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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS

PAGE NO.

1.0 ABSTRACT

2.0 INTRODUCTION

3.0 OBJECTIVE

4.0 THEORY

4-9

5.0 APPARATUS

6.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

10-11

7.0 RESULTS

12-19

8.0 DISCUSSION

20

9.0 CONCLUSION

20

10.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

21

11.0 REFERENCES

21

12.0 APPENDICES

22-23

1.0 ABSTRACT
On the last 2nd APRIL 2014, we have succeeded perform the experiment of Flow Meter
Demonstration by using the apparatus of Flow meter Measurement (Model:FM101). The
objective of this experiment is to obtain the flow rate measurement by utilizing three basic
types of flow measuring techniques; rotameter, venture meter, and orifice meter and also to
investigate the loss coefficient of fluid through 90 degree below. This experiment is divided
into two parts; Experiment 1 is demonstration of the operation and characteristics of three
different basic types of flowmeter, Experiment 2 is determination of the loss coefficient when
fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow. From the first part, the flow rate measurement for
three basic types of flow measuring techniques are calculated using the formula of Bernoullis
equation.

The loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow is calculated in part 2. From
the data collected, a graph of Piezometer versus velocity head is plotted. K value is obtained
from the gradient of the graph which is 0.576.
2.0 INTRODUCTION
SOLTEQ Flowmeter Measurement Apparatus (Model: FM101) apparatus has been
designed to introduce students to the operating characteristics of various types of flowmeter
and also to operate together with a basic hydraulic bench or any water supply. It is to
familiarize the students with such typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible
fluid.
The unit consists of a venture meter, a rotameter and an orifice plate, which installed
in series configuration in order to permit direct comparison. It is able to demonstrate the flow
measurement comparison by using the three different basic types of flowmeter. To compare
again the flow measurement of the hydraulic bench, the flow comparison can be further used
which can be either by Volumetric Method or Gravimeteric, this depending on the types of
hydraulic used.
The flow apparatus include a 90 degree elbow with pressure tappings, so that the head
loss characteristics of each flow can be measured. The tappings are connected to an eight-tube
piezometer bank that incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. This allow the students to
calculate the total head loss and loss coefficient when fluid flows through these devices.
The Flowmeter Measurement Apparatus allows following range of experiment to be carried
out :
2

a) Direct comparison of flow measurement using venture, orifice, rotemeter and bench.
b) Determination of total head loss and coefficient of fluid flow through a 90 degree
elbow.
c) Comparison of pressure drop against each device.
3.0 OBJECTIVES
There are two objectives in this experiment :
- To obtain the flow rate measurement by utilizing three basic types of flow measuring
-

techniques; rotameter, venture meter and orifice meter.


To investigate the loss coefficient of fluid through 90 degree elbow.

4.0 THEORY
1) Rotameter
A rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. It is a
flow meter in which a rotating free float is the indicating element. Rotameters must
always be used with a calibration chart to convert observed scale readings to
flow rate. Floats are constructed of metals of various densities, glass or
plastic. They also may have various shapes and proportions for different
applications. It consists of a transparent tapered vertical tube through which fluid flows

upward. The float rests on a stop at the bottom end when there is no flow of fluid. But then as
flow commences, the float rises until upward and weight balanced the buoyancy forces.
Basically, the float will rises only a short distance if the flow rate is small, and vice versa. The
function of flow rate is the point of equilibrium. With a well-calibrated market glass tube, the
level of the float becomes a direct measure of flow rate.

Figure 1 : The Rotameter


2) Venturi Meter

The venturi meter is designed to recover most of pressure drop. To prevent separation
in the boundary layer, and minimized the friction, the angle of downstream cone is
sufficiently small. But then friction can not be completely eliminate. That is why there is
always a pressure drop across the venture meter. However, in a well-designed meter, about
90% of the entrance is recovered.
The Venturi meter consists of a venture tube and a suitable diferential pressure gauge.
The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through
a constricted section of pipe. Its tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging
portion. The converging portion helps to increase the fluid velocity and lower the static
pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and throat is thus developed, which pressure
difference is correlated with the rate of discharge. The diverging cone serves to change the
area of the stream back to the entrance area and convert velocity heat into a pressure head.

