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1.

The Practive and Discipline of Public Administration


Introduction to Public Administration -;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] lrgf/L_
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff (Concept of Public
Administration)

Unit 4
Administration Tools
System Approach/Theory
Environment

Input

Process

Output

Feedback

System Approach/Theory (k|0ffnLut l;4fGt_


s'g} klg /fHosf] k|zf;g Joj:yf tyf b]zsf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s /
/fhgLlts kl/j]zn] lgwf{/0f ub{5 . o;} tYonfO{ a'lem b]zdf k|
zf;gJoj:yf ;+rfng ul/g'kg]{ x'G5 . k|0ffnLut z}nLn] k|zf;gnfO{ ;dli6
?kdf cWoog ug{ k|]/0ff lbPsf] 5 . cd]l/sfl:yt /f08 skf]{/];gdf ;g\ !
($* df ul/Psf] cg';Gwfgsf] kmn:j?k ;j{k|yd o; l;4fGtn] hGd lnPsf] .
o;sf] k|f/De hLjlj1fg (Biology) af6 ePsf] dflgPsf] 5 . dflg; s]xL s'/f
vfG5 eg] To; kbfy{nfO{ Input sf ?kdf lnOPsf] 5 . kfrgk|0ffnL process
xf], dnd"q, kl;gf TofUg' output xf] . of] pbfx/0f Tolt Jofjxfl/s gb]lvP
tfklg ljifoj:t'af/] 1fg xfl;n ug{ o;n] d2t k'ofpF5 .
tfns6\ k/;G; (Talcott Parsons) sf cg';f/ k|0ffnLut z}nL eg]sf]
tf]lsPsf] sfd ;Dkfbg ug{ ljBdfg jftfj/0fleq /xL cfjZos kg]{ ljleGg
tTjx?sf] k|ToIf ;DaGw / To;n] k'gM jftfj/0fnfO{ kfg]{ c;/sf] cWoog
xf] .
l/s] 8An' lu|lkmg (Ricky W. Griffin) sf cg';f/ k|0ffnL eGgfn]
;dli6df ljljw tTjsf] Pscfk;L lqmof xf] .
Four types of System Approach
1. Open and Closed System v'Nnf / aGb k|0ffnL
2. Subsystem pkk|0ffnL
3. Synergy l;ghL{
4. Entropy OG6f]kL
Open and Closed System:
v'Nnf k|0ffnLn] jftfj/0fl;t cfk;L ;DaGw (interact) /fVb5 eg] aGb k|
0ffnLn] ;f] ub}{g . o; cy{df k|To]s ;\u7gsf] jftfj/0fl;t ;DaGw /xG5
g} . jftfj/0fnfO{ a]jf:tf u/]/ s'g} klg ;\u7g ;~rfng x'g ;Sb}g .
df]6/sf/ / xjfO{hxfsf] ljsf; lj:tf/n] /]nsf] ;]jfdf cb[Zo lsl;dn] s]xL sdL
NofPsf] 5 . To;}n] k|To]s Joj:yfksn] o; kIfdf Wofg' k'ofpg' kb{5 .
Sub-System
;+\7gleq ;+rflnt ljleGg ultljlwnfO{ pkk|0ffnLsf ?kdf :jLsfg'kb{5 .

ahf/ Joj:yfkg, pTkfbg, ljQ cflb ultljlw pkk|0ffnLsf pbfx/0f x'g\ . o;df
s'g} klg ultljlwn] Ps cfk;df cg's"n jf k|lts"n k|efj kfl//x]sf x'G5 .

