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CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNALnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer
PROCESSING:
Text-Book: Digital-Signal-Processing-theorytyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas
and-worked-examples, 2nd-Edition, By S.KHasnain And Pervez-Akhter With Contributions
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from Aisha-Tahir; Course-Title : Digital Signal
Processing [DSP].
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3/31/2015

MUHAMMAD-SIKANDER-KHAN-LODHI

March 31, 2015

[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:

Text-Book: Digital-Signal-Processing-theory-and-worked-examples,
2nd-Edition, By S.K-Hasnain And Pervez-Akhter With Contributions
from Aisha-Tahir; Course-Title : Digital Signal Processing [DSP].
About the Authors of the Used Text Book in this Theoretical Notes by Muhammad Sikander Khan Lodhi.

S.K-Hasnain:
Assistant Professor of Electrical and Power Engineering Department
at Pakistan Navy Engineering College,PNS Jauhar
National University Of Sciences And Technology

Pervez-Akhter:

Professor of Electrical and Power Engineering Department at


Pakistan Navy Engineering College,PNS Jauhar
National University Of Sciences And Technology

With contributions from

Aisha-Tahir:
Lecturer of Bio-Medical Engineering Department at Sir-Syed University
Of Engineering And Technology[SSUET], Karachi.
About Author Of this Notes
Muhammad Sikander Khan Lodhi.
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Studied two years in BS four Years Degree Program in BioMedical


Engineering at Sir-Syed University Of Engineering And Technology
[SSUET] in between jan/2006 to jan/2008, Karachi .
My website:
www.scribd.com/guidebio-medicalEng1
www.medical-image-processing.blogspot.ca
Note to Readers : As you People Know that this Document is the
Theoretical Personal Notes on Digital Signal Processing [DSP] for the
Preparations of Exam, therefore I just Giving you People first few
Chapters as an Introduction Over This Text Book as a Fair-Use of this
Text Book , But If any one want to learn more Chapters on DSP then
You feel free to Contact me for Tutorial Classes World Wide by Me
through Skype or in Personal in Toronto, so if any one of You are
Interested in it then Must Contact with Me on my Contact Information
001-(416)-519-8225; or by e.mail bio.mems@live.ca . and If any student
want to take classes by me over DSP Tutorial or any other course in
Electronic or in Bio-Medical engineering, then I will teach each chapter
of DSP with 18$ US per Chapter , and remember one thing that is now
on I dont sale any of my notes to any one but I am interesting to Give
Online Tuition or Tutorial on Skype or in Personal in Toronto to
Students over all The Chapter which are available on my Blog or
website at here => www.scribd.com/guidebio-medicalEng1 . only this
chapter is shown free of coast :
Table of Contents
CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:............................................................................................... 5
1.1
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1.2

[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

Concept-Of-Signal-Processing: .......................................................................................................... 6

1.2.1

Analog-Signal-Processing: ......................................................................................................... 7

1.2.2

Digital-Signal-Processing: .......................................................................................................... 7

1.3

Advantages:....................................................................................................................................... 7

1.4

Basic Elements Of Signal Processing System: ................................................................................... 8

1.5

DSP-Key-Operations: ......................................................................................................................... 8

1.6

Classification-Of-Signals: ................................................................................................................... 8

1.6.1

Continuous-Time Versus Discrete-Time Signals: ...................................................................... 8

1.6.2

Continuous-Valued Versus Discrete-valued Signals: ................................................................ 9

1.6.3

Deterministic Versus Random Signals:...................................................................................... 9

1.6.4

Multi-Channel and Multi-Dimensional Signals: ...................................................................... 10

1.7

Application-Of-DSP: ........................................................................................................................ 11

1.7.1

Telecommunications: .............................................................................................................. 12

1.7.1.1

Multiplexing: ....................................................................................................................... 12

1.7.1.2

Compression ....................................................................................................................... 12

1.7.1.3

Echo-Control: ...................................................................................................................... 12

1.7.2

Audio-Signal-Processing: ......................................................................................................... 13

