Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Signal processing algorithms for MIMO radar

The title: Signal processing for millimeter wave MIMO communication systems
Background of Research
Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to detect, locate and measure the
speed of reflecting objects such as aircraft, ships, spacecraft, vehicles, people, weather
formations, and terrain. It transmits the electromagnetic waves into space and receives
the echo signal reflected from objects. By applying signal processing algorithms on the
reflected waveform, the reflecting objects can be detected. Furthermore, the location
and the speed of the objects can also be estimated. Radar was originally an acronym
for "RAdio Detection And Ranging". Today radar has become a standard English noun.
Early radar development was mostly driven by military and military is still the dominant
user and developer of radar technology. Military applications include surveillance,
navigation, and weapon guidance. However, radar now has a broader range of
applications including meteorological detection of precipitation, measuring ocean
surface waves, air traffic control, police detection of speeding traffic, sports radar speed
guns, and preventing car or ship collisions. Recently, the concept of MIMO radar has
been proposed. The MIMO radar is a multiple antenna radar system which is capable of
transmitting arbitrary waveform from each antenna element. In the traditional phased
array radar, the transmitting antennas are limited to transmit scaled versions of the
same waveform. However the MIMO radar allows the multiple antennas to transmit
arbitrary waveforms. Like MIMO communications, MIMO radar offers a new paradigm
for signal processing research. MIMO radar possesses significant potentials for fading
mitigation, resolution enhancement, and interference and jamming suppression. Fully
exploiting these potentials can result in significantly improved target detection,
parameter estimation, target tracking and recognition performance.
Objective of the Research
The MIMO radar technology has rapidly drawn considerable attention from many
researchers. Several advantages of MIMO radar have been discovered by many
different researchers such as increased diversity of the target information, excellent
interference rejection capability, improved parameter identifiability, and enhanced
flexibility for transmit beampattern design. The degrees of freedom introduced by MIMO
radar improves the performance of the radar systems in many different aspects.
However, it also generates some issues. It increases the number of dimensions of the
received signals. Consequently, this increases the complexity of the receiver.
Furthermore, the MIMO radar transmits an incoherent waveform on each of the
transmitting antennas. This in general reduces the processing gain compared to the
phased array radar. The multiple arbitrary waveforms also affects the range and Doppler
resolution of the radar system. The main contribution of this thesis is to study the signal
processing issues in MIMO radar and propose novel algorithms for improving the MIMO

radar system. In the first part of this thesis, we focus on the MIMO radar receiver
algorithms. We first study the robustness of the beamformer used in MIMO radar
receiver. It is known that the adaptive beamformer is very sensitive to the DOA
(direction-of-arrival) mismatch. In MIMO radar, the aperture of the virtual array can be
much larger than the physical receiving array in the SIMO radar. This makes the
performance of the beamformer more sensitive to the DOA errors in the MIMO radar
case. In this thesis, we propose an adaptive beamformer that is robust against the DOA
mismatch. This method imposes constraints such that the magnitude responses of two
angles exceed unity. Then a diagonal loading method is used to force the magnitude
responses at the arrival angles between these two angles to exceed unity. Therefore the
proposed method can always force the gains at a desired interval of angles to exceed a
constant level while suppressing the interferences and noise. A closed form solution to
the proposed minimization problem is introduced, and the diagonal loading factor can
be computed systematically by a proposed algorithm. Numerical examples show that
this method has an excellent SINR (signal to noise-plus-interference ratio) performance
and a complexity comparable to the standard adaptive beamformer. We also study the
space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for MIMO radar systems. With a slight
modification, STAP methods developed originally for the single-input multiple-output
(SIMO) radar (phased array radar) can also be used in MIMO radar. However, in the
MIMO radar, the rank of the jammer-and-clutter subspace becomes very large,
especially the jammer subspace. It affects both the complexity and the convergence of
the STAP algorithm. In this thesis, we explore the clutter space and its rank in the MIMO
radar. By using the geometry of the problem rather than data, the clutter subspace can
be represented using prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWF). Using this
representation, a new STAP algorithm is developed. It computes the clutter space using
the PSWF and utilizes the block diagonal property of the jammer covariance matrix.
Because of fully utilizing the geometry and the structure of the covariance matrix, the
method has very good SINR performance and low computational complexity. The
second half of the thesis focuses on the transmitted waveform design for MIMO radar
systems. We first study the ambiguity function of the MIMO radar and the corresponding
waveform design methods. In traditional (SIMO) radars, the ambiguity function of the
transmitted pulse characterizes the compromise between range and Doppler
resolutions. It is a major tool for studying and analyzing radar signals. The idea of
ambiguity function has recently been extended to the case of MIMO radar. In this thesis,
we derive several mathematical properties of the MIMO radar ambiguity function. These
properties provide some insights into the MIMO radar waveform design. We also
propose a new algorithm for designing the orthogonal frequency-hopping waveforms.
This algorithm reduces the sidelobes in the corresponding MIMO radar ambiguity
function and makes the energy of the ambiguity function spread evenly in the range and
angular dimensions. Therefore the resolution of the MIMO radar system can be
improved. In addition to designing the waveform for increasing the system resolution,
we also consider the joint optimization of waveforms and receiving filters in the MIMO
radar for the case of extended target in clutter. An extended target can be viewed as a
collection of infinite number of point targets. The reflected waveform from a point target
is just a delayed and scaled version of the transmitted waveform. However, the reflected
waveform from an extended target is a convolved version of the transmitted waveform

with a target spreading function. A novel iterative algorithm is proposed to optimize the
waveforms and receiving filters such that the detection performance can be maximized.
The corresponding iterative algorithms are also developed for the case where only the
statistics or the uncertainty set of the target impulse response is available. These
algorithms guarantee that the SINR performance improves in each iteration step. The
numerical results show that the proposed iterative algorithms converge faster and also
have significant better SINR performances than previously reported algorithms.