Synergy
l;ghL{ cjwf/0fn] s'g} Ps c\u jf kIfeGbf ;dli6 g} 7"nf] /
dxTjk"0f{ xf] eGg] k'i6\ofOF ub{5 . tf]lsPsf] ef/L p7fpg] Pp6f
JolQm c;dy{ x'G5 eg] b'O{6fn] ;f] sfo{ ;xh} ug{ ;Sb5g\ . o;
l;4fGtn] ;+u7gdf ;dGjofTds 9+un] sfd ug{ k|]/0ff lbG5 .
Entropy:
OG6f]kL o:tf] lqmof xf] h;n] k|0ffnL k4ltnfO{ Ifo u/fpF5 . s'g} ;
+u7gn] jftfj/0fdf ljBdfg ultljlwaf6 ;"rgf k|fKt (Feedback) u/L cfjZos ;
+zf]wg gu/]df To;n] cfgf] ultljlw ;+rfng ug{ ;Sb}g . k|0ffnLut
l;4fGtaf6 b]xfosf y'k|} kmfObf lng ;lsG5M
s_ o;n] v'nf k4ltdf ljZjf; /fVb5 .
v_ ;DalGwt If]qn] xfl;n ug'{kg]{ nIo, p2]Zo k|i6 ls6fg ul/Psf]
x'G5 .
u_ o;n] pkk|0ffnLnfO{ :jLsfb{5 .
3_ ;~rf/sf] e"ldsfnfO{ cTolws dxTj lbG5 .
_ o;n] ljifoj:t'sf] cWoog ;Dk"0f{tfdf ub{5 .
r_ OG6f]kLjf6 aRg l;sfpF5 .
O/f ;/sfG:sLn] k|zf;g ;~rfngdf k|0ffnLut l;4fGtsf] k|of]u ug]
{af/] b]xfosf kfFr a'4fdf k'ofpg cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ .
1. Inputs ;|f]tsf] pkof]u
2. Process sfof{Gjog jf k|lqmof
3. Output kl/0ffd
4. Feed-back ;"rgf k|jfx
5. Environment jftfj/0f
Inputs:
-s_ ljleGg lsl;dsf dfu, -v_ ;|f]tx? qmdzM ef}lts ;|f]t, cfly{s ;|f]t,
hgzlQm ;|f]t / ;"rgf ;|f]t -u_ cfdhgtf, ljleGg gful/s ;d"x, cGo ;/sf/L
lgsfosf] ;dy{g jf lj/f]w cflb kb{5g\ . g]kfnL pvfgn] aLp /fd|f] eP
afnL /fd|f] x'FG5 eg]e}m sfo{ ;+rfng ubf{ cfjZos kg]{ ;fdu|L
:t/Lo / plrt dfqfdf pknAw gePdf ;f] sfo{ k'/f ug{ ;lsFb}g / k|ltkmn
klg nIocg'?k x'Fb}g .
Process:

o; lqmofnfO{ c+u|]hL efiffdf Process, Conversion, Within put,


Throughput and Transformation cflb ljleGg ;+1f lbOPsf] 5 . o; cGtu{t ;
+u7g :j?k, lgof{0fo ug]{ k|lqmof, k|zf;sx?sf] JolQmut cg'ej Pj+
1fg / lgoGq0f k4lt kb{5g\ .
Outputs:
cfdhgtfsf] OR5f cfsf\Iff k"lt{ ug{ sfo{ ;+rfng u/]kl5 To;n] kl/0ffd
lbg yfNb5 . pQm kl/0ffdsf] :j?k ;fdfg, ;]jf, gfkmf gf]S;fg, sd{rf/Lx?
sf] cfr/0f / ;"rgfsf] ?kdf k|s6 x'G5 . o;/L pTkfbg ul/Psf] kl/0ffdsf]
pkef]u ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lsf ;fy} cGo pkef]Qmfn] u|x0f ub{5g\ .
Feedback:
nIocg'?k sfd eof] ePg, To;df sdL sdhf]/L sxfF b]lvP cflbaf/] af]w
ug{ pTkfbg;]jf k|fKt ug]{ ;d"xaf6 lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;"rgfsf] k|jfx x'g'
h?/L 5 . of] ;"rgfsf] k|jfx sfof{Gjog k|lqmof / ;|f]t /x]sf] 7fpFdf x'g'
kb{5 . lzIff If]qsf] b[i6fGt lbFbf slt ljBfyL{n] >]0fL plQ0f{ u/]
eGg] yfxf nfu]kl5 slt ljBfyL{ egf{ ePsf lyP, sltn] hfFr lbPsf lyPg,
sltn] s'g ljifodf km]n u/], pQm ljifodf k9fpg] lzIfs s:tf lyP, To;
ljifosf] kf7\oqmdcg';f/ k|Zg ;f]lwPsf] lyof] lyPg, pQ/k'l:tsf s;n]
hfFRof] cflb ljljw kIfdf Wofg k'ofpg] lhDd]jf/L ;DalGwt
kbflwsf/Ldf cfOkb{5 . ;"rgfsf] k|jfx ljgf of] ;Dej 5}g .
Environment:
jftfj/0fcGtut{ ;dfhdf ljBdfg -s_ u|fxs, pkef]Qmf -v_ ;fdfg Pjd\ ;]jfsf]
nfut / -u_ ;j{;fwf/0f hgtf / ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx? h;n] ;DalGwt
lqmofsnfkx? ;dy{g jf cfnf]rgf ub{5g\sf] ;d"x kb{5 . s'g} klg
p2]Zo k|flKtsf nflu ToxfF ljBdfg jftfj/0fnfO{ ;d]t dWogh/
/fVg}kb{5 .
Environme
nt
Input
Material Inputs
Human Inputs
Financial Inputs
Information
Inputs