1.7.2.1

Speech-Generation: ............................................................................................................ 13

1.7.2.2

Speech-Recognition: ........................................................................................................... 13

1.7.3

Echo-Location:......................................................................................................................... 13

1.7.3.1

Radar ( RAdio-Detection-And-Ranging): ............................................................................. 14

1.7.3.2

Sonar (SOund-NAvigation-and-Ranging): ........................................................................... 15

1.7.3.3

Reflection seismology : ....................................................................................................... 16

1.7.4

Image-Processing: ................................................................................................................... 17

1.7.4.1

Medical :.............................................................................................................................. 17

1.7.4.2

Space: .................................................................................................................................. 18

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CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:
1.1 ROOTs-OF-DSP:
The Rapid development of Digital Signal Processing has been a
result of significant advances in digital computer technology
and IC fabrication techniques.
The roots of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) are from 1960s
and 1970s, when computers first became available. The
efforts were first made in four key areas
a) Radar and Sonar (where national security was at risk).
b) Oil Exploration (where large amounts of money could be
made).
c) Space-Exploration (where the data are irreplaceable).
d) Medical-Imaging (where lives could be saved).

Digital Signal Processing is a method of extracting information


from the signal which in turn, depends upon the type of signal
and the nature of information it carries.
Using a calculator to determine the average value of a set of
numbers and multiplying the individual numbers; one is
actually doing DSP.
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is the mathematics, the
algorithms and the techniques used to manipulate the signals
after they have been converted into the digital form.
Visual images, recognition and generation of speech,
compression of data for storage and transmission are some of
the applications of DSP.
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Digital signal processing has the fuzzy and overlapping borders


with many other areas of science, engineering and
mathematics as shown in figure 1.1.

Fig # 1 and 2 :
1.2 Concept-Of-Signal-Processing:
i. Changing the basic nature of a signal to get the desired shaping of
the input signal is known as signal processing .
ii. Signal processing is concerned with the representation,
transformation, and manipulation of signals and the information
they contain.
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Signal processing can be classified depending upon the type of signal to


be processed.
1.2.1
i.

Analog-Signal-Processing:
In Analog signal processing, continuous time signals are
processed. Different types of analog signal are processed
through low pass filters, high pass filter, band pass filters and
band stop filters to get the desired shaping of the input signal.
1.2.2 Digital-Signal-Processing:
i.
Digital signal processing is the numerical processing of signals
on a digital computer or some other data processing machine.
ii.
A digital system such as a digital computer takes a signal in
discrete-time sequence form and converts into discrete time
output sequence.
1.3 Advantages:
i.
Digital programmable system allows flexibility in reconfiguring
the DSP operations simply by changing the program.
Reconfiguration of an analog system usually implies a re-design
of the hardware.
ii.
DSP provides higher accuracy.
iii. They are easily stored on magnetic media (disk) without loss of
signal. As a consequence, the signal become transportable and
can be processed off line in a remote laboratory.
iv. Cost of processing per signal in DSP is reduced by time-sharing
of the given processor among a number of signals.
v.
Digital circuits are less sensitive to tolerance of component
value.

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vi.

1.4
i.
ii.

1.5

[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

DSP allows for the implementation of more sophisticated signal


processing algorithms. Its very difficult to perform precise
mathematical operations on signals in the analog form.
Basic Elements Of Signal Processing System:
Most of signals are analog in Nature. Digital Signal processing
provides methods for processing the analog signal.
For digital processing, there is a need for interface between the
analog signal and the digital signal processor as shown in figure
1.2, this Interface is called analog to digital (A/D) Converter. Its
output is digital that is appropriate as an input to digital
processor.
DSP-Key-Operations:

Its interesting to note at this stage that there are five key DSP
operations that make a base to acquire knowledge of DSP.These are :
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
1.6
i.

Convolution,
Correlation,
Filtering,
Transformation and
Modulation.
Classification-Of-Signals:
The methods used in processing a signal or analyzing the
response of a system to signal depend heavily on the
characteristic attributes of the specific signal.
ii.
There are techniques that apply only to specific families of
signals.
1.6.1 Continuous-Time Versus Discrete-Time Signals:

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i.

ii.

