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DESIGNING

OPTICAL ACCESS NETWORKS


USING
SIMULATED ANNEALING (SA)
ALGORITHM
Branko Luki
ConTEL 99, 5th International Conference on Telecommunications
June 15-17, 1999, Zagreb, Croatia
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TIPICAL ACCESS NETWORK IN RESIDENTIAL AREA

CORE NETWORK

ACCESS NETWORK
DP 4-50 sunscribers

FP

AP 500-1000 subscribers

AP:access point - OLT, ADM, XTC


FP:

flexible point - first point of branching in double-star topology

DP:

distribution point - ONU, or FTTx

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overlay PON structure

PON NETWORK
MAPPING ON
CONDUIT NETWORK

OLT
optical fiber
splitter
OLT or adequote node
meanhole

conduit network

cable conduit
subscriber

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SIMULATED ANNEALING (SA)


Annealing

the process in which a solid is heated up sufficiently


to allow the atoms and molecules to rearange
themselves into a stress-free state and then cooled
gradually so as to lock the new configuration into
place

Simulated annealing

a probabilistic technique for solving combinatorial


optimisation problems. In simulating annealing (SA),
the value of the objective function being minimised is
analogous to the energy of the solid;
minimising is equivalent to finding the minimum
value of the function

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SIMULATED ANNEALING (SA) - continued


SA begins with a random solution and then modifies that solution slightly to
create a new potential solution. If the new solution satisfies the constraints
and has a lower cost than the existing solution, it is accepted without
question. However, if the new solution has a higher cost, than the decision
as to whether it will be accepted is made on the basis of a probability that is
governed by the current temperature of the system.
Occasionally accepting lower-valued solutions allows the process to break
out of potentially sub-optimal local maxima.
SA method is a statistically based optimisation technique and can be
presented as Boltzman distribution,

1
P{E E}
e
Z (T )
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E
kBT

SIMULATED ANNEALING (SA) - continue


Metropolis and his coauthors were still in 1953 discussed the problem of
annealing simulate the evolution to thermal equilibrium of a solid for a fixed
value of the temperature.
This is known as Metropolis algorithm.
Kirckpatrick and his coauthors in 1982 i 1983 and Cerny in 1985 were
undependently proposed and realized postupak of annealing of solid with
Metropolis algorithm for solute combinatorial optimisation problems (TSP
travel-salesman problem)

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METROPOLIS ALGORITHM
begin
initial configuration 0, set 0,
initial value of contol parameter T0, set Tk T0,
while (stopping criterion is not satisfied) do
begin
while (not yet in equilibrium state) do
begin
new configuration is neighbours configuration of ;
let C() and C() be value of objective function of configurations and ,
if C() < C() then
/* step to better solution accept */
accept new configuration ; set C() C(),
else
/* slowly step to worse solution: possible accept */
calculate probability Prob = e
for new configuration,
generate random number random(0,1),
if random(0,1) Prob then set C() C()
endif
end begin
decrease value of control parameter Tk, Tk+1= Tk,
end while
end begin
end while
presents the best solution
end begin
-

C( ' )-C( )
T

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SIMULATED ANNEALING (SA) ALGORITHM


GENERATE INITIAL
SOLUTION

PERTURBATION
OF CURRENT SOLUTION
TO CREATE NEW SOLUTION
NO
Does the new solution
have a lower cost
then the current one?

NO

YES

YES
ITERATE
ACCEPT
NEW
SOLUTION

NO

Have
the stoping criteria
been met?

YES
ACCEPTED
SOLUTION

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On the basis of probability


should the solution be
accepted?

SA - Implementation Considerations
Modelling of the Objective
Function

How can the objective function be represented efficiently,


bearing in mind that minimising the generation of infeasible
solutions can reduce the optimisation time significantly?

Initialisation

What will be the starting point for the optimisation?

Starting value of Control


Parameter (Starting
Temperature)

If the starting value of control parameter is too low,


optimisation process will converge too quickly and may
produce suboptimal solution.

Cooling Schedule

At what rate will the temperature be lowered? If the


annealing process is cooled too quickly, potentially
undesirable features may be locked into the solution and
produce suboptimal result.

Perturbation

How will the current solution modified to create the new


solution?

Termination

What criteria will be used to decide when to terminate the


annealing process?

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OPTIMAL LENGTH OF OPTICAL FIBRES OF


PON STRUCTURE DOUBLE-STAR TREE
l1
1
2
3
4
.
.
.

k1

l2
l3
l4
.
.
.