Transformati
on

Output
Products/Services
Profits/Losses
Employees
Behavior
Information

Feedback from the Environment.


A System Model of Organization
Source: Griffin, ibid, page 53

k|0ffnLut l;4fGtdf pk/f]Qm s]xL ckjfb b]lvP tfklg o;sf] dxTj /


pkof]lutfnfO{ gsfg{ ldNb}g . ;Ifd t6:y / k|efjsf/L g]t[Tjn] o;
l;4fGtsf] k|of]u ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sdf klg ug{ ;Sg] ljZjf; lng ;lsG5 .
k|0ffnLut l;4fGtsf] cfnf]rgf (Criticism)
k|To]s l;4fGtsf alnof / sdhf]/ kIf /xG5g\ g} . k|0ffnLut z}nL klg
cfnf]rgfd'Qm 5}g . o;sf lj?4 eP ul/Psf s]xL cfnf]rgf b]xfodf k|:t't
5g\ .
!=cd]l/sL /Iff ljefudf afx]s ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf PPBS k|0ffnLsf] ;kmn
sfof{Gjog x'g g;s]sfn] klg k|0ffnLut l;4fGtsf] k|of]udf 9'Ss x'g]
cj:yf b]lvGg . o;nfO{ hlt ;/n 9+un] JofVof ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5
o;sf] k|of]u TolQs} ufx|f] klg b]lvG5 .
@= of] k|0ffnL Hofb} j}1flgs 5 . o;n] k|To]s ultljlwdf k"0f{tfsf]
ck]Iff /fVb5 t/ Jojxf/df of] ;Dej b]lbv}g .
#= ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sdf cf}krfl/stf cGtu{t ;Dk"0f{ k|zf;g rnfOG5 .
o:tf] cj:yfdf o; l;4fGtsf] k|of]u uf}0f aGg hfG5 .
$= lk5l8Psf d'n'sdf ;Qf /fhgLlt xfaL ePsf sf/0f clwsf+z
lg0f{ox? /fhgLlts k[i7e"lddf ul/G5g\ . t;y{ ljBdfg ;|f]tsf] pRrtd
pkof]uaf/] vf;} Wofg k'ofPsf] kfOFb}g .
%= e/kbf]{ ;"rgfsf] k|jfx / pkof]u o; l;4fGtsf] csf]{ d'Vo kIf xf] .
lk5l8Psf b]zdf o;sf] cefj v6\lsG5 . ;dodf ;"rgf k|fKt eOxfn] klg
Tof] oyfy{ / e/kbf]{ gx'g ;Sb5 .

Approach to public administrative


From the traditional model to new model (NPM)
Bureaucratic characterization clear division of labor clear hierarchy of authority
Bureaucratic max- Weber problemes with the traditional model
Lack of neutrality and profession list (poltics)
Rigidity red tape stifies creativty
Informat networts exist baside the formal ones
Risk aversion reather the risk
New Public Administrative
The new public administrative concept come first time 1968 in first minnowbroot
conferonce held under the patronage of Dwight Waldo
The 1960s in the USA was time of social and political turbulence due to vietnam
war, civil righis movments etc.
In word of Dwight waldo neither the study nor the practice of public administration
was responding suitably to escalating turmiland complication
The minnowbrook conference challenged the traditional Public administrative
tration in a manner that it was anit Positivs
NPA has 3 important attacks to PA
Relevance
Values
Social equity
NPA Significance
Conge kl/j{g
Equity ;dGofo
Involvement
New Public Management
NPM is management philosophy used by government since the 1980s to
modernize the public sector
The main hypothesis in the NPM reform wave is that more market orientation in
the public sector with lead to greater cost efficiency for governments without
having negative side effects on other objectives and considerations
NPM, Compared to other public management theories is more oriented towards
outcome and efficiency thrower better management of public beget
It is considered to be achieved by applying competition as it is know ones in the
public sector empha sizing economic and leadership principles.
New Public