1.6.2
i.
ii.
iii.
1.6.3
i.

ii.

[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

Continuous-Time (or Analog) Signals are defined for the


continuous interval (a,b) where a can be - and b can be
+ .
Discrete-Time Signals are defined only at certain specific values
of time. These time instants a need not be equi-distant,but in
practice they are ususlly taken at equally spaced intervals for
computational convenience and mathematical tractability .
Continuous-Valued Versus Discrete-valued Signals:
The Values of a continuous-Time or discrete-Time Signal can be
continuous or discrete.
If a signal takes on all possible values on a finite or an infinite
range, its said to be a continuous-valued signal.
A discrete-time signal having a set of discrete values is called a
digital signal.
Deterministic Versus Random Signals:
Any signal that can be uniquely described by an explicitmathematical Expression, a table of data,or a well-defined
rule is called a deterministic signal.
Signals that either cannot be described to any reasonable
degree of accuracy by explicit mathematical formulas, or
such a description is too complicated to be of any practical use.
For example the deterministic signals are :

a.
This is a ramp-signal [
] whose amplitude increases linearly
with time[t] and the slop is b.
b.

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For this signal,The Amplitude varies sinusoidally with time and its
maximum amplitude is A. hence for such signals, its clear that
amplitude at any time instant can be predicted in advance.
Therefore all above signals are deterministic-signals.
On the other hand, a non deterministic signal is one whose
occurrence is always random in nature. The lack of relationship
which is present in above signals implies that such signal evolve in
time in an un-predictable manner,such signals are called randomsignals.
A typical example of non-deterministic signals (or RandomSignal) is thermal noise generated in an electric-circuit. Such a
signal has probabilistic behavior .
1.6.4 Multi-Channel and Multi-Dimensional Signals:
i.
A signal is described by a function of one or more independent
variable . In Electro-CardioGram [ECG],3 lead and 12 lead ECG
are often used in practice, which results in 3 channel and 12
channel signals.
ii.
If the signal is a function of signal independent variable
,the Signal is called one dimensional signal.
iii. The picture is an example of two dimensional signal,since the
intensity or the brightness I(x,y) at each point is a function of
two independent variable.
iv. On the other hand, a black and white television picture may be
represented as I(x,y,t) since the brightness is a function of time
. Hence the TV picture may be treated as a three dimensional
signal.
v.
On the other hand the colour TV picture may be described by
three intensity function
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[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

corresponding to the
brightness of rhree principle colors (red,green,blue) as a
function of time . Hence the colour TV picture is a three
channel, three dimensional signal, which can be represented by
the vector
.
[

];

1.7 Application-Of-DSP:
i.
As a matter of fact, there are various application areas of digital
signal processing due to high resolution spectral analysis.it
requires a high speed processor to implement the Fast-FourierTransform (FFT).
ii.
Digital signal processing is widely applied and new applications
are being added all the time . home theatre systems produce
sounds using DSP. Images of Mars sent back to earth by the
Mars pathfinder are processed by digital-computers at the
National-Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
iii. DSP is already being used in the area where information is
handled in a digital form or controlled by a digital processor.
iv. Many of the special effects in movies like the perfect strom,
Harry-Potter and Spiderman are created using special purpose
digital computers and softwares. The eneration of the cartoon
characters and lighting and shading effects in computer
animation movies such as Monsters Inc. and Finding Nemo are
done digitally.

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v.