Figure 2 : Venturi Meter


Assume incompressible flow and no frictional losses, from Bernoullis equation
..(1)
Use of the continuity Equation Q=A1V1=A2V2 equation (1) becomes
Ideal

However, in the case of real fluid flow, the flow rate will be expected to be less than
that given by equation (2) because of the frictional effects and consequent head loss
between inlet and throat. In metering practice, this on-ideality is accounted by insertion of
an experimentally determined coefficient, Cd that is termed as the coefficient of discharge.
With Z1-Z2 in this apparatus, equation (3) becomes
Actual :
4

Hence,

Where,
Cd = Coefficient of discharge (0.98)
D2 = Throat diameter = 16mm
D1 = Inlet diameter = 26mm
4 2
At = Throat area = 2.011 x 10 m
4 2
A = Inlet area = 5.309 x 10 m
2
g = 9.81 m/ s
3
p = Density of water = 1000kg/ m

P1 = Inlet pressure (Pa)


P2 = Throat pressure (Pa)
3) Orifice Meter
The orifice meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole drilled in it. There
is a pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another just stream. The orifice is use
as a metering device in pipeline which consists of a concentric square-edged circular hole
in thin plate, which is clamped between the flanges of the pipe.

Figure 3 : Orifice Meter


Pressure connections are made at holes in the pipe walls on both side of the orifice
plate which for attaching separate pressure gauge. The downstream pressure tap is placed
at the minimum pressure position, which is assumed to be at the vena contracta. The
centre of the inlet pressure tap is located between one-half and two pipe diemeter is
employed. Equation (4) for the venturi meter can also be applied to the orifice meter :
Actual :

The coefficient of discharge, Cd in the case of the orifice meter will be different from that
the case of a venture meter.

Where,
Cd = Coefficient of discharge (0.63)
D2 = Throat diameter = 16mm
D1 = Inlet diameter = 26mm
4

At = Orifice area = 2.011 x 10 m

4 2
A = Orifice upstream area = 5.309 x 10 m

(h7-h8) = Pressure difference across orifice (m)


4) 90 Degree Elbow

Figure 4 : Piezometric head along a pipeline


The figure above shows fluid flowing in a pipeline where there is some pipe fitting such as
bend or valve, and change in pipe diameter, which included the figure is the variation of
piezometric along the pipe run, as would be shown by numerous pressure tappings at the pipe
wall. By introducing the velocity heads in the upstream and downstream runs in the pipe, total
head loss H, can be determined in which :
H = h +

V 12
2g

V 22
2g

Experimental values for energy losses are usually expressed in terms of a dimensionless loss
coefficient K, where
K=

H
V 12 /2 g or

Depending on the context.


6

H
V 22 /2 g

Figue 5 : 90 degree elbow


The value of the loss coefficient K is dependent on the ratio of the bend radius, R to the pipe
inside diameter D. as this ratio increase, the value of K will fall and vice versa.
V2
H= K x 2g
Where,
K = Coefficient of losses
V = Velocity of flow
2
g = 9.81 m/ s
4.1 SPECIFICATION OF DIMENSION
i)

Tapping A = 26mm
Tapping B = 21.6mm
Tapping C = 16 mm
Tapping D = 20mm
Tapping E = 22mm
Tapping F = 26mm
ii)

Orifice upstream diameter (G) = 26mm


Orifice diameter (H) = 16mm
7

5.0 APPARATUS
SOLTEQ Flowmeter Measurement Apparatus (Model FM101)
6.0 PROCEDURES
6.1 General Started up the apparatus :
1. The flow control valve of the hydraulic bench is fully closed and while the
discharge valve is fully open.
2. The discharge hose is ensured properly directed to the volumetric tank of fiberglass
before stated up the system. Volumetric tank drain valve is left opened to allow
discharge back into sump tank.
3. Once step (2) is confirmed, the pump supply is started up from hydraulic bench.
The bench valve is opened slowly.
4. Then proceed to fully open the flow control valve. When the flow in the pipe is
steady, and there is no trapped bubble, the bench valve is started to close and
reduced the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.
5. At the point of water level in the manometer board is too high, the flow is slowly
reduced by controlling the discharge valve of apparatus.

6.2 Demonstration of the operation and characteristics of three different basic types of
flowmeter.
1. The apparatus is placed on bench, then the inlet pipe is connected to bench
supply and while the outlet pipe into the volumetric tank.
2. The pump supply is started up from hydraulic bench with the bench valve fully
closed and discharge valve is fully opened.
3. The bench valve is slowly opened until it is fully opened.
4. When the flow in the pipe is steady, and there is no trapped bubble, the bench
valve is started to close to reduce the flow to the maximum measureable flow rate.
5. Then by using the air bleed screw, water level is adjusted in the manometer board.
The maximum readings on manometer is retained with the maximum measureable
flow rate.
6. Readings on manometers (A-J) is noted, followed by rotameter and measured flow
rate.
7. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rate can be adjusted by
utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.
8. To demonstrate similar flow rates at different system static pressure, adjust bench
and flow control valve together. Adjusting manometer levels as required.
6.3 Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through 90 degree
elbow.
8

1. Apparatus is placed on the bench, inlet pipe is connected to bench supply and
outlet pipe to volumetric tank.
2. With the bench valve is fully closed, and the discharge valve fully opened, the
pump supply is started up from hydraulic bench.
3. The bench valve is slowly opened until fully opened.
4. When the flow in the pipe is steady, and there is no tapped bubble, the bench
valve is started to close, to reduce the water level in the manometer board.
5. By using the air bleed screw, the water in level in the manometer board is
adjusted.
6. Readings on manometer (I-J) is noted and measured the flow rate.
7. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be adjusted by
utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.
8. The table is completed.
2
Vs
9. A graph of H against 2 g for 90 degree elbow is plotted to determine the
coefficient of losses.
General Shut-Down Procedures
1. The water supply valve and venture discharge valve is closed.
2. Water supply pump is turned off.
3. Water is drained off from the unit when not in use.