Management mill 9880s and 1990s


Process oriented
Move from classic bureaucracy to more fixable forma of organization
Senior staff politically wmmitted to government
Government involvement need not always mean government production

E government paper government


Main criticisms Directed to NPM
1. Fous on Enfonecy
2. Focus on customer rather then citizen
3. People Participation
4. Market ;xof]uL x'g' k5{ .
New public services
Public Manage Public
New Public service

Public administrative
Economic change and Redefining governed restricted expenditure new
issues /ppp/ privatization decentralization

Globalization growing international dimension of public administration


technology and work environment new people and values E Government
The role of citizens in the government process Nps and integrative decision
marking
Ethical and moral dimension are Guardians of Public trust
Area of P.M
I) Law and order
II) Development administration
III) Revlenw
IV) environment administration
Law is a command of k5{ b08 / sfjf{xLaf6 ;~rfnLt
Law
Private law

Public law

P.L - Relationship between individual klt kTgL h;n] b'Oj6f JolQmx? ljrdf
;DjGw :yfkgf ug]{ sfg'g
Private law Public law gful/s / /fHo ljrsf]
;DaGw ;' ;~rfng u/fpg] Public Law xf] .
Birth to death Ps kIf / csf]{ kIf c Public administrative ;DaGwLt 5 .
Constitutional law
System and rules that government the government
;+ljwfg s] s] x'g'k5{
Determinate
Market
Judicial Mechanism
Unitary and federalism
. /fHo / gfu/Ls ljrsf] cfwf/e't clwsf/ s;/L ;'lglZt ug]{ eGg] s'/fsf]
Rules of law
Separation of power
Why necessity to constitution Limited government sf] nflu ;ljwfg rflxPsf]
xf] . l;ld6 ;/sf/sf] nflu
;/sf/n] hlt klg sfd sfjf{xL 5g\ lg ;a}df sfg'g lgb]{lzt x'g'k5{ sfg'g ljgf lt
sfo{ ;DkGg x'g ;Sb}g
Joltm sf] zf;g eGbf sfg'gsf] zf;g /fd|f] x'G5 . sfg'gsf] zf;gsf] nfdf] O{ltxf; 5 . !
@!% Dofg]sf/f df sfg'g ljgf s]xL ul/g] 5}g sg]6
T 1863 Republic nolance 1884 ES Rule of theory . /fHodf :jljj]s clwsf/ /xg'
x'b}g sfg'gsf] ;dfg k|of]u
Generalization of law . sfg'g ;fdflGos/0f ug'{ k5{ .
!(&&
:ki6 x'g'k5{ sfg'g
sfg'g eljiobz{g x'g k5{ sfg'g lg/k]If xf]Og ;fk]If x'g k5{

law making process should be clear fear and general

. sfg'g agfpg] k|lqmof :jR5 / ;kmf ;fdfGo x'g k5{ .


