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mechanical engineering load and stress analysis

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mechanical engineering load and stress analysis

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Outline

1. Introduction

2. Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams

3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams

4. Stress

5. Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending

6. Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending

7. Torsion

8. Stress Concentration

9. Contact stress

1. Introduction

Machine elements carry different types of loads (concentrated,

distributed, axial, lateral, moments, torsion, etc.) according to the

function and configuration of each element. These loads cause

in the element.

When designing machine elements it is important to locate the

critical locations (or sections) and to evaluate the stress at the

machine element.

Equilibrium of a body requires both a balance of forces (to prevent

connected elements that shows all the forces acting on it (applied

Example 3-1

Shear and moment diagrams are important in locating the critical sections

in a beam (sections with maximum shear or moment) such that stresses

are evaluated at these sections.

When the loading is not simple, he shear force and moment diagrams can

be obtained by using sections.

Shear force V and bending moment M are related by equation

Singularity functions

Singularity functions

Load function

Singularity functions

Example 3-2: Derive the loading, shear-force, and bendingmoment relations for the beam

Singularity functions

4. Stress

Stress is the term used to define the intensity and direction of

the internal forces acting at a given point on a particular plane.

In general, the stress at a point on a cross-section will have

components normal and tangential to the surface, which hare

named as normal stress and shear stress .

4. Stress (2)

The state of stress at a point is described by three mutually

perpendicular surfaces. Thus, in general, a complete state of stress is

dened by nine stress components

For equilibrium, cross-shears are equal:

xy = xz ; yx =yz ; zx =zy

Six stress components:x , y , z , xy yz, zx

4. Stress (3)

Mohrs Circle for plane stress

Concerning with the stresses and

that act upon this oblique plane.

By summing the forces caused by all

the stress components to zero, the

stresses and are found to be

4. Stress (4)

Mohrs Circle for plane stress

Max = 1

Min = 2

p= 0

- 1, 2 are principal stresses and their corresponding

directions are principal directions.

4. Stress (5)

Mohrs Circle for plane stress

contain equal normal stresses of (x + y )/2

4. Stress (6)

Mohrs Circle for plane stress

( c) 2 2 R 2

where c

x y

2

and R (

x y

2

)2 2 xy

convenient method of graphically visualizing the state of

stress and it can be used to find the principal stresses as

well as performing stress transformation

4. Stress (7)

Mohrs Circle for plane stress

4. Stress (8)

Mohrs Circle for plane stress

4. Stress (9)

Mohrs Circle for plane stress

Example

4. Stress (9)

Solution

a) Draw the and axes first.

Establish point A on x surface

with coordinates

A (x, cwxy)= (80, 50cw)MPa

along with axis.

Corresponding to the y

surface, locates point B with

coordinates

B (y, ccwxy)= (0, 50ccw)MPa.

The line AB form diameter of

the

Morhs

circle.

The

intersection of the circle with

the axis defined 1 and 2.

1 =

2

2

+

2

1 = 40 + 64 = 104 MPa

1 , 2 =

+ 2

2

2

2 = 40 64 = 24 MPa

4. Stress

Solution

The angle 2 from the x axis clockwise

to 1 is

2 =

2 = 1

= 1

50

40

= 51.30

(Fig. 311c), sketch the x and y axes

parallel to the original axes. The angle

p on the stress element must be

measured in the same direction as is the

angle 2p on the Mohr circle.

From x measure 25.7 (half of 51.3)

clockwise to locate the 1 axis. The 2

axis is 90 from the 1 axis and the

stress element can now be completed

and labeled as shown. Note that there

are no shear stresses on this element.

4. Stress

Solution

stresses occur at points E

and F in Fig. 311b.

The two normal stresses

corresponding to these

shear stresses are each 40

MPa, as indicated. Point E

is 38.7 ccw from point A on

Mohrs circle.

Therefore, in Fig. 311d,

draw a stress element

oriented 19.3 (half of

38.7) ccw from x. The

element should then be

labeled with magnitudes

and directions as shown.

