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ACCEPTABILITY OF SUGAR APPLE (Annona squamosa) FRUIT AS PRESERVE

A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of


College of Hospitality Management
Central Philippine University

In partial fulfillment
of the requirements
in HRM 413

Submitted by

Jeremiah B. Estrada
Tina Camille R. Buyco
Catherine F. Dioso
Melissa S. Mapa
Nia Farah Pearlfe F. Painaga

March 2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

..............i

ABSTRACT

.............ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

............iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

............iv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

.............v

LIST OF NOMENCLATURE

............vi

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

...........vii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

..........viii

CHAPTER I

..............1

Introduction to the Study

..............1

Objectives of the Study

..............3

Hypothesis

..............4

Theoretical Framework

..............4

Conceptual Framework

..............5

Scope and Limitation of the Study


Definition of Terms
CHAPTER II

...7

..............7

Review of Related Literature

..10

Food Preservation History

.............10

History of Jam and Jellies

.............11

Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)


Origin and Distribution

.............11

............12

Keeping Quality

............13

Fruit Preservation

............13

Sensory Evaluation

............14

Sensory Evaluation and Quality of Food

....15

CHAPTER III

Methodology ............18

Purpose

............18

Design of the Study

............18

Respondents

............19

Sensory Characteristics and Appropriate Vocabulary............20


Acceptance Test

............20

Research Instruments

............22

Variables

............22

Experimental Procedure

............23

Data Collection

............24

Statistical Analysis

............24

REFERENCES

............

APPENDICES

............

A. 25% Concentration
............
1. 9-Point Hedonic Scale

2. Sensory Evaluation

3. Acceptance Test

B. 50% Concentration
............
1. 9-Point Hedonic Scale

2. Sensory Evaluation

3. Acceptance Test

C. 75% Concentration
............
1. 9-Point Hedonic Scale

2. Sensory Evaluation

3. Acceptance Test

D. Researchers Profile
............
1. Jeremiah B. Estrada

2. Tina Camille R. Buyco


3. Catherine F. Dioso

4. Melissa S. Mapa

5. Nia Farrah Pearlfe F. Painaga

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

A.Y.

Academic Year

BNF

British Nutrition Foundation

CHM

College of Hospitality Management

cm

Centimeter (measurement)

CPU

Central Philippine University

DV

Dependent Variable

Fahrenheit (measurement)

FST

Food Science and Technology

ft

Feet (measurement)

Grams (measurement)

IFT

Institute of Food Technologists

in

Inches (measurement)

IV

Independent Variable

Meter (measurement)

ml

Milliliter (measurement)

PHM

Philippine Herbal Medicine

SPSS

Statistical Package for Social Sciences

UTT

University of Trinidad and Tobago

LIST OF NOMENCLATURE
9-point Hedonic Scale

Bacteria

Aftertaste

Chi-square

Analytic

Composition

Annona squamosa

Concentration

Appealing

Consumers

Appetizing

Deciduous

Aromatic

Delineate

Dysentery

Parameters

Evaluation

Pasture

Framework

Pectin

Gauge

Preserve

Germs

Quality

Humidity

Quince jam

Jam

Segments

Marmelo

Sensory evaluation

Melimelum

Spoil

Molasses

Sterilization

Packaging

Storage

Palatability

Variables

Panel

Variance

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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Figure 1

Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) concentrations on preserve (25%, 50%,


75%), as the Independent Variable (IV), the 9-Point Hedonic Scale and
Sensory Evaluation as an Independent Variable (IV) and the Acceptability
of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as preserve in terms of
appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability being the
Dependent Variable (DV).

Figure 2

Record card used in the sensory analysis of the acceptance test and
purchase intent of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as Preserve
(25%, 50% and 75% concentrations).