The Judicary should be free
Gofokflnsf :jtGt x'g kb{5 sfof{kfnLsf / Joj:yfkLsf / lgoGq0f ug]{ ;+/If0f cbfnt
x'g' k5{ k|fhftGqsf] ;+Ifs xf] .
Rule of Law
The principle of should be nature observed
lg/kIf ;'gfOsf cfwf/x? X'g' kb{5
d Region and decision 5 cfwf/ sf/0f / cf}lrTo vf]nLg' kb{5 eg]/ k|fs[ts Gofn]
eGb5 .
dDelegated power should be review control by Judiciary 5 k|Tofof]hg sfg'g
cbfnt wf/ x'g' k5{ . jf Control x'g' k5{ .
:jLj]s clwsf/ tf]8df]8 ug]{ kfOg] 5}g . Role of low 5 n] s] s] ub{5 .
Prival of general law 5 sfg'gsf] k"jf{g'dfg ug{k5{ .
To;nfO{ d Traditional Public administrative elgG5 .
New public management 5 g]kfn sfg'gnfO{ Fallow ug{hfGg' k5{ .
Speration of powers role of law and superstation of power carg
administrative law xf] .
desperation of power rule of law
cln km/s Moresque 5hltv]/ km]Gr
dStation slt j6f element 5 Joj:yflks, GofokfnLsf / sfo{kflnsf
Moresque British nfO{ cWoog u/]kl5
rule of law
sf] Concept
Nofo .
GofokfnLsf Joj:yfkLsf :jtGq x'g' kb{5 . Goflos clwsf/ Gofolw;nfO{ lbg' x'G5
Goflos clwsf/ Gofolw;nfO{ lbg'
@)%(.(.%
Legal Approach
Public administration
Power Serration
Aristotle n] /f]dsf gfu/L /fHoxs;
D Judgment faction 5 ljjfb !^** df kf; u/] !^** kl5 /fh cGt{u /x]sf cfwf/
D Mintsque 5 sfo{sf/L :jtGq g/xg ;S5 .
sfo{kfnLsf ljwf clwsf/ ;'Dkb} x'b}g GofokfnLsf :jtGq x'g' kb{5 .
All the legislative power
All the executive the power legislative
All the Judiciary power
;+;bLo k|0ffnLdf sfo{kflnsf / Joj:yfkLsfsf] ;DaGw Ps l;Ssf sf b'O{ kf6f h:tf]
x'G5 d Judiciary eg] Isolation /xG5 .
Public administration and rule of ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / sfg'sf] zf;g <
zfAbLs cy{df sfg'gsf] zf;n] ;/sf/ sfg'g cg';f/ rNg hfG5 k5{ ;/sf/L lg0f{o sfg'g
cfwfl/t x'g'k5{ eGg] s'/fdf hf]8 lbG5 . Jofls cy{df hgtfn] sfg'g dfGg'
k5{ lsgeg] plgx? sfg'g4f/f zfl;t 5g\ . t/ /fhlglts / sfg'gL l;4fGtdf o;nfO{ cln
;s'lrt cy{df lnOG5 / o;nfO{ s]an ;/sf/ sfg'g 4f/f yKg' k5{ / zf;g sfg'lg x'g' k5{
elgG5 To;}n] ;/sf/ sfg'gsf] x'g' k5{ JolQmsf] xfO{g .
s'g} klg /fHosf] jf ;/sf/sf] sfg'g4f/f l;lht ;~rflnt / zfl;t lgsfo xf] . To;}n]
o;nfO{ lgsfox?n] k|fKt ug]{ clwf/ sfg'g4f/f tf]lsPsf] x'G5 . To;}n] sfg'g zf;gdf
sfo{sfl/0fL jf ;/sf/L clwsfl/nfO{ sfg'gn] hj;Dd clVtof/L / k|lqmof lgwf{/0f ub}g
ta ;Dd pgLx?n] s'g} sfo{ ug{ ;Sb}g .