7.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION


7.1 Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic types of flowmeter
Rotamete
r (l/min)

Manometer reading (mm)

Vol
(l)

Time
(min)

257

256

250

254

256

257

256

244

249

248

1.17

275

270

243

259

264

269

267

203

227

226

10

300

289

237

265

274

282

281

132

189

186

15

349

321

215

284

300

313

312

50

150

145

20

10

Flowrate,
Q
(l/min)

Flowrate calculated using


the Bernoulli's Equation
(l/min)
Venturi

Orifice

2.56

3.58

3.99

0.52

5.77

10.12

9.20

0.32

9.38

14.20

14.04

0.22

13.64

20.72

18.62

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow

Flowrate,
Q

Differential Piezometer Head,


h' (mm)

(l/min)

Elbow (hI-hJ)

V2/2g

(m/s)

(mm)

Volume

Time

(L)

(sec)

62

2.90

0.09

0.42

31

5.81

0.18

1.69

19

9.47

0.30

4.50

14

12.86

0.40

8.28

11

Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic types of


flowmeter
VENTURI FLOW RATE
For rotameter flow rate = 5 l/min
q 0.98 2.011 10

q 0.98 2.011 10

2.011 10 4

1
4
5
.
309

10

2.011 10 4

1
4

5.309 10

2 1 2

1 2

2 9.81 0.254 0.250 1 2 m3 / s

l
2 9.81 0.254 0.250 1 2 1000
1
60

min

q 3.58l / min

For rotameter flow rate = 10 l/min

q 0.98 2.011 10 4

q 0.98 2.011 10

1 2

At

q Cd At 1
A

2 g h A hC 1 2

2.011 10 4

1
4

5.309 10

2.011 10 4

1
4
5
.
309

10

2 1 2

1 2

2 9.81 0.275 0.243 1 2 m3 / s

l
2 9.81 0.275 0.243 1 2 1000
1
60

q 10.12l / min

For rotameter flow rate = 15 l/min

At

q Cd At 1

A1

1 2

2 g h A hC 1 2

12

min

q 0.98 2.011 10 4

q 0.98 2.011 10 4

2.011 10 4

1
4

5.309 10

2.011 10 4

1
4

5.309 10

2 1 2

1 2

2 9.81 0.300 0.237 1 2 m3 / s

l
2 9.81 0.300 0.237 1 2 1000
1
60

min

q 14.20l / min

For rotameter flow rate = 20 l/min

q 0.98 2.011 10

q 0.98 2.011 10

1 2

At

q Cd At 1

A1

2 g h A hC 1 2

2.011 10 4

1
4

5.309 10

2.011 10 4

1
4

5.309 10

2 1 2

1 2

2 9.81 0.349 0.215 1 2 m3 / s


l
2 9.81 0.349 0.215 1 2 1000
1
60

min

q 20.72l / min

ORIFICE FLOW RATE


For rotameter flow rate = 5 l/min

Q 0.63 2.011 10 4

1 2

At

Q Cd At 1

A7

2 g hG hH 1 2

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

1 2

2 9.81 0.256 0.244 1 2 m 3 / s

13

Q 0.63 2.011 10 4

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

1 2

l
2 9.81 0.256 0.244 1 2 1000
1
60

min

Q 3.99l / min
For rotameter flow rate = 10 l/min

Q 0.63 2.011 10 4

Q 0.63 2.011 10 4

1 2

At

Q Cd At 1

A7

2 g hG hH 1 2

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

1 2

2 9.81 0.267 0.203 1 2 m 3 / s

1 2

l
2 9.81 0.267 0.203 1 2 1000
1
60

min

Q 9.20l / min
For rotameter flow rate= 15l/min

Q 0.63 2.011 10 4

Q 0.63 2.011 10

2 g hG hH 1 2

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

1 2

At

Q Cd At 1

A7

1 2

2 9.81 0.281 0.132 1 2 m 3 / s

1 2

l
2 9.81 0.281 0.132 1 2 1000
1
60

Q 14.04l / min

14

min

For rotameter flow rate = 20 l/min

Q 0.63 2.011 10 4

Q 0.63 2.011 10 4

2 g hG hH 1 2

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

2.011 10 4
1
4

5.309 10

1 2

At

Q Cd At 1

A7

1 2

2 9.81 0.312 0.050 1 2 m 3 / s

1 2

l
2 9.81 0.312 0.050 1 2 1000
1
60

min

Q 18.62l / min

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow
Q

1= 2.90 l/min = 4.83 X 10-5 m3/s


Velocity of flow in the pipe (Diameter = 26 mm)
V

4.83 10 5

26 10 3
4

= 0.09 m/s

0.09 2

0.42mm
2 g 2 9.81

15

2 = 5.81 l/min = 9.68 X 10-5 m3/s


Velocity of flow in the pipe (Diameter = 26 mm)
V

9.68 10 5

26 10 3
4

= 0.18 m/s

2g

0.18 2
1.69mm
2 9.81

3= 9.47 l/min = 1.578 X 10-4 m3/s


Velocity of flow in the pipe (Diameter = 26 mm)
V

1.578 10 4
2

26 10 3
4

= 0.30 m/s

2g

0.09 2
4.50mm
2 9.81

4= 12.86 l/min = 2.14 X 10-4 m3/s


Velocity of flow in the pipe (Diameter = 26 mm)
V

2.14 10 4

26 10 3
4

= 0.40 m/s

16

2g

0.40 2
8.28mm
2 9.81

Piezometric Head versus Velocity Head


6

f(x) = 0.56x + 0.65


R = 0.91

Piezometric Head (mm)

0
0

Velocity Head (mm)

17

K=

H
V 2 /2 g

Slope = K = 0.5746

18

8.1 DISCUSSIONS
All the experiment need to perform start-up procedure first before doing the following