4. Stress

Solution

b) The transformation equations are programmable.

From Eq. (310),

1

2

= 1

1

2

= 1

2(50)

80

= 25.70 ; 64.30

+

= 2 + 2 2 + 2

80+0

2

800

2 25.70

+ 50 2 25.70

= 104.3

= 2 2 + 2

800

2 25.70

+ 50 2 25.70

= 0

For = 64.30

80+0

800

+

2 64.30 +

2

2

800

2 64.30 + 50

2

50 2 64.30

=

2 64.30

1 = 104.3; 1 = 25.70

2 = 24.3; 2 = 64.30

= 24.03

= 0

4. Stress

To determine 1 and 2, we first use Eq. (3.11) to calculate :

2 =

2

1

= 1

2

2

1

800

= 1

= 19.30 ; 109.30

2

2(50)

For = 19.30 , Eq. (3.8) and (3.9) yield

80+0

800

=

+

2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 40.0

2

2

800

=

2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 64.0

2

80+0

800

=

+

2 109.30 + 50 2 109.30

=

2

2

800

2 109.30

+ 50 2 109.30

= 40.0

= 64.0

4. Stress

For = 64.30

80+0

800

+

2 64.30 +

2

2

800

2 64.30 + 50

2

50 2 64.30

=

2 64.30

1 = 104.3; 1 = 25.70

2 = 24.3; 2 = 64.30

= 24.03

= 0

2 =

2

1

= 1

2

2

1

800

= 1

= 19.30 ; 109.30

2

2(50)

For = 19.30 , Eq. (3.8) and (3.9) yield

80+0

800

=

+

2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 40.0

2

2

800

=

2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 64.0

2

4. Stress

General Three-Dimensional Stress

5. Elastic Strain

Normal strain is given as

(3.16)

Hookes law for the tensile specimen is given as

(3.17)

where the constant E called Youngs modulus or the modulus of elasticity

When a material is placed in tension, there exists not only an axial strain, but also

negative strain (contraction) perpendicular to the axial strain.

Assuming a linear, homogeneous, isotropic material, this lateral strain is proportional

to the axial strain. If the axial direction is x, then the lateral strains are

= =

The constant of proportionality is called Poissons ratio, which is about 0.3 for

most structural metals.

See Table A5 for values of v for common materials.

5. Elastic Strain

If the axial stress is in the x direction, then from Eq. (317)

= =

(3.18)

are given by

1

= +

1

= +

(3.19)

1

= +

Shear strain is the change in a right angle of a stress element when subjected

to pure shear stress, and Hookes law for shear is given by

(3.20)

where the constant G is the shear modulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity. It

can be shown for a linear, isotropic, homogeneous material, the three elastic

constants are related to each other by

= 2(1 + )

(3.21)

of inertia (second-area

moment) about the z axis

or

Tables A-6, A-7 and A-8 in the text give the I and Z values for

some standard cross-section beams

For a rectangular cross-section,

3

12

(325a)

Where,

b is distance parallel to the neutral axis (mm)

d is distance perpendicular to the neutral axis

For a circular cross-section,

4

12

(325b)

When the cross-section is irregular, the moment of inertia about the centroidal axis is

given by equation 3.29.

The parallel axis theorem for this area is given by the expression,

= + 2

(3.29)

Where,

Ica is the moment of inertia of area about its own centroidal axis.

Iz is moment of inertia of the area about any parallel axis a distance d removed.

A is area of the cross-section.

Two-plane bending

The maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses occur where the

summation gives the greatest positive and negative stresses, respectively

where the rst term on the right side of the equation is identical to Eq. (3

24). My is the bending moment in the xz plane (moment vector in y

direction). z is the distance from the neutral y axis, and Iy is the moment of

inertia of the area about the y axis.

For a beam of diameter d the maximum distance from the neutral axis is d/2, and

from Table A18, I = d4 /64.

The maximum bending stress for a solid circular ross section is then

Example

3.6

As

shown in Fig. 316a,

beam OC is loaded in

the xy plane by a

uniform load of 50

lbf/in, and in the xz

plane

by

a

concentrated force of

100 lbf at end C. The

beam is 8 in long.