Table 1

Senses, Characteristics of Each Sense and Word Bank

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

Percent

Degree

Degree Celsius

Degree Fahrenheit

Chapter 1

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Introduction
To appreciate todays gourmet jam and the artisans that create it; one must look to the
past and understand its journey from the Kings and Queens who regaled in its delicate creation,
the settlers who relied on its nutritional value and sustainability, to the troops that utilized the
quick energy jam would provide them during battle (Wilson, 2013).
In the current culinary landscape, there is a sharp focus on ingredient-driven cooking.
Restaurants, chefs, and passionate home cooks have discovered, or rather, remembered that the
best dish is born out of the best ingredients. According to Simmons (2012), today, we seek out
local, seasonal ingredients at their peak for unsurpassed quality and Sugar Apple is one of these
and seasonal ingredients often rot due to the excess supply of these in markets.
The word marmalade derives from the Latin melimelum which means sweet apple.
Another theory claims that the origin may be the Portuguese word marmelo, which means
quince jam. The word jam is probably related to the verb to jam, which by the early 18th
century meant to press tightly, but its origin is unknown. In 1795, the Parisian pastry
chef Nicolas Franois Appert laced food in sealed containers and heated them in a bain-marie.
He took the first step towards the implementation of the sterilization process, which was a key
element in the birth of the food preservation industry. Properly sealed food could be protected
from external germs, and the heat eliminated those already present in the food. Years later, Louis
Pasteurs research provided the scientific basis for Apperts empirical discoveries (Museu de la
Confitura, 2014).

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According to the Philippine Herbal Medicine (2005), Atis is a relative to custard apple
and belongs to the Annona family, native to Central America, the Caribbean and northern South
America. Atis was introduced to the Philippines during the Spanish times. The Atis tree is easy to
grow. However, it requires tropical or near tropical weather. When planted, Atis will begin to
bear fruit in about a year's time. It will bear fruit about 3 times a year and the sweetest fruits are
those borne during the summer months. Also, Atis is known for being a relative of Soursop,
known in the country for Guyabano (Nemes, 2012).
Though known to be a refreshing fruit, Atis however from roots to its fruit has its
medicinal value. Moreover, according to PHM (2005), crushed seeds cure live infection. Roots
may cure dysentery, boiled leaves to alleviate rheumatic pain, hasten menstrual flow and helps
cure fever and colds. The bark may be used to cure diarrhea and unripe fruits as disinfectant for
insect bites.

Objectives of the study

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This study aims to determine the acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit
as Preserve.
Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions:
1

The acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit with 25% of concentration

as Preserve in terms of:


a Appearance,
b Odor,
c Taste,
d Texture, and;
e Over-all Acceptability.
The acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit with 50% of concentration
as Preserve in terms of:
a Appearance,
b Odor,
c Taste,
d Texture, and;
e Over-all Acceptability.

The acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit with 75% of concentration
as Preserve in terms of:
a Appearance,
b Odor,
c Taste,
d Texture, and;
e Over-all Acceptability.

Hypothesis
There is no significant difference in the acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)
fruit as Preserve in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture, and over-all acceptability in
concentrations, 25%, 50% and 75%.

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Theoretical Framework
The Acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as Preserve in terms of
appearance, odor, taste texture and over-all acceptability in 25%, 50% and 75% concentrations
are tested using Sensory Evaluation and 9-Point Hedonic Scale.
Using sensory evaluation a scientific discipline, according to the British Nutrition
Foundation (2005), will let the researchers evaluate and compare the analyses and measures the
human responses to the composition of food and drink. This will also help compare
similarities/differences in a range of dishes/products, evaluate a range of existing dishes/food
products, analyze food samples for improvements, gauge responses to a dish/product, e.g.
acceptable v unacceptable, explore specific characteristics of an ingredient or dish/food product,
check whether a final dish/food product meets its original specification, and provide objective
and subjective feedback data to enable informed decisions to be made.
With the utilization of this type of scientific measure the 9-Point Hedonic Scale,
according to Jones, Peryam and Thurstone (1955) Quartermaster and the University of Chicago,
will enable the researchers to determine the acceptability of the product in terms of appearance,
odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability of each respondent to the samples.
Conceptual Framework
From the foregoing theoretical constructs, the researcher deemed
it necessary
delineate
Acceptability
of to
Sugar
Apple
Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)
(Annonaodor,
squamosa)
fruit as
Apple
taste texture
concentrationsthe
on Sugar
Preserve
in (Annona squamosa) fruit as Preserve in terms of appearance,
9-Point Hedonic Scale

Preserve Scale.
in terms of:
and over-all acceptability is tested using Sensory Evaluation and 9-Point Hedonic
concentrations:

A. 25 %
B. 50 %
C. 75 %

Sensory Evaluation

appearance, odor, taste, texture


and over-all acceptability.

