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Chapter 3

Load and stress analysis

Outline
1. Introduction
2. Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams
3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams
4. Stress
5. Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending
6. Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending
7. Torsion
8. Stress Concentration

9. Contact stress

1. Introduction
Machine elements carry different types of loads (concentrated,
distributed, axial, lateral, moments, torsion, etc.) according to the
function and configuration of each element. These loads cause

stresses of different types and magnitudes in different locations


in the element.
When designing machine elements it is important to locate the
critical locations (or sections) and to evaluate the stress at the

critical sections to ensure the safety and functionality of the


machine element.

2. Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams (1)


Equilibrium of a body requires both a balance of forces (to prevent

translation) and balance of moments (to prevent rotations):

A free body diagram (FBD) is a sketch of an element or group of


connected elements that shows all the forces acting on it (applied

loads, gravity forces, and reactions)

See Example 3-1

2. Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams (2)


Example 3-1

3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams


Shear and moment diagrams are important in locating the critical sections
in a beam (sections with maximum shear or moment) such that stresses
are evaluated at these sections.
When the loading is not simple, he shear force and moment diagrams can
be obtained by using sections.

3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams


Shear force V and bending moment M are related by equation

3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams


Singularity functions

3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams


Singularity functions

Load function

3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams


Singularity functions
Example 3-2: Derive the loading, shear-force, and bendingmoment relations for the beam

3. Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams


Singularity functions

4. Stress
Stress is the term used to define the intensity and direction of
the internal forces acting at a given point on a particular plane.
In general, the stress at a point on a cross-section will have
components normal and tangential to the surface, which hare
named as normal stress and shear stress .

4. Stress (2)
The state of stress at a point is described by three mutually
perpendicular surfaces. Thus, in general, a complete state of stress is
dened by nine stress components

Nine stress components:x , y , z , xy , xz , yx ,yz, zx ,zy


For equilibrium, cross-shears are equal:

xy = xz ; yx =yz ; zx =zy
Six stress components:x , y , z , xy yz, zx

Plane stress with cross shear equal

4. Stress (3)
Mohrs Circle for plane stress
Concerning with the stresses and
that act upon this oblique plane.
By summing the forces caused by all
the stress components to zero, the
stresses and are found to be

4. Stress (4)
Mohrs Circle for plane stress

Principal stresses and principal directions

Max = 1
Min = 2

p= 0
- 1, 2 are principal stresses and their corresponding
directions are principal directions.

- zero shear tresses

4. Stress (5)
Mohrs Circle for plane stress

Two surfaces containing the maximum shear stresses also


contain equal normal stresses of (x + y )/2

4. Stress (6)
Mohrs Circle for plane stress

The parametric relationship between and is a circle.

( c) 2 2 R 2
where c

x y
2

and R (

x y
2

)2 2 xy

This circle is known as Mohrs circle, where it provides a


convenient method of graphically visualizing the state of
stress and it can be used to find the principal stresses as
well as performing stress transformation

4. Stress (7)
Mohrs Circle for plane stress

4. Stress (8)
Mohrs Circle for plane stress

4. Stress (9)
Mohrs Circle for plane stress

Example

4. Stress (9)
Solution
a) Draw the and axes first.
Establish point A on x surface
with coordinates
A (x, cwxy)= (80, 50cw)MPa
along with axis.
Corresponding to the y
surface, locates point B with
coordinates
B (y, ccwxy)= (0, 50ccw)MPa.
The line AB form diameter of
the
Morhs
circle.
The
intersection of the circle with
the axis defined 1 and 2.

The maximum shear stress is equal to the radius of the circle:


1 =

2
2

+ 2 = 402 + 502 = 64 MPa.

The principal stresses can be found on the circle to be


+
2
1 = 40 + 64 = 104 MPa
1 , 2 =

+ 2
2
2
2 = 40 64 = 24 MPa

4. Stress
Solution
The angle 2 from the x axis clockwise
to 1 is

2 =

2 = 1

= 1

50
40

= 51.30

To draw the principal stress element


(Fig. 311c), sketch the x and y axes
parallel to the original axes. The angle
p on the stress element must be
measured in the same direction as is the
angle 2p on the Mohr circle.
From x measure 25.7 (half of 51.3)
clockwise to locate the 1 axis. The 2
axis is 90 from the 1 axis and the
stress element can now be completed
and labeled as shown. Note that there
are no shear stresses on this element.