(a) For the cross section shown determine the maximum tensile

and compressive bending stresses and where they act.

d=1.25 in, determine the magnitude of the maximum bending

stress

Solution

The reactions at O and the bending-moment

diagrams in the xy and xz planes are shown in

Figs. 316b and c, respectively. The maximum

moments in both planes occur at O where

1

( ) = 50 82 = 1600.

2

( ) = 100(8) = 800.

The moments of inertia of area in both planes

are

1

=

0.75 (1. 5)3 = 0.21094

=

12

1

(1.5)(0.75)3

12

= 0.052734

The maximum tensile stress occurs at point A, shown in Fig. 316a, where the

maximum tensile stress is due to both moments. At A, yA = 0.75 in and zA = 0.375 in.

Thus, from Eq. (327)

The maximum compressive bending stress occurs at point B where, yB =0.75 in and

zB =0.375 in. Thus

planes; (b) loading and bendingmoment diagrams in xy plane; (c)

loading and bending-moment diagrams

in xz plane.

(b) For a solid circular cross section of diameter, d = 1.25 in, the

maximum bending stress at end O is given by Eq. (328) as

It is rare to encounter beams subjected to pure bending moment only (no

shear). Most beams are subjected to both shear forces and bending

moments.

For a beam subjected to

shear force V, the shear

stress is found as

VQ

Ib

(3-31)

Where,

V is the shear force at the

section of interest.

Q the rst moment of the area A

with respect to the neutral axis.

I is the second moment of area of the entire section about the neutral axis.

b is the width at the point where is determined

accompanied with bending stress.

stress. It is always

Q is the rst moment of the area A with respect to the neutral axis, Q,

is found as:

A

where,

y'

A is the area of the portion of

the section above or below the

point where is determined.

is the distance to the Neutral axis

centroid of the area A

measured from the neutral axis

of the beam.

y1

The shear stress is maximum at the neutral axis (since Q will be max), and it is

zero on the top and bottom surfaces (since Q is zero).

For any common cross section beam, if the beam length to height ratio is greater

than 10, the transverse shear stress is generally considered negligible compared

to the bending stress at any point within the cross section.

Figure 318

Transverse

shear

stresses in a

rectangular beam.

Example

(a)

A beam 12 in long is to support a load of 488 lbf acting 3 in from the left

support. The beam is an I beam with the cross-sectional dimensions shown.

To simplify the calculations, assume a cross section with quare corners.

Points of interest are labeled (a, b, c, and d) at distances y from the neutral

axis of 0 in, 1.240- in, 1.240+ in, and 1.5 in (Fig. 320c). At the critical axial

location along the beam, nd the following information.

(a) Determine the prole of the distribution of the transverse shear stress,

obtaining values at each of the points of interest.

(b) Determine the bending stresses at the points of interest.

(c) Determine the maximum shear stresses at the points of interest, and

compare them.

Solution

The transverse shear stress is not likely to be negligible in this

case since the beam length to height ratio is much less than 10,

and since the thin web and wide ange will allow the transverse

shear to be large.

The loading, shear-force, and bending-moment diagrams are

shown in Fig. 320b. The critical axial location is at x=3- where

the shear force and the bending moment are both maximum.

(a) We obtain the area moment of inertia I by evaluating I for a

solid 3.0-in 2.33-in rectangular area, and then subtracting the

two rectangular areas that are not part of the cross section.

Solution

Applying Eq. (331) at each point of

interest, with V and I constant for each

point, and b equal to the width of the

cross section at each point, shows that

the magnitudes of the transverse shear

stresses are

Solution

Solution

(c) Now at each point of interest, consider a

stress element that includes the bending

stress and the transverse shear stress. The

maximum shear stress for each stress

element can be determined by Mohrs circle,

or analytically by Eq. (314) with y = 0,

7. Torsion (1)

Any moment vector that is collinear with an axis of a mechanical element is called

a torque vector, because the moment causes the element to be twisted about that

axis. A bar subjected to such a moment is also said to be in torsion.

When a circular shaft is subjected to torque, the shaft will be twisted and the angle

of twist is found to be:

(3.35)

G = modulus of rigidity =

2(1+)

For a solid round section,

4

= 32

(3.38)

where d is the diameter of the bar.

For the hollow round section,

(40 4 )

= 32

(3.39)

where the subscripts o and i refer to the outside and inside diameters, respectively.

7. Torsion (1)

Shear stresses develop throughout the cross section. For a round bar in torsion,

these stresses are proportional to the radius and are given by

=

(3.36)

=

(3.37)

The maximum shearing stress in a rectangular b c

section bar occurs in the middle of the longest side b and

is of the magnitude.

1.8

= 2 = 2 3 + /

(3-40)

The parameter is a factor that is a function of the ratio b/c as shown in the following

table.

The angle of twist is given by

= 3

(3-41)

where is a function of b/c, as shown in the table.

7. Torsion (2)

max

7. Torsion (3)

It is often necessary to obtain the torque T from a consideration of the power and

speed of a rotating shaft.

For convenience when U.S. customary units are used, three forms of this relation

are

(3-42)

Where H = power, hp

T = torque, lbf in

n = shaft speed, rev/min

F = force, lbf

V = velocity, ft/min

When SI units are used, the equation is

(3.43)

Where H = power, W

T = torque, N m

= angular velocity, rad/s

The torque T corresponding to the power in watts is given approximately

by

= 9.55

(3-44)

36 Torsion

Example 3-9:

The 1.5-in-diameter solid steel shaft shown in Figure is simply

supported at the ends. Two pulleys are keyed to the shaft where

pulley B is of diameter 4.0 in and pulley C is of diameter 8.0 in.

Considering bending and torsional stresses only, determine the

locations and magnitudes of the greatest tensile, compressive, and

shear stresses in the shaft.

36 Torsion

Example:

36 Torsion

Example:

8. Stress Concentration

Stress concentration occurred at any discontinuity in a machine part.

- The discontinuities are called stress raisers.

- The regions in which they alert are called the areas of stress concentration.

relate the actual maximum stress at the discontinuity to the nominal stress.

Where:

Kt for normal stresses

Kts for shear stresses

(3-48)

calculated

by

using

the

elementary

stress

The stress-concentration factor depends for its

value only on the geometry of the part.

9. Contact Stresses

When two bodies having curved surfaces are pressed

together, point or line contact changes to area contact, and

the stresses developed in the two bodies are called the

contact stress.

Contact-stress problems arise

in the contact of a wheel and

a rail, in automotive valve

cams and tappets, in mating

gear teeth, and in the action of

rolling bearings.

Typical failures due to contact

stress are seen as cracks,

pits, or aking in the surface

material.

9. Contact Stresses

When two solid spheres of diameters d1 and d2

are pressed together with a force F, a circular

area of contact of radius a is obtained.

Specifying E1, 1 and E2, 2 as the elastic

constants of the two spheres, the radius a is

given by the equation

=

/ + /

/ + /

the contact area and is

The maximum stresses occur on the z axis, and these are principal stresses

= = = =

= =

= / = /

=

=

9. Contact Stresses

Magnitude of the stress components below the surface as a function of the maximum

pressure of contacting spheres. Note that the maximum shear stress is slightly below

the surface at z=0.48a and is approximately 0.3pmax. The chart is based on a Poisson

ratio of 0.30. Note that the normal stresses are all compressive stresses.

9. Contact Stresses

(a) Two right circular cylinders held in contact by

forces F uniformly distributed along cylinder length

l. (b) Contact stress has an elliptical distribution

across the contact zone width 2b.

/ + /

/ + /

=

= =

+ /

9. Contact Stresses

Magnitude of the stress components below the surface as a function of the maximum

pressure for contacting cylinders. The largest value of max occurs at z/b = 0.786. Its

maximum value is 0.30pmax. The chart is based on a Poisson ratio of 0.30. Note that all

normal stresses are compressive stresses.

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