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Input

Process

Output

Figure 1.Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) concentrations on preserve (25%, 50% and
75%), is the Independent Variable (IV) or input, the 9-Point Hedonic Scale and Sensory
Evaluation is the process and the Acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as
preserve in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability is the Dependent
Variable (DV) or output.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to the use of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit pulp as the
primary component of the preserve, wherein the researchers will determine the acceptability of
each sample of 25%, 50% and 75% concentrations acceptable in terms of appearance, odor, taste
texture and over-all acceptability with the use of 9-Point Hedonic Scale and Sensory Evaluation.
Thirty respondents will be selected using Convenience sampling from the student population of
College of Hospitality Management in Central Philippine University to determine the
acceptability factor of the study. The study will be conducted in CHM, CPU on November 2014
to March 2015, and A.Y. 2014-2015.

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Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined for reference and clarity in this study.
9-Point Hedonic Scale. Term used in tasting panels where the judges indicate the extent
of their like or dislike for the food (Bender, 2005).
In this study, 9-Point Hedonic Scale is used to determine the acceptability of the preserve.
Appearance. Intrinsic characteristics of the physical product (Lesser, 1983).
In this study, appearance refers to an aspect that is to be determined acceptable.
Sugar Apple. Sugar-apple is the fruit of Annona squamosa, the most widely grown
species of Annona and a native of the tropical Americas and West Indies, and is called the
Custard Apple in the Philippines (Morton, 1987).
In this study, Sugar apple refers to the raw material that the researchers will use.
Concentration. The amount of a component in a given area or volume
(http://www.merriam-webster.com).
In this study, concentration refers to the amount of sugar apple contained in the preserve.
Fruit. The usually edible reproductive body of a seed plant (http://www.merriamwebster.com).
In this study, fruit refers to the Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa fruit.

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Odor. A sensation resulting from adequate stimulation of the olfactory organ


(http://www.merriam-webster.com).
In this study, odor refers to an aspect that is to be determined acceptable.
Over-all Acceptability. Totality of something being acceptable (Singh-Ackbarali &
Maharaj, 2013).
In this study, over-all acceptability refers to the total acceptability of the product.

Preserve. To can, pickle, or similarly prepare for future use (http://www.merriamwebster.com).


In this study, preserve refers to the product the researchers want to make.
Sensory Evaluation. A scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze and interpret
those responses to products that are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and
hearing (Sidel & Stone, 1993).
In this study, sensory evaluation refers to the discipline that the researchers will use to
determine the acceptability of the end product.
Taste. To put a small amount of (food or drink) in your mouth in order to find out what its
flavor is (http://www.merriam-webster.com).
In this study, taste refers to an aspect that is to be determined acceptable.

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Texture. The way that a food or drink feels in your mouth (http://www.merriamwebster.com).
In this study, texture refers to an aspect that is to be determined acceptable.

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies
Food Preservation History
The astonishing fact about food preservation is that it permeated every culture at nearly
every moment in time. To survive ancient man had to harness nature. In frozen climates he froze
seal meat on the ice. In tropical climates he dried foods in the sun (Nummer, 2002).
Food by its nature begins to spoil the moment it is harvested. Food preservation enabled
ancient man to make roots and live in one place and form a community. He no longer had to
consume the kill or harvest immediately, but could preserve some for later use. Each culture
preserved their local food sources using the same basic methods of food preservation (Nummer,
2002).

