modulus of elasticity of concrete.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Temperature Evolution

∆T =
placement temperature of fresh concrete + adiabatic
temperature rise - ambient or service temperature - heat
losses.
P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Temperature of fresh concrete

ƒ Precooling of fresh concrete is a good method of controlling


the subsequent temperature drop.
ƒ Chilled aggregates and/or ice shavings are specified for
making mass concrete mixtures in which the temperature of
fresh concrete is limited to 10 oC or less.
ƒ During the mixing operation the latent heat needed for fusion
of ice is withdrawn from other components of the concrete
mixture, providing a very effective way to lower the
temperature.
ƒ Use of liquid nitrogen.
ƒ Cast at night or early in the morning
P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Adiabatic temperature rise

ƒ The rate and magnitude of the adiabatic temperature rise


is a function of the amount, composition and fineness of
cement, and its temperature during hydration.

ƒ Finely ground portland cements, or cements with


relatively high C3A and C3S contents show higher heats
of hydration than coarser cements or cements with low
C3A and C3S.

ƒ Use of pozzolanic materials to replace cement.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Heat Losses

ƒ Heat losses depend on the thermal properties of


concrete, and the construction technology adopted. A
concrete structure can lose heat through its surface, and
the magnitude of heat loss is a function of the type of
material in immediate contact with the concrete surface.

ƒ Numerical methods can be use to compute the


temperature distribution in mass of concrete

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Introduction of heat equation

Heat flux in the x-direction

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Balance

Addition of the flux variation in the three-directions determines the amount of


heat introduced in the interior of the element per unit time:
∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  
 k + k + k  dx dy dz
 ∂x  ∂x  ∂y  ∂y  ∂z  ∂z  

If the material is homogeneous

 ∂2 T ∂ 2 T ∂2 T 
k 2 + 2 + 2  dx dy dz
 ∂x ∂y ∂z 

For a material with mass density r and specific heat c, the increase of internal
energy in the element is given by:
∂T
ρ c dx dy dz
∂t
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Thermal Balance

 ∂2 T ∂ 2 T ∂ 2 T  ∂T
k + +  = ρc
 ∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂z 2  ∂t

Now consider the case when there is heat generation inside


the material. The equation when added to the quantity of
heat generated in the interior of the element per unit of time -
wdxdydz - can be equated with the increase of internal energy
in the element.

 ∂ 2 T ∂ 2 T ∂2 T  ∂T
k + +  + w =ρc
 ∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂z 2  ∂t
P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Simple example from ACI

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Example

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Example

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Example for dams: Itaipu Dam

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
General Information

ƒ Ambient Conditions
ƒ Yearly average temperature 21 C
ƒ Maximum Temperature 40 C
ƒ Mimimum Temperature -4 C

ƒ Volume of materials

ƒ Concrete 12.3 million m3


ƒ Earth moving 23.6 million m3
ƒ Rock excavation 32.0 m3
ƒ Embankments 31.7 million m3
P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
General Information
River Basin
Area 820,000 km2
Average annual precipitation 1,400 mm
Average discharge at Itaipu 9,700 m3/s
Reservoir
Area 1,350 km2
Volume 29 billion m3
Length 170 km
Dam
Maximum height 196 m
Total length 7,760
Generating Units
Quantity 18
Capacity 700 MW
P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Paraná River

Diversion of the Paraná


river was achieved by the
construction of a channel 2
km long, 150 m wide, and
90 m deep on the left river
bank.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Arch Dams

Two arch dams were


built to protect the
channel structures
from floods.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete

AND THEN…

the two arch dams


built to protect the
structures from
flood were
simultaneously
exploded in just 3
seconds

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Complex
site
In November of 1979, a monthly production of 340,000 m3 was
achieved. In 1980, the yearly production was 3 million cubic
meter.
Seven aerial cables with
an span of 1300 m were
used for transporting
concrete in 8 m3
buckets.
Thermal Stresses in Concrete

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete

To reduce the amount of


concrete in the dam, the
center of the block is
hollow

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
The spillway, with a length of 483 m, was designed for a
maximum discharge capacity of 62,220 m3/s.
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Characteristics for the concrete for the thermal study

Compressive MPa
strength
3 days 17.2
7 days 20.4
28 days 29.8
60 days 35.8

Specific heat of 0.22 kcal/kg C


the concrete
Thermal 1.71 kcal/m.h C
conductivity
Density of the 2537 kg/m3
concrete

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Concrete Mixture Proportions

Kg/m3
Cement 290

Water 154

Natural sand 556


Artificial sand 373

19-mm CA 742

38-mm CA 419
Superplasticizer 2.9

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Thermal stresses in Itaipu dam

ƒ Finite element mesh


(before processing) for
the spiral box inside the
dam.

Courtesy from Selmo Kuperman, Itaipu Binacional, Themag Engenharia e Gerenciamento

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Thermal stresses in Itaipu dam

ƒ Finite element mesh


after processing

Courtesy from Selmo Kuperman, Itaipu Binacional, Themag Engenharia e Gerenciamento

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Isotherms after 300 hours

Courtesy from Selmo Kuperman, Itaipu Binacional, Themag Engenharia e Gerenciamento

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Isotherms after 500 hours

Courtesy from Selmo Kuperman, Itaipu Binacional, Themag Engenharia e Gerenciamento

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials
Thermal Stresses in Concrete
Detail of the locations where the maximum
temperature developed

Courtesy from Selmo Kuperman, Itaipu Binacional, Themag Engenharia e Gerenciamento

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials