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Chapter 7: Marriage and Family

Family: A group of people (eg. Parents, children, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles,
cousins, nieces, nephews, spouses, in-laws, and etc.) Who are considered to be related
in some way, such as by blood (common ancestry or descent) or by marriage.
Family of Orientation: Nuclear family in which one is born and grows up.
Family of Procreation: Nuclear family established when one marries and has children.
Neolocality: Post marital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place
of residence rather than living with or near either of their parents.
Extended Family








Descent Group: A Permanent social unit whose members claim a common ancestry;
fundamental to tribal society.
Patrilineal Descent: Unilineal descent rule in which people join the fathers group
automatically at birth and stay members throughout life.
Matrilineal Descent: Unilineal descent rule in which people join the mothers group
automatically at birth and stay members throughout life.
Unilineal Descent: Matrilineal or Patrilineal descent.
Lineage: Unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent.
Clan: Unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent.
Patrilocality: Customary residence with the husbands parents after marriage, so that
children grow up in their fathers community.
Matrilocality: Customary residence with the wifes parents after marriage, so that
children grow up in their mothers community.
Exogamy: Mating or marriage outside of ones kin group; a cultural universal.
Incest: Sexual relation with a close relative.
Endogamy: Marriage between two people of the same social group.
Lobola: A customary gift, before, at, or after marriage from the husband and his kin to
the wife and her kin.
Dowry: Substantial gifts to the husbands family from the wifes group.
Sororate: Custom by which a widower marries the sister of the deceased wife.
Levirate: Custom by which a widower marries the brother of her deceased husband.
Plural Marriage (Polygamy): Marriage of a man to two or more women (polygyny) or
marriage of a woman to two or more men (polyandry) at the same time.

Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity

Ethnic Group: Group distinguished by a cultural similarities (shared among members of that group)
and differences (between that group and others); ethnic group members share beliefs, values, habits,
customs, and norms, and a common language, religion, history, geography, kinship, and/or race.
Ethnicity: Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other
groups because of this affiliation.
Minority Groups: Subordinate groups in a social-political hierarchy, with inferior power and less
secure access to resources than majority groups have.
Majority Groups: Superordinate, dominant, or controlling groups in a social-political hierarchy.
Race: An ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis.
Racism: Discrimination against an ethnic group assume to have a biological basis.
Racial Classification: The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories (purportedly) based on
common ancestry.
Descent: Rule assigning social identity on the basis of some aspect of ones ancestry.
Hypodescent: A rule that automatically places the children of a union or mating between members of
socioeconomic groups in the less privileged group.
Phenotype: An organisms evident traits, its manifest biology anatomy and physiology.
Nation-State: An autonomous political entity, a country, such as the United States or Canada.
Nationalities: Ethnic groups that once had, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status
(their own country).
Assimilation: The process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a
country where another culture dominates; the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the
point that it no longer exists as a separate cultural unit.
Plural Society: A society that combines ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization (i.e., use of
different environmental resources by each ethnic group), and the economic interdependence of those
Multiculturalism: The view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a
multicultural society socializes individuals not only into dominant (national) culture, but also into ethnic
Prejudice: Devaluating (looking down on) a group because of its assumed behavior, values,
capabilities or attributes.
Stereotypes: Fixed ideas often unfavorable about what members of a group are like.
Discrimination: Policies and practices that harm a group and its members.
Genocide: Policies aimed at, and/or resulting in, the physical extinction (through mass murder) of a
people perceived as a racial group, that is, as sharing defining physical, genetic, or other biological
Ethnocide: Destruction by a dominant group of the culture of an ethnic group.
Refugees: People who have been forced (Involuntary Refugees) or who have chosen (Voluntary
Refugees) to flee a country, to escape persecution or war.

Cultural Colonialism: Within a nation or empire, domination by one ethnic group or nationality and
its culture/ideology over others e.g., the dominance of Russian people, language, and culture in the
former Soviet Union.

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