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Also, according to Nummer (2002), natural phenomenon triggered the discovery of the
preservation technology. Such discoveries are drying, freezing, fermentation, pickling, curing,
and jam and jellies.
History of Jam and Jellies
It is said that the origin of food preservation, more specifically the making of jam and
jellies began in the Middle Eastern countries where sugar cane grew naturally and are abundant.
Also jam and jellies were first introduced in Europe by returning crusaders
(http://www.armadillopeppers.com/Jam_and_Jelly_Guide.html).
Early settlers in New England used other ways of making jam, using molasses, honey and
maple sugar to give it the sweet taste. They used pectin obtained from boiling apple peel to use
as the thickening agent (http://www.purejam.com/History_of_Jam.htm).
Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)
The sugar apple tree ranges from 10 to 20 ft (3-6 m) in height with open crown of
irregular branches, and some-what zigzag twigs. Deciduous leaves, alternately arranged on short,
hairy petioles, are lanceolate or oblong, blunt tipped, 2 to 6 in (5-15 cm) long and 3/4 to 2 in (2-5
cm) wide; dull-green on the upper side, pale, with a bloom, below; slightly hairy when young;
aromatic when crushed. Along the branch tips, opposite the leaves, the fragrant flowers are borne
singly or in groups of 2 to 4. They are oblong, 1 to 1 1/2 in (2.5-3.8 cm) long, never fully open;
with 1 in (2.5 cm) long, drooping stalks, and 3 fleshy outer petals, yellow-green on the outside
and pale-yellow inside with a purple or dark-red spot at the base. The 3 inner petals are merely

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tiny scales. The compound fruit is nearly round, ovoid, or conical; 2 1/3 to 4 in (6-10 cm) long;
its thick rind composed of knobby segments, pale-green, gray-green, bluish-green, or, in one
form, dull, deep-pink externally (nearly always with a bloom); separating when the fruit is ripe
and revealing the mass of conically segmented, creamy-white, glistening, delightfully fragrant,
juicy, sweet, delicious flesh. Many of the segments enclose a single oblong-cylindric, black or
dark-brown seed about 1/2 in (1.25 cm) long. There may be a total of 20 to 38, or perhaps more,
seeds in the average fruit. Some trees, however, bear seedless fruits (Morton, 1987).

Origin and Distribution


The original home of the sugar apple is unknown. It is commonly cultivated in tropical
South America, not often in Central America, very frequently in Southern Mexico, the West
Indies, Bahamas and Bermuda, and occasionally in southern Florida. In Jamaica, Puerto Rico,
Barbados, and in dry regions of North Queensland, Australia, it has escaped from cultivation and
is found wild in pastures, forests and along roadsides (Morton, 1987).
The Spaniards probably carried seeds from the New World to the Philippines and the
Portuguese are assumed to have introduced the sugar apple to southern India before 1590. It was
growing in Indonesia early in the 17th century and has been widely adopted in southern China,
Queensland, Australia, Polynesia, Hawaii, tropical Africa, Egypt and the lowlands of Palestine.
Cultivation is most extensive in India where the tree is also very common as an escape and the

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fruit exceedingly popular and abundant in markets. The sugar apple is one of the most important
fruits in the interior of Brazil and is conspicuous in the markets of Bahia (Morton, 1987).
Keeping Quality
In India, mature fruits treated with 50-60 g carbide ripened in 2 days and thereafter
remained in good condition only 2 days at room temperature, while those packed in straw
ripened in 5-6 days and kept well for 4 days.
Storage trials in Malaya indicate that the ripening of sugar apples can be delayed by
storage at temperatures between 59 and 68F (15-20C) and 85-90% relative humidity, with
low O2 and C2 H2. To speed ripening at the same temperature and relative humidity, levels of O2
and CO2 should be high. Storing at 39.2F (4C) for 5 days resulted in chilling injury.
In Egypt, of 'Beni Mazar' fruits, picked when full grown, ll5 days from set, and held at
room temperature, 86, to ripened in 10 days. Of 'Abd E1 Razik' fruits, 140 days from set, 56%
were ripe in 15 days. Therefore, 'Abd E1 Razik' is better adapted to Upper Egypt where the
climate should promote normal ripening (Morton, 1987).
Fruit Preservation
Preservation with the use of honey or sugar was well known to the earliest cultures. Fruits
kept in honey were commonplace. In ancient Greece quince was mixed with honey, dried
somewhat and packed tightly into jars. The Romans improved on the method by cooking the
quince and honey producing a solid texture.

