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Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Introduction

Importance

Technological Aspects

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

History

Polivka, etc.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Thermal stresses

E

σt = K r α ∆T

1+ϕ

where:

σt: tensile stress

Kr: degree of restraint

E: elastic modulus

α: coefficient of thermal expansion

∆T: temperature change

ϕ: creep coefficient

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Degree of Restraint ( Kr )

stress.

externally by the rock foundation or internally by

differential deformations.

rock interface ( Kr = 1.0), however, as the distance from

the interface increases, the restraint will decrease .

restraint between different concrete lifts.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Degree of Restraint

recommends the following multipliers for Kr

1

multiplier =

Ag E

1+

Af E f

where:

Ag: gross area of concrete cross section

Af: area of foundation or other restraining element. (For

mass concrete on rock, Af can be assumed as 2.5 Ag.)

Ef: modulus of elasticity of foundation or restraining element.

E: modulus of elasticity of concrete.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Temperature Evolution

∆T =

placement temperature of fresh concrete + adiabatic

temperature rise - ambient or service temperature - heat

losses.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Temperature of fresh concrete

the subsequent temperature drop.

Chilled aggregates and/or ice shavings are specified for

making mass concrete mixtures in which the temperature of

fresh concrete is limited to 10 oC or less.

During the mixing operation the latent heat needed for fusion

of ice is withdrawn from other components of the concrete

mixture, providing a very effective way to lower the

temperature.

Use of liquid nitrogen.

Cast at night or early in the morning

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Adiabatic temperature rise

is a function of the amount, composition and fineness of

cement, and its temperature during hydration.

relatively high C3A and C3S contents show higher heats

of hydration than coarser cements or cements with low

C3A and C3S.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Heat Losses

concrete, and the construction technology adopted. A

concrete structure can lose heat through its surface, and

the magnitude of heat loss is a function of the type of

material in immediate contact with the concrete surface.

temperature distribution in mass of concrete

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Introduction of heat equation

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Balance

heat introduced in the interior of the element per unit time:

∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T

k + k + k dx dy dz

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z

∂2 T ∂ 2 T ∂2 T

k 2 + 2 + 2 dx dy dz

∂x ∂y ∂z

For a material with mass density r and specific heat c, the increase of internal

energy in the element is given by:

∂T

ρ c dx dy dz

∂t

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Thermal Balance

∂2 T ∂ 2 T ∂ 2 T ∂T

k + + = ρc

∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂z 2 ∂t

the material. The equation when added to the quantity of

heat generated in the interior of the element per unit of time -

wdxdydz - can be equated with the increase of internal energy

in the element.

∂ 2 T ∂ 2 T ∂2 T ∂T

k + + + w =ρc

∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂z 2 ∂t

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Simple example from ACI

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Example

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Example

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Example for dams: Itaipu Dam

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

General Information

Ambient Conditions

Yearly average temperature 21 C

Maximum Temperature 40 C

Mimimum Temperature -4 C

Volume of materials

Earth moving 23.6 million m3

Rock excavation 32.0 m3

Embankments 31.7 million m3

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

General Information

River Basin

Area 820,000 km2

Average annual precipitation 1,400 mm

Average discharge at Itaipu 9,700 m3/s

Reservoir

Area 1,350 km2

Volume 29 billion m3

Length 170 km

Dam

Maximum height 196 m

Total length 7,760

Generating Units

Quantity 18

Capacity 700 MW

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Paraná River

river was achieved by the

construction of a channel 2

km long, 150 m wide, and

90 m deep on the left river

bank.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Arch Dams

built to protect the

channel structures

from floods.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

AND THEN…

built to protect the

structures from

flood were

simultaneously

exploded in just 3

seconds

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Complex

site

In November of 1979, a monthly production of 340,000 m3 was

achieved. In 1980, the yearly production was 3 million cubic

meter.

Seven aerial cables with

an span of 1300 m were

used for transporting

concrete in 8 m3

buckets.

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

concrete in the dam, the

center of the block is

hollow

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

The spillway, with a length of 483 m, was designed for a

maximum discharge capacity of 62,220 m3/s.

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Characteristics for the concrete for the thermal study

Compressive MPa

strength

3 days 17.2

7 days 20.4

28 days 29.8

60 days 35.8

the concrete

Thermal 1.71 kcal/m.h C

conductivity

Density of the 2537 kg/m3

concrete

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Concrete Mixture Proportions

Kg/m3

Cement 290

Water 154

Artificial sand 373

19-mm CA 742

38-mm CA 419

Superplasticizer 2.9

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Thermal stresses in Itaipu dam

(before processing) for

the spiral box inside the

dam.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Thermal stresses in Itaipu dam

after processing

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Isotherms after 300 hours

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Isotherms after 500 hours

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Thermal Stresses in Concrete

Detail of the locations where the maximum

temperature developed

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

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