Objective of the rule of law


5 gfu/Ls :jtGqtfsf] ;+/If0f ug'{ .
/fHosf] clwf/Lx?4f/f ul/g] u}/sfg'gL Jojxf/ jf sfo{sf] lj?4 gful/sx?nfO{ sfg'gL ;
+/If0f x'G5 .
Public 5 clwsf/Lx?sf] / :jO{R5frf/L clwsf/sf] k|of]unfO{ /f]Sbf5 .
pgLx?sf] sfo{ sfg'gdf cfwfl/t x'g' kb{5 . ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?sf] sfo{ sfg'gcg';f/
ePg eg] pQm sfo{ ;/sf/n] u/]sf] sfo{g} x'b}g .
Public administration
;fj{hlgs k|zf;g eg]sf] /fHo ;+~rfng ug]{ lgsfo xf] /fHo ;~rfngsf] qmddf
sfg'gsf] lgdf0f{ / sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfd ub{5 .
W According to Woodrow wilson Public administrative is detailed and
system application of law is an of administration o lj:t't / sfg'gsf] ;fj{hlgs k|
zf;g xf] eg] ;'Joj:lyt k|To]s ljlzi6 sfg'gsf] k|of]u k|zf;gsf] sfd xf] . k|zf;g hgtfsf]
sfo{ / cGt{lqmofnfO{ ;d]6]sf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g clwsf/sf] cWof; ug]{ lgsfosf] ?
kdf lnOG5 . ;fj{hlgs clwsf/Lsf ;a} lg0f{ox? Lnlvt ?kdf x'G5 .
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] pb]Zo eg]sf] plrt ;dodf ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;'/Iff ;]jf ;'ljwf k|bfg
ug]{ xf] .
o;sf] nIo c;n k|zf;g lbg' xf] . hgtfnfO{ ;]jf lbg' ;+ljwfg / sfg'gsf] ;Ddftsf ;fy
kfngf ug'{ /fHosf clwsf/L x?sf] dof{lbt cfwf/ b]vfpg' Jofj;flos Ifdtf b]vfpg'
h:tf ;Ifdtf k|efjsf/Ltf/ OdfGbfl/tfnfO{ k"0f{ ?kdf kfngf ug'{ kb{5 . cfgf]
lhDjf/Ldf /x]sf] sfd sd vlrnf] ?kdf Ifdtfsf ;fy k'/f ug'{ kb{5 .
hg;fwf/0f nfO{ ;dodf ;]jf ;'ljwf / ;'/Iff k|bfg ug'{ /fHosf] e/kbf]{ lgsfog}
;fj{hlgs k|zfgxf] To;}n] pgLx?sf] sfd st{Jo clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/L sfg'g4f/f lglZrt
ul/g'kb{5 .
The Rule of Law -sfg'gsf] zf;g _
Rule of law sf] cjwf/0ff gfu/Ls :jtGqtf (Civil liberty) / sfg'gsf] ;j]f{RRftf
Supremacy of law d ;DalGw cjwf/0ffjf6 /fhlglts jlsx?n] :yflkt u/L ljsf; u/]sf]
l;4fGt xf] . sfg'gsf] zf;gn] ;/sf/sf] sfg'g;+usf] Jojxf/sf] af/]df s'/f ub{5 . a The
rule of law concerns that of the government to the law )
Ad o;nfO{ ljleGg ;dodf ljleGg n]vsx?n] ljleGg s'/fsf] cfcfg} lsl;dn]
cy{ nufPsf 5\g lglZr k|sf/n] sfg'gsf] k|0ffnLsf] ?kdf /x]sf] ;fdfGo sfg'g k|0ffnL
df o;sf] k|of]usf] cy{ :ki6 x'g5 . sfg'gsf] zf;g b'Oj6f s'/fx? lglZr nfu' ug{' kg]
{ x'G5 .
!_ zfhlglts / ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?n] k|of]u ug]{ clwsf/Lsf] a}wfl;gs cfwf/ x'g' kg]
{ Pj+ ltlgx?sf] clwsf/ sfg'gdf cfwf/Lt x'g'kg]{ 5 .
sfg'gdf zfvf / sfo{ljlw Gofosf] Go"gtd dfkb08 lglZt u/L sfod ul/Psf] x'g' kg]
{ eGg] /x]sf] 5 .
o;sf] ;fdfGo cy{ x/]ssfd sfg'g cg';f/ ul/Psf] x'g'kg]{ 5 . a(Everything must be
done according to law) To;}df klg ;/sf/sf sfo{x? sfg'df cfwf/Lt x'g'k5{ a (The
faction of government must have a basil in law ) dflg;sf] pk/ sfg'g}
;fj{ef}lds zlQm jf ;jf]{Rrtf :yfkLt x'g' k5{ . (The sovereignty as supremacy
of the law over man)dflg;x?n] sfg'gsf] kfngf ug'{ kb{5 . / ;f] 4f/f zfl;t
x'g'k5{ eGg] h:tf cjwf/0ffut dfGotfx? /x]sf 5g\ .
sfg'gsf] zf;gsf] cy{ Gofo g}ltstf / dfgj clwsf/sf] cfwf/e"t dfGotfx?sf] aLr
;dfhsf] jf:tljs ;Gt'ng x'g] u/L k|Tofe'tL x'g] kg]{ 5 .

Public administration and the rule of law ?