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The same fervor of trading with India and the Orient that brought pickled foods to Europe
brought sugar cane. In northern climates that do not have enough sunlight to successfully dry
fruits housewives learned to make preservesheating the fruit with sugar (Nummer, 2002).
Sensory Evaluation
One of the biggest challenges in creating a new food product is predicting how it will be
accepted by consumers. There are a number of factors that determine consumer acceptance
including price, convenience, and packaging but one key factor that deserves significant
evaluation is the sensory experience that consumers have with the food (Reau, 2011).
Without sensory evaluation, development efforts reflect the personal feelings, views and
choices of the product developer, product development team, marketer(s) and/or top
management. Thus without sensory evaluation results which can be used to base product
development trade-offs and decisions, product development successes will be few and
development timelines very long. Product developers are usually left at the mercy of decisionmakers (either in their company or their clients) that insist on the constant reformulation of
products with no end in sight when decisions are ruled by personal judgments, preference or
intuition (without facts), This does not mean that decisions cannot be made without the guidance
of sensory evaluation but rather implies that the timely, successful development and launch of
new products depend on the manner in which decisions are reached and new product strategies
are formulated (Singh-Ackbarali & Maharaj, 2013).
Sensory Evaluation and Quality of Food

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For todays consumers, the primary consideration for selecting and eating a food
commodity is the products palatability or eating quality, and other quality parameters, such as
nutrition and wholesomeness are secondary (Meiselman & MacFie, 1996; Lawless & Heymann,
1998). In order for players in the food and beverage industry, to have a market edge/success, they
should ensure that the quality of food is appealing and appetising or more specifically that the
eating quality attributes of; aroma, taste, aftertaste, tactual properties and appearance is
acceptable to the consumer so that they crave for more. Thus if we accept that food quality is that
which the consumer likes best and that the grades of quality are understood more by the degree
of desirable attributes and absence of undesirable characteristics which are primarily detected by
the consumers sensory organs, then a good method of deciding quality of a food is through
sensory evaluation.
Sensory evaluation has been defined as a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure,
analyze and interpret those responses to products as perceived through the senses of sight,
smell, touch, taste and hearing (Sidel & Stone, 1993).
Each aspect in this definition has a specific meaning, requirement or implication:
1

To evoke reactions, requires specific, rigorous research methods. It also requires an


understanding of physiology, anatomy, biochemistry, psychology, genetics (e.g. taste or
odor blindness for certain substances), the requirements for and influence of the test

procedures, the test environment, and more.


To measure reactions, requires measuring instruments that are qualitative or quantitative
in nature to determine human reaction to one or more variables in a product or material. It

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requires knowledge regarding measuring instruments and their application, statistics,


computer science, research methodologies/protocols, the effect of the test environment,
3

requirements for tests, test facilities and more.


To analyze reactions, requires the application of the correct statistical software, test
statistics, computer literacy, as well as knowledge of physiology, psychology, behavioral

science and more to evaluate qualitative and quantitative results.


To interpret reactions, requires knowledge of statistics, food science, computer software,
chemistry, biochemistry, physics, gastronomy and more. It also requires the ability to
write detailed and precise executive summaries. It requires good presentation skills and
the ability to advise courses of action based on the facts, without being prescriptive.
Perceived through the senses, requires knowledge about physiology and psychology in
general (e.g. the effect of satiety and emotion on perception). It also requires knowledge
regarding the physiology of the eyes, ears, tongue, mouth, fingers and nose.
Sensory analysis can be considered to be an interdisciplinary science that uses human

panelists sensory perception related to thresholds of determination of attributes, the variance in


individual sensory response experimental design to measure the sensory characteristics and the
acceptability of food products, as well as many other materials. Since there is no one instrument
that can replicate or replace the human psychological and emotional response, the sensory
evaluation component of any food study is essential and the importance of good experimental
design cannot be overemphasized in sensory experiments (Lawless & Klein, 1989; Meiselman,
Mastroianni, Buller, & Edwards, 1999).

