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Steel flanges are typically rated for 150# or

300# with 1/16-inch raised faces. These adhere to ASME/ANSI flange and fitting
specifications B16.13 and B16.54, respectively.
If the system has no pressure or other limita- tions, cast iron flanges can be
connected to steel flanges.
For most pump systems, it is preferred to utilize flat face (F.F.) flanges on
both the pump and the piping connection. This flat mating flange will help
insure that an acceptable gasket surface
is available to obtain a good seal, and prevent breaking when the bolts
are tightened.
Occasionally, a system will require increase pres- sure containment
capabilities at connections. The use of raised face (R.F.) flanges allows
more pressure to be concentrated on a smaller gasket
area. However, care must be taken when tighten- ing bolts on R.F. flanges.
If not properly tightened and torqued to the manufacturers
recommendations, the flanges can pivot along the edge of the raised
face. This can cause distortion in the pump volute, as well as possibly
cracking or breaking a flange.
Expansion joints can be used when the piping system can expect axial
movement due to ther- mal expansion of the liquid. The expansion joints
will assist in preventing the pump from being shifted out of alignment.
Typically, they are installed in low-pressure systems. Important to the reliability of
the pump and piping system is the need for proper selec- tion and installation.
An expansion joint can be installed on the suc- tion and discharge side of a
pump. The location should be on the opposite side of the piping sup- port,
or anchor, away from the pump.
If the expansion joint is placed between the anchor and the pump, a force
could be caused that would be more than the pump or the system could
handle. The force would be equal to the
area of the maximum expansion joint inside di- ameter multiplied by the
pressure in the pipe. In addition, according to HI 1, if the joint is not properly aligned with the pipe, the shear force and torsion may be transmitted
to the equipment.
To insure that the expansion joints are effective in the piping system, they
must be sized properly and the material of construction must corre- spond
with the application.
Although these joints provide relief of axial pipe movement, they are not as
flexible as many perceive. The pump and system can also be sub- jected to
excessive forces due to poor expansion joint sizing.
An isolation valve, or shutoff valve, should be installed in the discharge
pipe. It assists in the priming of the pump, starting the pump, and for
isolation, as may be required for pump mainte- nance. Except for axial
and mixed flow pumps, the isolation valve should be closed before
stopping pump, especially if no check valve is installed.
An isolation valve should not be used for the throttling of the pump. Throttling of
the dis- charge isolation valve contributes to a substan- tial waste of energy in the
pump. Should an existing discharge valve be found to be throttling the pump
excessively, a correctly sized pump should be installed, or some other variable
speed drive should be considered.
A check valve is utilized in a pump system to prevent back flow of the
liquid when the pump is stopped. This reverse flow could cause damage to

the pump, from the impeller becoming loose for example, or cause
difficulty in re-priming the pump.
The check valve is located in the discharge line, between the pump and isolation,
or shutoff, valve, and on the far side of the expansion joint, away from the pump.
It should never be installed in the suction line. A check valve is a flow restric- tor
.in the piping, and will cause a pressure drop