1.7.1

[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

Its used in signaling tone generation and detection, frequency


band shifting, filtering to remove power line hum etc. Further
application areas include following:
Telecommunications:

Three specific examples present in the telephone network are


Multiplexing,Compression and Echo Control.
1.7.1.1 Multiplexing:
i.
DSP converts audio signals into a stream of serial digital
data.since bits can be easily intertwined and later
separated,many telephones conversations can be transmitted
on a single channel.
ii.
The financial advantage of digital transmission is enormous.
iii. Digital logic gates are cheaper in contrast to wires and analog
switches are comparatively expensive.
1.7.1.2 Compression
i.
Voice signal is digitized at 8000 samples/sec, most of the digital
information is redundant.
ii.
Dozens of DSP algorithms have been developed to convert
digitized voice signals into data streams that require fewer bits
per second. These are called data compression algorithms.
iii. Matching un-compressed algorithms are used to restore the
signal to its original form.
1.7.1.3 Echo-Control:
i.
Echoes are a serious problem in long distance telephone
connections. As the distance becomes larger, the echo
becomes increasingly noticeable and irritating.

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ii.
iii.

iv.

v.
1.7.2

[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

The delay can be several hundred milli-seconds for intercontinental communications, and is particularity objectionable.
Digital Signal Processing attacks this type of problem by
measuring the returned signal and generating and appropriate
anti-signal to cancel the offending echo.
This same technique allows speakerphone users to hear and
speak at the same time without fighting audio feedback
(squealing) .
It can also be used to reduce environmental noise by cancelling
it with digitally generated anti-noise signal.
Audio-Signal-Processing:

DSP has made revolutionary changes in the area of Speech-SignalProcessing.


1.7.2.1 Speech-Generation:
Speech generation and recognition are used to communicate between
humans and a machine through two computers, generated speech
systems provides digital recording and vocal tract simulation.
1.7.2.2 Speech-Recognition:
Digital signal processing generally approaches the problem of voice
recognition in two steps: Feature Extraction followed by feature
matching .
1.7.3
i.

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Echo-Location:
A common method of obtaining information about a remote
object is to bounce a wave of it. For example, radar operates by

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[CHAPTER # 1: DIGITAL-SIGNAL-PROCESSING:]

transmitting pulses of radio waves and examining the received


signal for echoes from aircraft .
ii.
In sonar, sound waves are transmitted through(via) the water
to detect submarines and other submerged objects.
iii. Geophysicists have long probed the earth by setting off
explosions and listening for the echoes from deeply buried
layers of rock. While these applications have a common
thread,each has its own specific problems and needs. Digital
Signal Processing has produced revolutionary changes in all
three areas.
1.7.3.1 Radar ( RAdio-Detection-And-Ranging):
i.
A radio transmitter produces a pulse of radio frequency energy
for a few microseconds. This pulse id fed into a highly
directional antenna, where the resulting radio wave propagates
away at the speed of light .
ii.
Aircraft in the path of this wave will reflect a small portion of
energy back toward a receiving antenna, situated near the
transmission site .
iii. The distance to the object is calculated from the elapsed time
between the transmitted pulse and the received echo.
iv. The direction to the object is found more simply; you know
where you pointed the directional antenna when the echo was
received.
v.
DSP has revolutionized radar in three areas, all of which realted
to this basic problem.
vi. First, DSP can compress the pulse after its received, providing
better distance determination without reducing the operating
range .
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vii.

Second, DSP can filter the received signal to decrease the


noise. This increases the range, without degrading the distance
determination.
viii. Third, DSP enables the rapid selection and generation of
different pulse shapes and lengths.
ix. Among other things, this allows the pulse to be optimized for a
particular detection problem. Much of this is done at a
sampling rate comparable to the radio frequency used , as high
as several hundred Mega-Hertz . when it comes to the radar,
DSP is as much about high-speed hardware design as it is about
algorithms .
1.7.3.2 Sonar (SOund-NAvigation-and-Ranging):
i.
In Active-Sonar, sound pulses between 2kHz and 40kHz are
transmitted into the water , and the resulting echoes detected
and analyzed.
a) Uses of Active-Sonar include: detection and
localization of undersea bodies, navigation,
communication, and mapping the sea-floor, with a
maximum operating range of 10 to 100 kilometres.
ii.
Passive-Sonar simply listens to underwater sounds, which
includes: Natural turbulence,marine-life, and Mechanical
sounds from submarines and surface-vessels.
a. Since Passive-Sonar emits no energy, its ideal for Covert
operations. You want to detect the other guy , without him
detecting you.
b. The most important application of passive sonar is in
military surveillance systems that detect and track
submarines.
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c. Passive-sonar typically uses lower frequencies than active