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Sensory analysis is applicable to a variety of areas such as; inspection of raw materials,
product development, product improvement, cost reduction, quality control, selection of
packaging material, shelf life/storage studies, establishing analytical/instrument/sensory
relationship and process development.
For all sensory assessment methods, humans are the measuring instrument. In order for a
sensory assessment to provide reliable and valid results, the sensory panel must be treated as a
scientific instrument; that is, members of the panel must be screened, calibrated and validated
(Meilgaard, Carr, & Civille, 1999).

Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pasteurization and Nectar Processing

In the preparation of soursop nectar, the process involved dispersing the soursop fruit
pulp in water, removing the seeds by screening, treating the pulp in a screw press or paddle
finisher with 0.02 inch perforated screens to remove fiber, the addition of water to lower
viscosity, the addition of citric acid to pH 3.7 and sugar to 15Brix, and flash-pasteurizing. Cans
of the juice kept well at room temperature for at least a year. The ascorbic acid content of the
pulp is approximately 9.0 mg/100 g (Nieva, Igaravidez & Ramos, 1953). Sanchez-Nieva and
colleagues (1953) determined the effect of dilution of the extracted soursop pulp on the viscosity
and soluble solids (Brix) content of the pulp dispersion.
The total soluble solids should be between 6 and 8Brix. To obtain the correct acidsugar,
the pH of the nectar should be 3.7, corresponding to a total acidity of 0.4%; the total soluble

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solids should be between 11-15Brix. The nectars were pasteurized at 90.6C and canned in plain
tin cans.
Ascorbic acid is to be added to the pasteurized puree at a rate of 0.51.5 g/0.45 kg as this
improves the retention of the nectars flavor and serves as an antioxidant to control polyphenol
oxidase-mediated pulp darkening of the fruit (de Oliveira, Guerra, Maciel, & Livera, 1994).
Pasteurization at 79C for 69 s improved the sensory color, flavor, appearance, and
overall acceptability of soursop puree (Umme, Bambang, Salmah & Jamilah 2001). Also the
pasteurized puree packed in laminated aluminum foil at 4C had the highest score for all sensory
attributes evaluated over the lacquered can and high-polyethylene plastic bottle. Flash
pasteurized and canned nectar can be kept for up to a year at 30C without noticeable loss in
quality (Nieva, Igaravidez & Ramos, 1953; Benero, Riviera, & De George, 1974; Payumo, Pilac,
& Mnaiguis, 1965).
Soursop nectar was processed from pasteurized unstored or pasteurized frozen pulp.
Nectars of pH 3.63.7 with 0.1% xanthan gum were produced from either 61 or 81Brix pulp and
increased to 13 or 15Brix by addition of sucrose (Peters, Badrie & Comissiong, 2001).

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Chapter III
Methodology

The purpose of this study is to determine the Acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona
squamosa) Fruit as Preserve in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all
acceptability. The chapter was divided into the following topics:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Research Design
Respondents
Sensory Characteristics and Appropriate Vocabulary
Research Instrument
Variables
Experimental Process
Data Collection
Statistical Analysis

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3.1

Research Design
In this study, Experimental Research design will be used. This design will be used to

determine the Acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as preserve in terms of
appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability. This design is a blueprint of the
procedure that enables the researcher to test his hypothesis by reaching valid conclusions about
relationships between independent and dependent variables. It refers to the conceptual
framework within which the experiment is conducted (Key, 1997). In this design the researchers
diverged the concentrations of sugar apple content in the preserve samples of 25%, 50% and
75% concentrations to test the acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as preserve
in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability.
3.2

