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Chapter 12

Obligation
We use have to when we talk about obligation. When we want to say that It is
necessary for somebody to do something.

I have to meet him.  It is necessary for me to meet him.


You have to go there.  It is necessary for you to go.
He has to deliver a message.  It is necessary for him to deliver a message.

Construction:

1st& 2nd person and 3rd person plural (I / we / you / they)

Affirmative:

Subject + have+ to-infinitive

Negative:

Subject + dont + have+ to-infinitive

Interrogative:

Do+ subject + have+ to-infinitive

 Examples: I have to wake up early in the morning.


I dont have to prepare breakfast.
Do I have to make tea?

Construction:

3rd person (he / she / it)

Affirmative:

Subject + has+ to-infinitive

Negative:

Subject + doesnt + have+ to-infinitive

Interrogative:

Does+ subject + have+ to-infinitive

 Examples: He has to get up at 07:00 a.m.


He doesnt have to make tea.
Does he have to prepare breakfast?

 See the pictures below and prepare sentences using He has to .

garden

wash dishes

cook

serve food

bake

clean windows

Write a routine of things which are necessary for you to do. Use I have to

 Write a short paragraph about your friend(s) telling their obligations. Use
He has to and They have to

 Change the following sentences into negative and interrogative.


1. I have to reach there soon.
2. He has to study continually.
3. They have to stay out everyday.
4. She has to clean the whole house.
5. We have to arrive at shop at 11:00 a.m.
6. Players have to follow rules and regulations.
7. People have to suffer cold in this season.
8. I often have to visit him to enquire after him.
9. He usually has to be out there for keeping a watch.
10. You have to mop the floor.
 Note that have to can refer to two senses.
1) It is always necessary for me to do it.
Example: My school timing is 07:30. I have to reach school at 07:30.
2) It is now necessary for me to do it.
Example: My school timing is 07:30 but today I have to reach school at 07:00.
Complete the sentences given below by using have to:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

College starts at 09:00 but today Ali


Daily flight timing is late in the evening but today the plane
I dont have sleep early on weekends but tonight I .
She doesnt have to cook in the afternoon but today she.
People dont usually have to wait out of the stadium but today they
Salman is an English teacher but today he
This is not easy though but you .
We dont have to keep a cell phone but today
Do you do it everyday or just today you.
I think hes not chef but today he

Chapter 14
Present perfect [Revised]
We use non-progressive verbs in present perfect tense. Such as know, have, be.

 Notice the following:


I have known you for many years.
He has been here since August.
I have had a car for several weeks.

Notice the following:


I know him for many years.
He is here since August.
I have a car for several weeks.

 Change the following sentence into present perfect:


1. I always believe him.  since we became friends
2. They have this house.  since 1880
3. He knows me.  for plenty of time
4. We are here.  for a few minutes
5. This belongs to me.  since childhood
6. He possesses gold coins.  for lots of months
7. My friend owns a huge property on the sea.  since he was a youth
8. We satisfy customers.  since beginning
9. Do you realize the sensitivity?  for years
10. Does he need a wheelchair?  for five weeks

Use have been or have had to fill in the blank spaces.

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

He _______ with us here in this country for a long time.


you _______ out there in the rain for long? (you)
They _______ in the ground since 08:00.
I ________ (not) any money since Saturday.
She __________ a computer for six weeks.
We __________ plenty of birds since youth.
___ he _______ unconscious since afternoon?
He ____ (not) food for several days.
People _________ in the queue since the match started.
Salim _______ scores of toys for loads of event.