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BDC 4013 NOISE AND VIBRATION

DR SALIHATUN MD SALLEH
Faculty of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

LECTURE 1
FUNDAMENTAL OF
VIBRATION

OUTLINE









What is vibration?
Why it is important?
Basic Concepts..
Classification of Vibration.
Definition and Terminology ..
Vibration Analysis Procedure..
Spring, Mass and Damping Elements..
Harmonic and Periodic Motions.

DEFINITION
Vibration :
Any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called
VIBRATION or oscillation.
The swinging of a pendulum and the motion of a plucked string are
typical examples of vibration. The study of vibration deals with the
study of oscillatory motions of bodies and the forces associated with
them.
From Encyclopedia Britannica:
Periodic back-and-forth motion of the particles of an elastic
body or medium, commonly resulting when almost any physical
system is displaced from its equilibrium condition and allowed
to respond to the forces that tend to restore equilibrium.

WHY STUDY VIBRATION?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Vibrations can lead to excessive deflections and failure on


the machines and structures
To reduce vibration through proper design of machines and
their mountings
To utilize profitably in several consumer and industrial
applications (quartz oscillator for computers)
To improve the efficiency of certain machining, casting,
forging & welding processes
To simulate earthquakes for geological research and
conduct studies in design of nuclear reactors

BASIC CONCEPTS
Vibratory System consists of:
1) spring or elasticity
2) mass or inertia
3) damper
Involves transfer of potential energy to
kinetic energy and vice versa

DEGREE OF FREEDOM (D.O.F)


Minimum number of independent coordinates required to
determine completely the positions of all parts of a system at
any instant of time
Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

Examples of two degree-of-freedom systems:

Examples of three degree-of-freedom systems:

CLASSIFICATION OF VIBRATION
1. Free Vibration:
A system is left to vibrate on its own after an initial disturbance and no
external force acts on the system. E.g. simple pendulum
2. Forced Vibration:
A system that is subjected to a repeating external force. e.g. oscillation
arises from diesel engines
- Resonance occurs when the frequency of the external force coincides
with one of the natural frequencies of the system
3. Undamped Vibration:
When no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during
oscillations
4. Damped Vibration:
When any energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during

oscillations

5. Linear Vibration:
When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the
mass and the damper behave linearly
6. Nonlinear Vibration:
If any of the components behave nonlinearly
7. Deterministic Vibration:
If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion) acting on a
vibratory system is known at any given time
8. Nondeterministic or random Vibration:
When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted
Examples of deterministic and random excitation:

DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY..


 Cycle

The movement of a vibrating body from its undisturbed or


equilibrium position to its extreme position in one direction, then
to the equilibrium position, then to its extreme position in other
direction and back to equilibrium position.
 Amplitude

The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its


equilibrium position.
 Period of Oscillation

The time taken to complete one cycle of motion, denoted by .


 Frequency of oscillation

The number of cycles per unit time, denoted by f.

f =

 Phase angle ,

Consider two vibratory motion:

x1 = A1 sin t
x2 = A2 sin(t + )
These two harmonic motion are called synchronous because
they have the same frequency or angular velocity, .
 Natural frequency

Natural frequency is the frequency when the system vibrating at


its natural modes.

 Beats

When two harmonic motions, with frequencies close to one


another, are added, the resulting motion exhibits a phenomenon
known as beats.
 Octave

When the maximum value of a range of frequency is twice its


minimum value, it is known as an octave band. E.g. 75 150 Hz,
150 300 Hz.
 Decibel

A decibel (dB) is defined as a ratio of electric powers, P/Po, as


P
dB = 10 log
P0

where Po is some reference value of power. Since electric power is


proportional to the square of the voltage (X), the decibel can also be
expressed as
2

X
X
= 20 log

dB = 10 log
X0
X0

VIBRATION ANALYSIS PROCEDURE


A vibratory system is a dynamic system for which the variables
such as the excitations (inputs) and responses (outputs) are timedependent.
Step 1: Mathematical Modeling
Step 2: Derivation of Governing Equations
Step 3: Solution of the Governing Equations
Step 4: Interpretation of the Results

Harmonic Motion
 Periodic Motion: motion repeated after equal intervals of

time

 Harmonic Motion: simplest type of periodic motion

1) Vectorial representation of Harmonic Motion:


 Displacement (x):

x = A sin = A sin t
 Velocity:
 Acceleration:

dx
= A cos t
dt
d 2x
2
2
=

A
sin

t
=

x
2
dt

Harmonic Motion
Example:
Scotch yoke mechanism
The similarity between cyclic
(harmonic) and sinusoidal
motion.