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The Ethnic and Religious Foods

Trends and Opportunities


5th International Food Congress (Design and Innovation)
Mian N. Riaz, Ph D.
Head Extrusion Technology Program
Food Protein Research & Development Center
Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA
Tel: 979/845-2741; Fax: 979/458-0019
E-mail: mnriaz@tamu.edu
www.tamu.edu/extrusion

What is Halal
Most non-Muslims have at least a rough
idea that Kosher refer to Jewish dietary
laws
But non-Muslims are still struggling with
the word Halal
Halal - The Islamic counterpart of Kosher

Halal

It means permitted or lawful.

Halal foods have no restrictions on


consumption or use.

Haram

It means forbidden or unlawful

Mash-booh

It means suspect.

It covers the gray area between Halal and


Haram.

Dhabiha

It means slaughtered.

When an animal is slaughtered according


to Islamic methods, the meat is
considered to be dhabiha or zabiha.

Why Halal

Islam is the worlds second largest


religion, also is the fastest growing, both
globally and in the U.S

Why Halal

Muslims follow Islamic dietary code and


food that meets the code is called Halal

Muslims are suppose to make an effort to


obtain Halal food of good quality

For Muslims it is their religious obligation


to consume only Halal food

Halal Food Regulation

All foods pure and clean are permitted for


Muslims
Except following, including any products
derived from them or contaminated with them:
Carrion or dead animals
Blood
Swine, including all by-products
Alcohol
Animals slaughtered without pronouncing the
name of God on them.

Halal Food Regulation Cont.

Foods are broadly categorized into four groups


for the ease of establishing their Halal status
and formulating guidelines for the industry.

1.
2.
3.
4.

The Meat and Poultry


Fish and Seafood
Milk and Eggs
Plant and Vegetable

The Meat and Poultry Group

This group contains four out of five


Haram (prohibited) categories
Higher restrictions are observed here
Animals must be Halal
One cannot slaughter a pig the Islamic
way and call it Halal
Animal must be slaughtered by a Muslim,
while pronouncing the name of God

The Meat and Poultry Group - Cont

A sharp knife must be used

Blood must be drained out completely

Islam places great emphasis on humane


treatment of animals

Dismemberment must not take place


before the animal is completely dead

Fish and Seafood Group

To determine the acceptability of fish and


seafood, one has to understand the rules
of
different
schools
of
Islamic
jurisprudence
Cultural practices of Muslims living in
different regions
All Muslims accept fish with scales;
however, some groups do not accept fish
without scales such as catfish

Fish and Seafood Group Conti

There are even greater differences among


Muslims about seafood

One must understand the requirements in


various regions of the world

For example for exporting


containing seafood flavors

products

Milk and Eggs Group

Milk and eggs from the Halal animals are Halal

The predominant source of milk in the West is


the cow, and the predominant source of eggs is
the chicken

All other sources are required to be labeled


accordinly

Milk and Eggs Group Cont--

There are a variety of products made from milk


and eggs
Milk is used for making cheese, butter, and
cream
Most of the cheeses are made with various
enzymes, which could be Halal if made with
microorganisms or Halal slaughtered animals
Similarly, emulsifiers, mold inhibitors and other
functional ingredients from non-specified
sources may make milk and egg products
doubtful to consume

Plants and Vegetable Group

Plant and Vegetable materials are


generally Halal except alcoholic drinks or
other intoxicants
However, in the modern day processing
plants, vegetables and meats may be
processed in the same plant and on the
same equipment, increasing the chance of
cross-contamination

Plants and Vegetable Group Cont-

Certain functional ingredients from animal


sources may also be used in the
processing of vegetables, which make the
products doubtful
Hence processing aids and production
methods have to be carefully monitored to
maintain the Halal status of foods of plant
origin

Nutritional Supplements and Drugs

Although, one may consume a Haram products


as a medicine under compulsion
Muslim consumers generally avoid knowingly
taking anything which is Haram or doubtful
Muslim may take a prescription medicine in a
gelatin capsule but not a multivitamin capsule
Capsules, unless certified Halal or labeled
bovine, are generally made of pork gelatin
Pork gelatin is considered Haram by Muslim
consumers

Nutritional Supplements and Drugs

Medicine that is used to cure disease and help


over come illness is considered exempt from
Halal food regulations
Prescription drugs generally do not have
alternative products to replace a prescribed
drug
If a drug is available in capsule form only, one is
obligated to take it.