.
.
.

k2

p1

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

pNs1

Ns1
.
K

kNs2

lK
Ns2

lNs2min

lKmin

lNs1min

lmin = lKmin + lNs2min +


lNs1min
N(S2)

N(S2)

k=1

S2=1

S2=1

lopt = min lk + min lS2 min lS2

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OLT

CIRCUMSTANCES FOR OPTIMISATION PROBLEM OF


PON DOUBLE-STAR TREE TOPOLOGY

the splitters locate in nodes with weigth equal zero (0),


ONUs locate in ending nodes (nodes with degree equal 1, and nodes with weigth
greater than zero,
each ONU links to splitters of second level,
each splitter of second level links to splitters of first level,
each splitter of first level links to root node (central office, head-end),
splitting ratio of solitters is 1:2i, i=1, 2, 3, 4, 5

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RESULTS OF OPTIMISATION PON DOUBLE-STAR TREE


TOPOLOGY
Results for real problem with 19 nodes
starting value
of control
parameter
c0

ending value of
control
parameter
cf

decrement
factor

number of
iterations

maxiter

optimal length of
fibers
(m)
minlength

splitting-ratio of
splitters of
1st level
s1

splitting-ratio of
splitters of
2nd level
s2

execute time
(s)
t

500
1000

100
100

0,75
0,75

10
10

1708
1769

1:8
1:4

1:8
1:8

7
10

500
1000
3433
4553
60634
98376

100
100
687
911
4042
6558

0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75

50
50
50
50
50
50

1729
1675
1410
1649
1874
1604

1:4
1:8
1:4
1:8
1:2
1:4

1:4
1:8
1:4
1:8
1:8
1:8

32
50
15
18
163
165

500
1000
3939
5657
14427
24212
57312
66864
12009
3379
42753
119305
182480
407026
944746

100
100
788
1131
2885
4842
11462
13373
801
225
2850
7954
12165
21135
62983

0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75
0,75

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1392
1696
1800
1901
1718
1754
1584
1719
2107
1677
1708
1558
1925
1787
1707

1:4
1:4
1:16
1:4
1:4
1:16
1:4
1:8
1:2
1:8
1:8
1:4
1:4
1:32
1:16

1:4
1:8
1:16
1:4
1:4
1:16
1:4
1:8
1:16
1:8
1:32
1:4
1:4
1:32
1:16

64
101
30
34
33
34
33
34
55
55
56
57
55
55
56

3240

648

0,75

500

1482

1:4

1:4

145

3926

785

0,75

1000

1601

1:2

1:8

332

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RESULTS OF OPTIMISATION PON DOUBLE-STAR TREE


TOPOLOGY

Results for real problem with 119 nodes


starting value
of control
parameter

ending value
of control
parameter

decrement
factor

number of
iterations

optimal length
of fibers
(m)

splitting-ratio
of splitters of
1st level

splitting-ratio
of splitters of
2nd level

execute time
(s)

c0

cf

maxiter

minlength

s1

s2

32396
27676

6479
5537

0,75
0,75

5
5

15397
16490

1:8
1:8

116
1:8

2181
8131

1265
414285

300
27619

0,75
0,75

10
10

16169
16732

1:8
1:8

1:8
1:16

3485
5356

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RESULTS OF APLICATION SIMULATED ANNEALING OPTIMISATION METHOD


ON REAL AREA OF PON DOUBLE-STAR TREE TOPOLOGY
Podruje Podmurvice u Rijeci
119 vorova ukupno
1 vor
smjetaj UPS-a
72 vora teine vee od nula (stambene zgrade i mali poslovni
prostori)
46 vorova teine jednake nula (kabelski zdenci - mjesta
predvidiva za smjetaj djelitelja)
Rijeka, 09.01.1998.

Broj ONU jedinica po objektu (zgradi)


Objekt

UPS

960 prikljuaka

Objekt

korisnika

ONU_256

ONU_128

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

0
0
0
173
0
75
173
0
148
48
0
99

0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1

ONU_64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

ONU_32
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

ONU_12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

ONU_4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

ONU_2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

ukupno ONU

jedinica

0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1

.
.
.

Ukupan broj ONU jedinica na promatranom podruju iznosi -->


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72

Broj djelitelja u ovisnosti o omjeru djeljenja i hijerarhiji djelitelja


Broj djelitelja 1_og reda
Broj djelitelja 2_og reda

18 kom
36 kom

za omjer djeljenja 1:
za omjer djeljenja 1:

2
2

Broj djelitelja 1_og reda


Broj djelitelja 2_og reda

9 kom
18 kom

za omjer djeljenja 1:
za omjer djeljenja 1:

2
4

Broj djelitelja 1_og reda


Broj djelitelja 2_og reda

5 kom
9 kom

za omjer djeljenja 1:
za omjer djeljenja 1:

2
8

Lokacije djelitelja 2_og reda


Djelitelji 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 2
smjeteni su u vorovima
44
75 114
33
90
31
35
78 110
65
86
75
42 103
86
22
2
78
75
90
44
67
Djelitelji 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 4
smjeteni su u vorovima
50 109
52
22
56
78 110
81 114
3
9

22
65

65
97

42
109

3
48

3
33

103
6

2
67

110

58

77

21

67

86

37

26

102

29

97

Lokacije djelitelja 1_og reda


Djelitelji 1_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 2 na koje su vezani
djelitelji 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 2
smjeteni su u vorovima
50 100
22
58 117
81
3
48
6
4
4
6
109
39
Djelitelji 1_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 2 na koje su vezani
djelitelji 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 4
smjeteni su u vorovima
97
22
90
25
60
4 114
58
70