Meaning ombudsman :jLl8g zAb xf] :jLl8; efiffsf] Ritsdaugeus Justite
ombudsam nfO{ Grievance nandier at Governenc man at office jf e
commission O kbflwsf/Lx?n] u/]sf cg'lrt k|zf;g jf s'k|zf;g / clVtof/sf] b'?kof]u
sf lj?4 cWoog cg';Gwf u/L hg;fwf/0fsf] xslxtsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ ;r]tsf] ?kdf /x]sf] ;
+:yfnfO{ ombudsman ? elgG5
Ombudsman eGgfn] gf]s/zfxLx?jf6 ePsf] clVtof/sf] b'?kof]usf] ;DaGwdf gfu/Ls
x?4f/f ul/Psf lzsfotx?jf/]df cg';Gwfg ljwoLs cfo'Qm xf] .
OG;fOsf`]k]l8of lk|6flgsf
sfg'lg ?kdf :yflkt sfof{Tds ?kdf :jzfl;t sfo{sfl/0fL jf k|zf;lgs kx+r eGbf aflx/L
lqmofTds ?kdf Joj:yflksf / sfo{ kflnsf b'a}af6 :jtGq ljz]if l;kfn' kIf;+u ;DaGb
:y/df ;j{JofkL rl/q ePsf] ;+:yf g} OMISUDMAN xf] .
Political administration Dichotomy (IMP) 2069-10-18
/fhlglts k|zf;gsf] ljrdf b'O{ leGg efu of] 7"nf] Philosophy xf] P.A sf] ljrdf !( cf} /
@) cf} ztfAbLdf 7"nf] sf] Discuses ?kdf /xof] .
Public Administrative is pure line a business (woodron wilson)
Law eg]sf] Political process xf] of] Parliament n] agfp5 President xf] of] .
Principle of administration management school principle of administration working process
o;df Planning Process x'G5 .
o;df Planning organization reporting Budgeting /x]sf] x'G5 .
Poltices
cd't{ x'G5 . !(%) sf] 7"nf] Discs /xG5 o;df ;xof]u ;ef
Public Administration Job xf] Political administration ;d:of ;dfwfg ug]{ Idea xf]
of] pvfg 6'Ssf xf] .
50-60-70- Politics administration dichotomy xf] eGg] s'/f /xof] .
1980 df cfpbf
Robert / Danhartanc n] 2000 lt/ cfO{k'Ubf
Service
Democracy / sd{rf/LtGq lo w|'j ljr7"nf] km/s /x]sf] 5 .
and Administration Values (IMP)
xf] lqmofsnfkdf cfwfl/t /fhlgslts
Pp6f Players v]nf8Lsf] ?kdf
/fhlglts xcf] eGg] Pices
Currency /fhlglts wg eg]sf]
Dynamites cfofdsf?kdf

v]n xf] k|ltlglw xf] eg]

Problem Solving ;d:of ;dfwfg


ug]{ lqmofsnfk xf] .

Power h:nfO{ hgfntfn] a9L dg k/fp5g


of] a9L ;tfdf /xG5 What do we here
xfdL oxfF s] u5f}+
Conflict compromise and change /fhlglts
4Gb x'G5 / Nature Arts snf xf] eg]

Administration eg]sf] lj1 xf]

Politics is administration
1) Accpintablity as effect politics n] hlxn] klg pt/bfloTj
2) Responsiveness as effectiveness
3) Representative as Representativeness

Money things Knowledge sfd


ug{ 1fg rflxG5 xfd\lnf|O{ s]
yfxf 5 .
N xf] of] lg/Gt/ /xG5 . of]
cf6 tyf ;fO{G; b'j}xf]