4. Stress
Solution

The two maximum shear


stresses occur at points E
and F in Fig. 311b.
The two normal stresses
corresponding to these
shear stresses are each 40
MPa, as indicated. Point E
is 38.7 ccw from point A on
Mohrs circle.
Therefore, in Fig. 311d,
draw a stress element
oriented 19.3 (half of
38.7) ccw from x. The
element should then be
labeled with magnitudes
and directions as shown.

4. Stress
Solution
b) The transformation equations are programmable.
From Eq. (310),
1
2

= 1

1
2

= 1

2(50)
80

= 25.70 ; 64.30

From Eq. (38), for the rst angle =25.7


+

= 2 + 2 2 + 2

80+0
2

800

2 25.70

+ 50 2 25.70

= 104.3

The shear stress on this surface is obtained from Eq. (3.9) as



= 2 2 + 2

800

2 25.70

+ 50 2 25.70

= 0

For = 64.30

80+0
800
+
2 64.30 +
2
2
800

2 64.30 + 50
2

50 2 64.30

=
2 64.30
1 = 104.3; 1 = 25.70
2 = 24.3; 2 = 64.30

= 24.03

= 0

4. Stress
To determine 1 and 2, we first use Eq. (3.11) to calculate :

2 =

2

1
= 1
2
2
1
800
= 1
= 19.30 ; 109.30
2
2(50)
For = 19.30 , Eq. (3.8) and (3.9) yield
80+0
800
=
+
2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 40.0
2
2
800
=
2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 64.0
2

For = 19.30, Eq. (3.8) and (3.9) yield


80+0
800
=
+
2 109.30 + 50 2 109.30
=

2
2
800

2 109.30

+ 50 2 109.30

= 40.0

= 64.0

4. Stress
For = 64.30

80+0
800
+
2 64.30 +
2
2
800

2 64.30 + 50
2

50 2 64.30

=
2 64.30
1 = 104.3; 1 = 25.70
2 = 24.3; 2 = 64.30

= 24.03

= 0

To determine 1 and 2, we first use Eq. (3.11) to calculate :

2 =

2

1
= 1
2
2
1
800
= 1
= 19.30 ; 109.30
2
2(50)
For = 19.30 , Eq. (3.8) and (3.9) yield
80+0
800
=
+
2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 40.0
2
2
800
=
2 19.30 + 50 2 19.30 = 64.0
2

4. Stress
General Three-Dimensional Stress

5. Elastic Strain
Normal strain is given as

(3.16)

where is the total elongation of the bar within the length l.


Hookes law for the tensile specimen is given as

(3.17)
where the constant E called Youngs modulus or the modulus of elasticity

When a material is placed in tension, there exists not only an axial strain, but also
negative strain (contraction) perpendicular to the axial strain.
Assuming a linear, homogeneous, isotropic material, this lateral strain is proportional
to the axial strain. If the axial direction is x, then the lateral strains are

= =
The constant of proportionality is called Poissons ratio, which is about 0.3 for
most structural metals.
See Table A5 for values of v for common materials.

5. Elastic Strain
If the axial stress is in the x direction, then from Eq. (317)

= =

(3.18)

For a stress element undergoing x , y , and z simultaneously, the normal strains


are given by
1
= +
1
= +
(3.19)
1
= +
Shear strain is the change in a right angle of a stress element when subjected
to pure shear stress, and Hookes law for shear is given by

(3.20)
where the constant G is the shear modulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity. It
can be shown for a linear, isotropic, homogeneous material, the three elastic
constants are related to each other by

= 2(1 + )

(3.21)

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending

I is the second-area moment


of inertia (second-area
moment) about the z axis

or

where Z= I/c is called the section modulus.

Tables A-6, A-7 and A-8 in the text give the I and Z values for
some standard cross-section beams

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending


For a rectangular cross-section,

3
12

(325a)

Where,
b is distance parallel to the neutral axis (mm)
d is distance perpendicular to the neutral axis
For a circular cross-section,

4
12

(325b)

Where, d is the diameter of the cross-section.


When the cross-section is irregular, the moment of inertia about the centroidal axis is
given by equation 3.29.
The parallel axis theorem for this area is given by the expression,

= + 2

(3.29)

Where,
Ica is the moment of inertia of area about its own centroidal axis.
Iz is moment of inertia of the area about any parallel axis a distance d removed.
A is area of the cross-section.