Respondents
The aim of this study is to determine the Acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona

squamosa) fruit as preserve in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability.
Therefore, study participants were selected using convenience sampling from the student
population of CHM, CPU.
3.3 Sensory Characteristics and Appropriate Vocabulary

Sense
Sight
Smell
Taste
Touch

Characteristics
Appearance- color, size, shape
transparency, dullness, gloss
Aroma- flavor, aromatics
Flavor- oudor, mouth feel and
tastesweet, salt, sour, bitter
Texture, mouth feel

Word Bank
Appetizing, colorful, grainy, foamy, greasy,
shiny,
stringy, crystalline
Aromatic, floral, rotten, acrid, musty, fragrant
scented, pungent
Sweet, cool, bitter, zesty, hot, tangy, sour,
sharp,
rich, salty
Brittle, rubbery, gritty, bubbly, sandy, tender,
soft

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Table 1: Senses, Characteristics of Each Sense and Word Bank


Senses used for the examination of different food and beverage characteristics and some
of the words from a word bank
3.4

Research Instrument
The researchers will use Survey as research instrument, formulated by integrating 9-point

hedonic scale and sensory evaluation as the measure for the acceptability of Sugar Apple
(Annona squamosa) fruit as preserve in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all
acceptability adapted from A Manual of Laboratory Procedures and Principles in Food
Preparation in Guzmans Introduction to Food Preparation by Luna (2005). Sensory evaluation
will be used to assess the acceptability factor of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as
preserve, to avoid biased results from using traditional grading method. According to Claassen &
Lawless (1992), these shortcomings includes the non-prediction of consumer acceptance, the
quality assessments are subjective, assigning qualitative scores is difficult and doesnt combine
analytically oriented attribute ratings with affectively oriented scores.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Score Card for Acceptance Test

Respondent
:
Date: _____________
Instructions
:
You are receiving a sample of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit Preserve
with 25% concentration. Please assess the codified sample and indicate, based on the
scale below, whether you liked or did not like each attribute.

987654321-

Like extremely
Like very much
Like moderately
Like slightly
Neither like nor dislike
Dislike slightly
Dislike moderately
Dislike very much
Dislike extremely

Purchase Intent
Indicate on a scale of 1 to 5 what your attribute would be
if you found the samples for sale
5I certainly would buy it
4I might buy it
3I might buy it/I might not buy it
2I might not buy it
1I certainly would not buy it
Comments:

Attribute
Appearance
Odor
Taste
Texture
Over-all Acceptability

Value

Sample
25% Concentration

Value

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Figure 2. Record card used in the sensory analysis of the acceptance test and purchase
intent of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as Preserve (25%, 50% and 75% concentrations),
adapted from A Manual of Laboratory Procedures and Principles in Food Preparation in
Guzmans Introduction to Food Preparation by Luna (2005).
3.5

Variables
Independent variable:

Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) concentrations on

INPUT

preserve:
A. 25 % concentrations
B. 50 % concentrations
C. 75 % concentrations

Process:

9-Point Hedonic Scale, Sensory Evaluation

Dependent variables:

Acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit

OUTPUT

as Preserve in terms of: appearance, odor, taste,


texture and over-all acceptability.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

3.6

Experimental Procedure
Peeling, Deseeding and Chopping of
Fruits

Measuring Ingredients

Processing of Fruits

Packaging

Sensory Evaluation

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

3.7

Data Collection
During the experiment, concentrations Concentration A (25%) concentration,

Concentration B (50%), and Concentration C (75%) concentrations, will be given to 30 students


from CHM of CPU, to determine the acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as
preserve in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability. The survey test is
adapted from A Manual of Laboratory Procedures and Principles in Food Preparation in
Guzmans Introduction to Food Preparation by Luna (2005).
3.8