Halal Food
Halal food mean, wholesome, pure and fit
for human consumption
Gaining world wide recognition as a safe
and hygienic food
Halal food may apparently same as other
food, but its nature, processing methods,
ingredients, handling from beginning to
end should be according to the Islamic
law

Food Industry and Halal


Food industry like any other industry response

to the desire and need of the consumers

Consumer are interested to eat healthy food,


low in calories, cholesterol and sodium

Many consumers like organic and chemical free


processed food

Food Industry and Halal


The ethnic and religious diversity in US and
Europe encouraged the food industry to prepare
products which are suitable for different groups
Like Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Mexican, Indian,
seven day Adventist, Jewish and Muslims

Food Industry and Halal

As with everyone else, Muslims have a very


busy life style

Increasingly daily activities at work and home


do not allow them to prepare meals at home

Muslims, like any other segment of population,


are involved with their jobs and other activities,
so demand on their time have increased

The availability of prepared convenience foods


has become more important

Top ten major Halal food markets in US


1)New York City/New Jersey
2) Los Angeles
3) Chicago
4) Detroit
5) Houston
6) Dallas/Forth Worth
7) South Florida
8) San Francisco
9) Atlanta
10) Washington, D. C.

United State Halal Food Market

The buying power of US Muslims is over $16


billion/year
Population of approx. 8 million
According to www.ers.usda.gov
3/2007 report
average spending per capita is more than $2000/year
Halal food market is growing at a rapid pace and is
becoming an opportunity niche market
Not only the Muslims consume Halal products but
there are non-Muslim consumers
(http://ats.agr.ca/sahara
(http://ats.agr.ca/sahara)) 8/2005

Halal Meat in America

In Muslim countries fast food giants like McDonalds,


Pizza Hut, KFC and burger king have long served Halal
meat

Now in America McDonald (Dearborn, MI), KFC


(Chicago, IL), Subways (New Jersey) have some Halal
franchises

Halal Food Trade - International

For the global marketer, the question is How


can I comply with the import requirements of
the Muslim countries?
The Halal food market potential in the world is
not limited to Muslim countries
Countries like Singapore, Australia, New
Zealand, and South Africa (with very small
Muslim populations) have become significant
contributors to the world Halal trade

International Halal Food Market

There are several different estimates available related


to Halal Food Market

According to http://www.dwtc.com (02/07/07), the


current estimated value of total Halal market is $150
billion, but this has the potential to rise to $500 billion
by 2010

According to http://ats.agr.ca/sahara (8/2005) world


Halal food trade is estimated to be approximately $150
billion annually

International Halal Food Market

The global trade in Halal food is now worth $580 billion


annually and could potentially hit one trillion dollars
(Reported by Agency France-Press (AFP)

Halal Food Trade - International

The world is now much more accessible


because of improved transportation and
communications systems
It has become truly a global supermarket.
The demand for
Halal foods and products in countries around
the world is on an increase, as Muslim
consumers are creating an educated demand
for Halal foods and products

Halal and Organic

Most of the Halal food can be certified as


Organic
Muslim community pays attention to the
benefits of eating organic meat, poultry and
foodstuff
The major concern for Muslim consumers is
what farmer feed to the animals?
They do not like to see animal by-product fed
to animal

Halal and Organic

Muslim consumer like to eat Halal and


something that is good, wholesome and
natural
Therefore, some of the Muslims consumer
turning to organic food for religious reasons

Halal + Organic = ?