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending


Two-plane bending
The maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses occur where the
summation gives the greatest positive and negative stresses, respectively

where the rst term on the right side of the equation is identical to Eq. (3
24). My is the bending moment in the xz plane (moment vector in y
direction). z is the distance from the neutral y axis, and Iy is the moment of
inertia of the area about the y axis.
For a beam of diameter d the maximum distance from the neutral axis is d/2, and
from Table A18, I = d4 /64.
The maximum bending stress for a solid circular ross section is then

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending


Example
3.6
As
shown in Fig. 316a,
beam OC is loaded in
the xy plane by a
uniform load of 50
lbf/in, and in the xz
plane
by
a
concentrated force of
100 lbf at end C. The
beam is 8 in long.
(a) For the cross section shown determine the maximum tensile
and compressive bending stresses and where they act.

(b) If the cross section was a solid circular rod of diameter,


d=1.25 in, determine the magnitude of the maximum bending
stress

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending


Solution
The reactions at O and the bending-moment
diagrams in the xy and xz planes are shown in
Figs. 316b and c, respectively. The maximum
moments in both planes occur at O where
1
( ) = 50 82 = 1600.
2
( ) = 100(8) = 800.
The moments of inertia of area in both planes
are
1
=
0.75 (1. 5)3 = 0.21094
=

12
1
(1.5)(0.75)3
12

= 0.052734

The maximum tensile stress occurs at point A, shown in Fig. 316a, where the
maximum tensile stress is due to both moments. At A, yA = 0.75 in and zA = 0.375 in.
Thus, from Eq. (327)

The maximum compressive bending stress occurs at point B where, yB =0.75 in and
zB =0.375 in. Thus

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending

Figure 3.16 (a) Beam loaded in two


planes; (b) loading and bendingmoment diagrams in xy plane; (c)
loading and bending-moment diagrams
in xz plane.

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending


(b) For a solid circular cross section of diameter, d = 1.25 in, the
maximum bending stress at end O is given by Eq. (328) as

6. Normal stresses for beams in Bending


It is rare to encounter beams subjected to pure bending moment only (no
shear). Most beams are subjected to both shear forces and bending
moments.
For a beam subjected to
shear force V, the shear
stress is found as

VQ
Ib

(3-31)

Where,
V is the shear force at the
section of interest.
Q the rst moment of the area A
with respect to the neutral axis.
I is the second moment of area of the entire section about the neutral axis.
b is the width at the point where is determined

This stress is known as the transverse shear


accompanied with bending stress.

stress. It is always

6. Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending (2)


Q is the rst moment of the area A with respect to the neutral axis, Q,
is found as:
A
where,
y'
A is the area of the portion of
the section above or below the
point where is determined.
is the distance to the Neutral axis
centroid of the area A
measured from the neutral axis
of the beam.

y1

The shear stress is maximum at the neutral axis (since Q will be max), and it is
zero on the top and bottom surfaces (since Q is zero).

For any common cross section beam, if the beam length to height ratio is greater
than 10, the transverse shear stress is generally considered negligible compared
to the bending stress at any point within the cross section.

6. Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending (3)


Figure 318
Transverse
shear
stresses in a
rectangular beam.

Table 32 Formulas for Maximum Transverse Shear Stress from VQ/Ib

35 Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending


Example

(a)

A beam 12 in long is to support a load of 488 lbf acting 3 in from the left
support. The beam is an I beam with the cross-sectional dimensions shown.
To simplify the calculations, assume a cross section with quare corners.
Points of interest are labeled (a, b, c, and d) at distances y from the neutral
axis of 0 in, 1.240- in, 1.240+ in, and 1.5 in (Fig. 320c). At the critical axial
location along the beam, nd the following information.
(a) Determine the prole of the distribution of the transverse shear stress,
obtaining values at each of the points of interest.
(b) Determine the bending stresses at the points of interest.
(c) Determine the maximum shear stresses at the points of interest, and
compare them.

35 Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending


Solution
The transverse shear stress is not likely to be negligible in this
case since the beam length to height ratio is much less than 10,
and since the thin web and wide ange will allow the transverse
shear to be large.
The loading, shear-force, and bending-moment diagrams are
shown in Fig. 320b. The critical axial location is at x=3- where
the shear force and the bending moment are both maximum.
(a) We obtain the area moment of inertia I by evaluating I for a
solid 3.0-in 2.33-in rectangular area, and then subtracting the
two rectangular areas that are not part of the cross section.

35 Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending


Solution
Applying Eq. (331) at each point of
interest, with V and I constant for each
point, and b equal to the width of the
cross section at each point, shows that
the magnitudes of the transverse shear
stresses are

35 Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending


Solution

35 Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending


Solution
(c) Now at each point of interest, consider a
stress element that includes the bending
stress and the transverse shear stress. The
maximum shear stress for each stress
element can be determined by Mohrs circle,
or analytically by Eq. (314) with y = 0,

7. Torsion (1)
Any moment vector that is collinear with an axis of a mechanical element is called
a torque vector, because the moment causes the element to be twisted about that
axis. A bar subjected to such a moment is also said to be in torsion.
When a circular shaft is subjected to torque, the shaft will be twisted and the angle
of twist is found to be:

(3.35)

where T = torque; l = length


G = modulus of rigidity =

2(1+)

J = polar second moment of area.


