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Digital Multiplexing

Fundamentals and
Applications

Digital Multiplexing Concept

Digital Multiplexing

North American Digital Multiplexing


Hierarchy

Digital Multiplexing

SONET

Digital Multiplexing

SONET System Configurations


|Dual Rotating Ring with SPUR(S)

Digital Multiplexing

Basic Structure and Overhead


Locations

Digital Multiplexing

Basic Product Description


FSC Terrminal

Telephone,
VF Modem

Voice
2W, 4W

DPTT
Relay Contacts

Digital
Relay
Teleprotection

CPD, SPD
Pilot Wire Relay

Current
Differential
Teleprotection

Up to 38.4 kb/s Data

Low Speed
Data
(RS-232)

JMUX
JMUX
(SONET Mux)
(SONET Mux)

JIF
JIF
(VT1.5 Mux)
(VT1.5 Mux)

56 or 64 kb/s Data

High Speed
Data
(56 / 64 kb/s)

Order
Wire

Up to 10 Mb/s

Ethernet
Connection

Service
Channel

T-1 or E-1 Data

DS-1 / E-1
Connection

Power
Power
Supply
Supply

Video I/O

Video

Digital Multiplexing

Single Mode
or
Multi Mode
Optical Fiber

Basic Product Description

Common Equipment Shelf


 19 Rack Mounted
 4 RMS
 15 Shelf Slot Positions

BUSY / RING

0.5 A

JVT

JVT

J3

J3

J2

J2

Q
ON YEL ALM

Q
ON YEL ALM

ACK

ACK

...........

HEADSET

CAUTION
REMOVE
FUSE
BEFORE
INSERTING

MINOR

CALL

ACK

0.5 A

ALM

MAJOR

OC-1
RCV

YEL

OC-1

ACO

ALM
ACK

RCV

YEL

CAUTION
REMOVE
FUSE

ALM
ACK

ACK

BEFORE
INSERTING
UNIT

UNIT
ALARM
86431-13(125V)
POWER UNIT

C.I.

C.I.
86471ORDERWIRE UNIT

Digital Multiplexing

86436-12
JIF UNIT

C.I.

C.I.

86436-12
JIF UNIT

86433-13
JMUX UNIT

C.I.

C.I.
86434-12
SERVICE UNIT

86433-13
JMUX UNIT

ALARM
86431-13(125V)
POWER UNIT

Propagation Delays

Voice
2W,4W

MUX

DRC
CDR

MUX
STM-0
or
STM-1

IF Unit

Voice
2W,4W

MUX

DRC

STM-0
or
STM-1

IF Unit

CDR

RS-232

RS-232

56-64
kb/s

56-64
kb/s

VARIABLE
TIME
DELAYS

IF UNIT
7 us

MUX UNIT
15 us

MUX REPEATER
7 us + 7 us = 14us
+
5 us / km

NOTE: DRC END-TO-END < 3.0 ms (EXCLUDING FIBRE DELAY)


CDR END-TO-END < 0.25 ms (EXCLUDING FIBRE DELAY)

Digital Multiplexing

MUX UNIT
15 us

IF UNIT
7 us

VARIABLE
TIME
DELAYS

Link Losses

Transmitter

EXAMPLE: 60km Single Mode Fiber


Transmit output power
in dBm.

Connector loss = 1.5 dB

Fiber Dist
Panel
Splice
Case

Initial cable attenuation


including connector and
splice losses in dB. Add
allowance for fiber aging
and maintenance splices
in dB.

Splice
Case
Fiber Dist
Panel

Receiver

Transmit power = -5 dBm

60 km span = 0.35 X 60 = 21 dB
10 splices X 0.1 = 1.0 dB
3 dB for aging
0.2 dB for maintenance splices
Total = 25.2 dB
Connector loss = 1.5 dB
Receiver sensitivity = -39 dBm

Receiver sensitivity in dBm.

Digital Multiplexing

System Margin = 39 - 5
= 34 dB
Total Losses
= 25.2 + 3 = 28.2 dB
Total Margain
= 34 - 28.2 = 5.8 dB

Key Application Interfaces


JNCI System View

Digital Multiplexing

Power Utility Transmission Network


Applications

Southern U.S. Municipal Power Utility


Power
Plant
Electric
Control
Center

Water
Plant

DS-1

Compound
ETHERNET
B

ETHERNET
A

ETHERNET
C

Service
Center

Police
Dept
DS-1

4W

City
Admin
Bldg.
Tower

4W

Benefits
 Repatriation of leased DS-1, 4W VF circuits
 High speed Ethernet WAN @ 10 Mb/s - formerly 1.54 Mb/s
 Multiple LANs avoids political jurisdiction issues
 Self healing ring security - LAN uptime, police voice

Digital Multiplexing

Power Utility Transmission Network


Applications

Southwestern U.S. Municipal Power Utility


4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

Military
Sub

4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB
Telemetry

4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

Laredo
Road
Sub

4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

802
Sub

Loma
Alta
Sub

Power
Plant

Filter
Plant

6th Street
Sub
4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

Union
Carbide
Sub

SCADA
Control

Fort
Brown
Sub
4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

Airport
Sub

FXO
RS-232
Telemetry
4W

4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

Water
Port
Sub
4W
FXS
RS-232
HCB

Benefits
 Replacement corroded metallic pilot wires - maintain relays
 Repatriation leased 4W VF circuits - cost savings
 Real time monitoring of power plant parameters - generation control
 Self healing ring security - relay protection

Digital Multiplexing

FSC Power Generation Applications

Indonesian Power Generation Plant - Proposed


 2 Alternatives

Separate Overlayed Rings, Equipments


1st Protection, 2nd SCADA and Voice
Single Ring, Single Set of Equipment
Protection and SCADA/Voice Combined

DRC
Voice
Analog Telemetry
Digital I/O

Power Plant
Unit # 7

500 / 150 kv
Switchyard

300 Feet
Power Plant
Unit #8

2000 Feet

Digital Multiplexing

DRC
Voice
Analog Telemetry
Digital I/O

DRC
Voice
Analog Telemetry
Digital I/O