Statistical Analysis
In order to test the hypothesis, the relevant data will be analyzed using Chi-square.
Data will be analyzed on computer using SPSS for windows, programme. On the basis of

analysis findings, conclusions and recommendations were made.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Chapter IV
Data Analysis and Findings
In this chapter the results of the data analysis are presented. The data were collected and
then processed in response to the problem posed in the first chapter. Three fundamental
objectives drove the collection of the data and the subsequent data analysis. Those goals were to
determine the Acceptability of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as Preserve in 25%, 50%
and 75% concentrations in terms of appearance, odor, taste, texture and over-all acceptability.
These objectives were accomplished. The findings presented in this chapter demonstrate the
potential of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit as preserve.
Response Rate
Ninety surveys were randomly distributed to respondents. Thirty of which hold the
survey for the concentration of 25%, another thirty for 50% concentration and last thirty for 75%
concentration. Therefore, 90 surveys were considered legitimate for this research. With 90
returned and useable surveys out of 90, the response rate was 100%.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Respondent: ____________________________________________ Date: __________________


Signature: ________________________
Instructions: Please take a small amount of the food sample and encircle the number
corresponding to the rate of your assessment inside the box provided, given that 9 is the highest
and 1 is the lowest.
9

Like extremely

Like very much

Dislike slightly

Dislike moderately

Like moderately

Dislike very

much
6

Like slightly

Neither like nor dislike

Extremely dislike

9- Point Hedonic Scale

Sensory Quality

Rating

Appearance

Odor

Taste

Texture

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Over-all Appearance

Record Card for Acceptance Test

Respondent
:

Date
:

You are receiving a sample of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit Preserve
with 25% concentration. Please assess the codified sample and indicate, based on the
scale below, whether you liked or did not like each attribute.

987654321-

I liked it very much


I liked it a lot
I liked it moderately
I liked it slightly
I didn't like it/I didn't dislike it
I didn't like it slightly
I didn't like it moderately
I didn't like it very much
I didn't like it at all

Purchase Intent
Indicate on a scale of 1 to 5 what your attribute would be
if you found the samples for sale
5I certainly would buy it
4I might buy it
3I might buy it/I might not buy it
2I might not buy it
1I certainly would not buy it
Comments:

Attribute
Appearance
Odor
Taste
Texture
Over-all Acceptability

Value

Sample
25% Concentration

Value

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Record Card for Acceptance Test

Respondent
:

Date
:

You are receiving a sample of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit Preserve
with 50% concentration. Please assess the codified sample and indicate, based on the
scale below, whether you liked or did not like each attribute.

9876543-

I liked it very much


I liked it a lot
I liked it moderately
I liked it slightly
I didn't like it/I didn't dislike it
I didn't like it slightly
I didn't like it moderately

21-

I didn't like it very much


I didn't like it at all

Attribute
Appearance
Odor
Taste
Texture
Over-all
Acceptability

Purchase Intent
Indicate on a scale of 1 to 5 what your attribute would be
if you found the samples for sale
5I certainly would buy it
4I might buy it
3I might buy it/I might not buy it
Sample
2I might not buy it
50% Concentration
1I certainly would not buy it
Comments:

Value

Value

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

Record Card for Acceptance Test

Respondent
:

Date
:

You are receiving a sample of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa) fruit Preserve
with 75% concentration. Please assess the codified sample and indicate, based on the
scale below, whether you liked or did not like each attribute.

9876543-

I liked it very much


I liked it a lot
I liked it moderately
I liked it slightly
I didn't like it/I didn't dislike it
I didn't like it slightly
I didn't like it moderately

21-

I didn't like it very much


I didn't like it at all

Attribute
Appearance
Odor
Taste
Texture
Over-all
Acceptability

Purchase Intent
Indicate on a scale of 1 to 5 what your attribute would be
if you found the samples for sale
5I certainly would buy it
4I might buy it
3I might buy it/I might not buy it
Sample
2I might not buy it
75% Concentration
1I certainly would not buy it
Comments:

Value

Value

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITY


DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

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DR. LUCIO C. TAN

COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


JARO, ILOILO CITY

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JARO, ILOILO CITY

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COLLEGE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT


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JARO, ILOILO CITY

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JARO, ILOILO CITY

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