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Djelitelji 1_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 2 na koje su vezani


djelitelji 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 8
smjeteni su u vorovima
60
21
42
65
21
Djelitelji 1_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 2 na koje su vezani
djelitelji 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1:16
smjeteni su u vorovima
110
25
63
Djelitelji 1_og reda omjera djeljenja 1: 2 na koje su vezani
djelitelji 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1:32
smjeteni su u vorovima
114 110

Parametri primjene metode simulated annealing


tstart=

33705. tend=

2247. tfakt=

.75 maxit=

50

Vrijeme izvrenja programa iznosi -62160 sekundi

Putevi od pojedine ONU jedinice do nadlenog djelitelja 2_og reda


Djelitelj 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1:
4 najkraa puta iz vora
28-ti
29-ti
30-ti
31-ti

put
put
put
put

51
53
54
55

50
52
52
52

4 smjeten je u voru

50

50
duljina
duljina
duljina
duljina

50
50
50

Duljina odabranih putova iznosi

28_og
29_og
30_og
31_og

166 m

puta
puta
puta
puta

Djelitelj 2_og reda omjera djeljenja 1:

4 smjeten je u voru

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109

iznosi
iznosi
iznosi
iznosi

15
39
52
60

4 najkraa puta iz vora 109


69-ti
70-ti
71-ti
72-ti

put
put
put
put

115
116
118
119

114
114
117
117

109
109
114 109
114 109

duljina
duljina
duljina
duljina

Duljina odabranih putova iznosi

69_og
70_og
71_og
72_og

puta
puta
puta
puta

iznosi
iznosi
iznosi
iznosi

36
36
73
90

235 m

Putevi od pojedinog djelitelja 2_og reda do nadlenog djelitelja 1_og reda


Djelitelj 1-og reda omjera djeljenja 1:
4 najkraa puta iz vora
14-ti
11-ti
12-ti
5-ti

put
put
put
put

67
58
77
56

2
60
75
58

63
72
60

65
70
63

67
2
65

duljina 14_og puta iznosi


duljina 11_og puta iznosi
duljina 12_og puta iznosi
duljina 5_og puta iznosi

2
67

put 110 102 100 14


put 110 102 100 14
put 114 109 102 100
put 77 86
3
9

4 smjeten je u voru

16
16
14 16
12 100

14

16

duljina 7_og puta iznosi


duljina 10_og puta iznosi
duljina 9_og puta iznosi
duljina 12_og puta iznosi

231
231
241
260

963 m

Putevi od OLT_a do djelitelja 1_og reda smjetenih u


2

16

16

Duljina odabranih putova iznosi

put

15
153
158
178

504 m

Djelitelj 1-og reda omjera djeljenja 1:

7-ti
10-ti
9-ti
12-ti

Duljina odabranih putova iznosi

4 najkraa puta iz vora

4 smjeten je u voru

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2 16 86 26 67
duljina puta

25

put
put
put
put

16
86
26
67

14 100
77 75
25 22
2
1

12
72
21

9
70
56

3
2
58

86
1
60

77

75

72

70

63

65

67

Ukupna duljina odabranih putova iznosi


Sveukupna duljina putova iznosi

duljina
duljina
duljina
duljina

puta
puta
puta
puta

444
230
359
40

1098 m

17973 m

Pronaena optimalna sveukupna duljina PON strukture je za


omjer djeljenja ks1=1: 4 i ks2=1: 4
minlen(2,2)=17973 m

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Outline of calculated values of randomly choosed configurations


with application of simulated annealing method

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Shematic view
of optimal PON double-star tree in one real area in Rijeka

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Topographic view of
optimal PON double-star tree in some area in Rijeka

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CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


We analyse a PON on double-star topology.
Cost function is full length of all optical fibres.
We use a SA method.
Optimal solution give us:
i) a path-ways from root node to each 1-level splitters, from 1st level splitters
to 2nd level splitters, and from 2nd level splitters to end-users;
ii) locations of all splitters;
iii) splitting ratio for each splitter.

A practicaly result is:


posibility of use for connection plan of fibers between end-users and 2nd level
splitters, then 2nd level splitters and 1st level splitters, and 1st level splitters
and root node.
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CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


The open problem is:
to make an efectively way to determine starting solution of PON.
We work on problem of influence between PON double-star topology and ring
topology, i.e. rearrangement of PON double-star topology into ring topology.
About this, is possible redesign of an part of PON, and conection with ring
structure, or build a new ring structure on reconstruction of current buildings,
build a new bussines buildings in residential area, on demand of great
residential buildings for broadband or higher bitrate.

An interesting is discuss about deployment from current solutions based on


cupper cable technology (xDSL), to new solutions based on optical fibres
technology and architectures (FTTB, FTTH).

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THE END
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