For a solid round section,
4
= 32
(3.38)
where d is the diameter of the bar.
For the hollow round section,
(40 4 )
= 32
(3.39)
where the subscripts o and i refer to the outside and inside diameters, respectively.

7. Torsion (1)
Shear stresses develop throughout the cross section. For a round bar in torsion,
these stresses are proportional to the radius and are given by

=
(3.36)

Designating r as the radius to the outer surface, we have

=
(3.37)
The maximum shearing stress in a rectangular b c
section bar occurs in the middle of the longest side b and
is of the magnitude.

1.8

= 2 = 2 3 + /

(3-40)

The parameter is a factor that is a function of the ratio b/c as shown in the following
table.
The angle of twist is given by

= 3
(3-41)
where is a function of b/c, as shown in the table.

7. Torsion (2)

max

7. Torsion (3)
It is often necessary to obtain the torque T from a consideration of the power and
speed of a rotating shaft.
For convenience when U.S. customary units are used, three forms of this relation
are

= 33000 = 33000(12) = 63025


(3-42)
Where H = power, hp
T = torque, lbf in
n = shaft speed, rev/min
F = force, lbf
V = velocity, ft/min
When SI units are used, the equation is

(3.43)

Where H = power, W
T = torque, N m
= angular velocity, rad/s
The torque T corresponding to the power in watts is given approximately
by

= 9.55

(3-44)

36 Torsion
Example 3-9:
The 1.5-in-diameter solid steel shaft shown in Figure is simply
supported at the ends. Two pulleys are keyed to the shaft where
pulley B is of diameter 4.0 in and pulley C is of diameter 8.0 in.
Considering bending and torsional stresses only, determine the
locations and magnitudes of the greatest tensile, compressive, and
shear stresses in the shaft.

36 Torsion
Example:

36 Torsion
Example:

8. Stress Concentration
Stress concentration occurred at any discontinuity in a machine part.
- The discontinuities are called stress raisers.
- The regions in which they alert are called the areas of stress concentration.

- A theoretical, or geometric, stress-concentration factor Kt or Kts is used to


relate the actual maximum stress at the discontinuity to the nominal stress.

The factors are defined by the equations

Where:
Kt for normal stresses
Kts for shear stresses

(3-48)

The nominal stress 0 or 0 is the stress


calculated

by

using

the

elementary

stress

equations and the net area, or net cross section.


The stress-concentration factor depends for its
value only on the geometry of the part.

8. Stress Concentration (2)

8. Stress Concentration (3)

9. Contact Stresses
When two bodies having curved surfaces are pressed
together, point or line contact changes to area contact, and
the stresses developed in the two bodies are called the
contact stress.
Contact-stress problems arise
in the contact of a wheel and
a rail, in automotive valve
cams and tappets, in mating
gear teeth, and in the action of
rolling bearings.
Typical failures due to contact
stress are seen as cracks,
pits, or aking in the surface
material.

9. Contact Stresses
When two solid spheres of diameters d1 and d2
are pressed together with a force F, a circular
area of contact of radius a is obtained.
Specifying E1, 1 and E2, 2 as the elastic
constants of the two spheres, the radius a is
given by the equation
=

/ + /

/ + /

The maximum pressure occurs at the center of


the contact area and is

The maximum stresses occur on the z axis, and these are principal stresses

= = = =

= =

= / = /


=
=

9. Contact Stresses

Magnitude of the stress components below the surface as a function of the maximum
pressure of contacting spheres. Note that the maximum shear stress is slightly below
the surface at z=0.48a and is approximately 0.3pmax. The chart is based on a Poisson
ratio of 0.30. Note that the normal stresses are all compressive stresses.

9. Contact Stresses
(a) Two right circular cylinders held in contact by
forces F uniformly distributed along cylinder length
l. (b) Contact stress has an elliptical distribution
across the contact zone width 2b.

/ + /

/ + /

The maximum pressure is

The stress state along the z axis is given by the equations


=

= =

+ /

9. Contact Stresses

Magnitude of the stress components below the surface as a function of the maximum
pressure for contacting cylinders. The largest value of max occurs at z/b = 0.786. Its
maximum value is 0.30pmax. The chart is based on a Poisson ratio of 0.30. Note that all
normal stresses are compressive stresses.