sonar because they propagate through the water with less
absorption . Detection ranges can be thousands of
kilometers .
iii. Sonar systems usually employ extensive arrays of transmitting
and receiving elements, rather than just a single channel .
iv. By properly controlling and mixing the signals in these many
elements, the sonar system can steer the emitted pulse to the
desired location and determine the direction that echoes are
received from.
v.
To handle these multiple channels , sonar-systems require the
same massive DSP computing power as radar.
1.7.3.3 Reflection seismology :
i.
The reflection seismic method rapidly became the primary
method for locating petroleum and mineral deposits , and
remains so today.
ii.
In the ideal case, a sound pulse sent into the ground produces
a single echo for each boundary layer the pulse passes through.
iii. Each echo returning to the surface must pass through all the
other boundary layers above from where its originated. This
can result in the echo bouncing between layers, giving rise to
echoes being detected at the surface.
iv. These secondary echoes can make the detected signal very
complicated and difficult to interpret.
v.
Digital-Signal-Processing has been widely used since the 1960s
to Isolate the primary form the secondary echoes in reflection
seismograms. DSP allows oil exploration at difficult
locations,such as under the ocean.
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1.7.4
i.

Image-Processing:
Images are signals with special characteristics .
a. First, they are a measure of a parameter over space
(Distance),while most signals are a measure of a parameter
over time .
b. Second, they contain a great deal of information. For
example, More than 10 megabytes can be required to store
one second of television video. This is more than a thousand
times greater than for a similar length voice signal.
c. Third, the final judge of quality is often a subjective human
evaluation, rather than an objective criterion.
d. These special characteristics have made image processing a
distinct subgroup within DSP.
1.7.4.1 Medical :
i.
Since 1895, medical x-ray imaging was limited by four problems
until DSP and related techniques came along in the 1970s.
ii.
First, overlapping structures in the body can hide behind each
other . for example, portions of heart might not be visible
behind the ribs.
iii. Second, it is not always possible to distinguish between similar
tissues. For example, it may be able to separate bone from soft
tissue, but not distinguish a tumor from the liver.
iv. Third, x-rays images show anatomy, the bodys structure, and
not physiology, the body operation. The x-ray image of a living
person looks exactly like the x-ray images of a dead one !.
v.
Fourth, x-ray exposure can cause cancer, requiring it to be used
sparingly and only with proper justification.
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vi.

MRI : Using penetrating energy other than x-rays, such as radio


and sound waves , has solved the last three x-ray problems.
vii. MRI : Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses magnetic fields
in conjunction with radio waves to probe the interior of the
human body . this resonance results in the emission of a
secondary radio wave , detected with an antenna placed near
the body . the strength and other characteristics of this
detected signal provide information about the localized region
in resonance (MRI).
viii. MRI: Adjustment of the magnetic field allows the resonance
region to be scanned throughout the body , mapping the
internal structure . this information is usually presented as
images, just as in Computed-Tomography[CT-Scan].
ix. MRI: Besides providing excellent discrimination between
different types of soft tissue, MRI can provide information
about physiology, such as blood flow through arteries.
x.
MRI: MRI relies totally on Digital Signal Processing techniques,
and could not be implemented without them.
1.7.4.2 Space:
i.
Sometimes, making the most out of a bad picture is frequently
the case with images taken from unmanned satellites and
space exploration vehicles.
ii.
DSP can improve the quality of images taken under extremely
unfavorable conditions in several ways: brightness and contrast
adjustment , edge detection, noise reduction, focus
adjustment, motion blur reduction,etc.

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----------------Chapter # 1 Finished here on DSP -------------Bibliography

Text-Book: Digital-Signal-Processing-theory-and-worked-examples,
2nd-Edition, By S.K-Hasnain And Pervez-Akhter With Contributions
from Aisha-Tahir

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<Bibliography | Bio-Medical Engineering Guide Inc.