experiments. The start-up procedure was to make sure that the entire component is in proper
condition to avoid any mistakes. Experiment 1 is conducted to demonstrate the operation and
characteristics of three different basic types of flowmeter. Fluid flows produce highest flow
rate in venturi meter. Flow rate calculated here is called Qideal due to the equation that is
derived from the Bernoullis equation which is for ideal flow and does not involve the effects
of frictional forces. The converging cone of a venture meter, which fluid enters, typically has
a cone angle of 15-20 degree. This cone which is on the inlet side of the meter converges to
the throat diameter, which where the area the flow is at its minimum, thus the velocity here is
at its maximum. Meanwhile, orifice is the simplest among the three different types of basic
flowmeters, due to its abrupt decrease in flow area, and abrupt transition back to fill pipe
diameter. Orifice has the greatest frictional pressure loss. Orifice is less accurate as we cannot
use the exact location and diameter of the point of the maximum convergence in calculations.
For rotameter, its float response to flowrate changes is linear and it has low pressure drop.
Fluid flow raises a float in a tapered tube, which increasing the area for the passage of fliud.
Experiment 2 is about determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a
90 degree elbow. From the data collected, a graph of Piezometer versus velocity head is
plotted. From the graph, K value obtained is 0.5746. k is the dimensionless loss coefficient
that proportional to the velocity head of the fluid as it flows around an elbow. The value of K
is independent on the ratio of the bend radius, to the pipe inside diameter. As this ratio
increases, the value of K will fall and vice versa. In general, it is found that coefficient (K)
decreases as the fittings increased.
9.1 CONCLUSIONS
The flowrate measurement by three basic types of flow measuring techniques;
rotameter, venturi meter, and orifice meter are determined and from the results can be
conclude that fluid flows produce highest flow rate in venturi meter compared to rotameter
and orifice. From the loss coefficient calculated which is 0.5746 shows that value of K
decreased as the fitting size increased.

10.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
Throughout the experiment, in order to reduce the potential of inaccuracy in obtaining
measured data, a few recommendations and precautions must be considered during
19

performing the experiment. First of all, safety glasses with side shields should be worn during
the experiment running. Since the tap water is used, students must be careful of the outlet
hose position and the position of the bench also the flow control valves when starting the
pump. This is because it is easy for the outlet hose to spray water and possible to blow off the
pressure tap hoses and spray water all over.
Besides, each readings of the recorded data should be taken at least two or three times,
then take the average in order to get more precise and accurate readings. Next, the apparatus
should not be exposed to any shock and stresses. Students also must run the experiment after
fully understand the unit and procedures to avoid any misusing the apparatus that may lead to
error in the experimental results
11.0 REFERENCES

The Bernoulli Equation. (n.d.). Retrieved from


http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/CIVE1400/Section3/bernoulli.htm
Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi Flow Rate Meters. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/orifice-nozzle-venturi-d_590.html
Pressure drop in pipe fittings and valves | equivalent length and resistance coefficient. (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.katmarsoftware.com/articles/pipe-fitting-pressuredrop.htm
Rotameters. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.omega.com/prodinfo/rotameters.html

12.0 APPENDIX

20

SOLTEQ Flowmeter Measurement Apparatus (Model: FM101)

21