Halal But
Not Organic
Example,
Artificial
Flavors

Organic Organic
Halal,
But not
e,g, Halal Halal
Certified
Organically
Produced
Meat
Alcohol

Halal + Organic= Healthy, Wholesome, Ethical and Environmentally


friendly Products

Labeling of Halal Foods

If there is no Halal marking or symbol on the label, then


Halal consumers generally look for information about the
ingredients.
But this remains a very unreliable way to judge food
products and never deals with the condition in the
manufacturing facility.
Some of the minor ingredients may no be revealed on the
label and the product may have been manufactured on a
product line where nonnon-Halal products were also made.
For example, making canned peas on the same line as
canned pork and beans

Importance of Halal

Institute of Food Technologist (IFT):


Division for Religious and Ethnic Foods

Universities:
Cornell Kosher and Halal Food initiative
Halal cafeteria for Muslim students

Importance of Halal

USDA Food Labeling Division Regulatory


Programs
has
recently
established
guidelines with regards to the use of Halal
labels

The Codex Alimentarius Commission


recently adopted guidelines on the use of
term Halal for assuring fair-trade

Importance of Halal
New Jersey - Halal Food Protection Act
2000
Minnesota and Illinois followed suit in
2001, enacting their own laws to regulate
the Halal food industry
In 2002, the states of California,Michigan
and Illinois also enacted their versions of
a Halal food laws

Major Companies Going Halal in


Recent Years
Baskin Robbins
Firmenich
Nestle
Novozymes
Cargill
Wriggly

National Starch
IFF
Danisco
Givadaun
Coca Cola

Halal Production Standards


Myth:
There is a misunderstanding in the food
industry that Halal Food Production
Standards are the same as Kosher
Therefore, if food is Kosher, it will be Halal
Wrong

Difference Between Halal & Kosher

Yes, there are some similarities


BUT
There are several differences between
Halal and Kosher food production

KOSHER vs. HALAL


KOSHER

HALAL

Ruminants
& Poultry

Slaughtered by
a Jewish person

Slaughtered by
a Muslim

Blessing

Blessing before enterentering slaughtering area.


Not on each animal

Blessing on each
animal while
slaughtering.

Restrictions

Hind quarters
Salting

Whole carcass
No salting

Slaughtering
by Hand

Mandatory

Preferred

Mechanical
Slaughtering

Not allowed

Poultry Yes, but


not mammals

KOSHER vs. HALAL


KOSHER

HALAL

Pork
Prohibited
Prohibited
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Blood
Prohibited
Prohibited
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Gelatin
Skin and bones
Dry bones
Fish
Pork

From Kosher animals


From Halal animals
May be
Halal bones only
Kosher fish only
Any fish
Allowed by liberal
Not allowed
rabbis
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

KOSHER vs. HALAL


KOSHER

HALAL

Accepted
Prohibited
Kosher Slaughtered

Accepted
Prohibited
Accepted sometimes

Enzymes:
Microbial
BiotecBiotec-derived
Animal

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Addition of
Must be added by Jew
Cheese Culture:

No restriction

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Alcohol:
Permitted
(Depending on source)

Not permitted

KOSHER vs. HALAL


KOSHER

HALAL

Fish
With Scales only

Most accept all fish


some only with scales
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Seafood
Not permitted

Varying degree of
acceptance
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Combining
Meat & Dairy

Not Permitted

Not an issue

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Special
Occasion

Additional restrictions
during passover

Same rules yearyear-round

KOSHER vs. HALAL


KOSHER
Sanitation of
Equipment

HALAL

Cleaning
Through cleaning
Idle period required
No idle period required
Kosherization/ritual
Kosherization/ritual cleaning

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Key Points in Selecting Certifying


Agency
Investigate the reputation of the agency
Talk with other companies who have
some experience in this area
Recognition of the certifying agency

Is it recognize world wide or domestic


Would other country will accept
certification
May ask some references

this

Halal Symbols
There are several symbols for Halal
Crescent M Stands for Muslims
M
H
Halal
Halal Products
HP
Halal
Certified Halal

HALAL FOOD LOGO IN OTHER


COUNTRIES
Country

Logo

Country

1. Australia

5. New
Zealand

2. Canada

6. Singapore

3. Indonesia

7. Thailand

4. Malaysia

8. United
States of
America

Logo

HALAL LOGO OF OTHER


COUNTRIES

UK

Victoria
Australia

Denmark

France

Happy Indulgence Peach Cobbler

Halal
Symbol

On back of the box.

On back of Box

Front Cover

Halal Symbol

Back Cover

Halal
Symbol

Halal Symbol

Halal Symbol

Halal Symbol

Halal Symbol

Thank You

Any Questions?