4) Participation as Rationality ;xefuL lj?4


5) Democracy as professionalism Jofj;flostf :jljj]s
1) Politics eg]sf] Value xf] administration eg]sf] arts xf] eg]sf] Science xf]
2) Politico cd'{t xf] Administration tYo / ;Ton] h] b]V5 Tof] dfq af]N5 . Metaphysic
3) Politics eg]sf] Independent variable xf] eg] Admin eg]sf] Dependent Variables x'G5 .
Political administration eg]sf] Principle agenda theory klg elgG5 .
lo b'j}sf] clGtd Gole eg]sf] People nfO{ s;/L Service security lbg' /xG5 .
Exam Politic Administration dichotomy is an runway discussion brife explain the characteristics
/fhlglts / k|zf;g eg]sf] glbsf b'O lsgf/f x'g o;sf ljz]iftf k|i6 kf/ <
2069-11-1
Principle of Public Administration (IMP)
Law Political management jf6 Influence ePsf] dflgG5 .
Scientific management jf6 Influence xf] ePjf6 !(#) df
W.F. Will bin Principle of Public L.D. whit
Luther Guleic
Planning
Organization
Co-ordination
Controlling
Five Principle 2 Principle eof] .
P O S D C O R B ;dfg ?kdf nfu' x'g ;s]g
P = Planning
O =organization
S = Staffing
D = Direction
C= Co-ordination
O = Cooperation
R = Reporting
B = Budgeting
1440 df cfOk'Ubf POSDCORB Ps k|rlnt l;4fGtsf] ?kdf /x\of] .
Public Administration
Posdcorb Pocc SHD.C
-Spam of control
-Division of labour
- Co- ordination inaction
POSDCORB sf] working process ;+u ;DaGw 5 eg]/ !)$) df Ps ljjfbf:kb ?kdf /x\of] . Paradigm g}
Stife eP/ Principle / Politics e e 5'6} eg]/ Dwight waldo
Robert .A. Dhl= Political culture equality applicable theory xf]Og !($# df p7\of] .
POSDORB Principle eg]sf] pvfg pvfg6'Ssf xf] eg]/ cfnf]rgfTds ?kdf JofVofu/] . By experiments by
research jf6 k|ltkfg POSDORB Principle ePsf] xf] .
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] l;4fGt s] xf] < Principal of Public Administration Equali every where equaly applicable.
g} S Luther Guic bf]>f] ljZj o'4 kl5 !($) kl5 welfare state sf] concept sf] ;'?jft eof] cd]/Lsf o'/f]k
nufotsf d'ns xf] .
Public Administration ;+;f/ el/ ;dfg ?kdf /xb}g eGg]s'/fx? pb\g yfNof] h;n] ubf{ ;a}7fFpdf equal
/xb}g eg] of] s;/L Theory /x\of] eg]/ Debet /x\of] . Publice Administration ;a}df 7fpFdf Service
x'g'k5{ ;dembf/L /xg' k5{ eGg] s'/f
2069-11-3
Principle ljZjJofkL?kdf ;'xfFpbf] x'g' k5{

Public Administration as a law a management as principle 1960 ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] Discipline Pp6f Legal
approach sf] ?kdf /x\of] .
1970 df cd]/Lsfsf ljleGg ljZjljBfnodf cfkmg} lsl;dsf Curriculum department tof/ kf/]/ P.A. sf] ;'?jft
eof] Young professor P.A. sf] Degree lng cfof] Morning / Evening df class x'Gyf] .
d S 1980 df cfOk'Ubf 1000, 11000 hgf Degree jf6 jflx/ x'g yfNof]
x'gyfNof] ljz]ift of] ljBf ;fj{hlgs If]qdf j9L pkof]uf b]lvG5 .

Bachelor x?df class x? Klg

g]kfnsf] ;Gb{edf
2033 ;fndf P.A College :ydkgf eof] @)#^ ;fndf Master Public Administration v'Nof] 1970 sf] Decade
xf] Public administration as a public administration
Concept of public
Content
Relation
Organization sf] Structure / Process Organization ;+usf] ;DaGw
Vff; vf; Content Public administration
Bureaucracy theory
Human relation approach
s;/L sfo{ ub{5 .
P.A. Organization sf] Natural
Bureaucracy / New Management
Closed d lsl;dsf x'G5 eg]sf 5g
S Classical age (1987-1940) Human sid nfO{ Wofg lbPdf Structure sf] Hardware sf] dfq cWoogdf
ul/Psf] Software sf] cWoog ul/Pg .
dS Human Relation of behavior school klg elgG5 .
New classical theory klg elgG5 Organization sf] Structure s:tf] /xG5 rGg] Process /xg5 .
Decision Naming
Human Relation Behavior
2069-11-10
A Framework orgazation
cfwf/ Gole Values /xG5 Public sector sf] Value service
dS Privet sector sf] Value Prefect
dS Organization nfO{ Lead ug]{ Leadership strategy /xG5 Culture Proces structure environment
Performance group ;+u7g leq Public private formal / informal leq of] Framework leq /xG5 .
SA formwork for organization analysis Gole values
Leadership Strategy
Culture
Environment structure
Process organization performance
People effectiveness Group individual

Technology

Incentives

Organization theory as a field of study


An organization is a grouped people who work together to pursue a common gole
;femf pb]Zosf] nflu ;+u7Lt dflg;x? sf] ;d"x g} ;+u7g leq Structure / Process /xG5 . s'g} klg ;
+u7g cl:y/tf r'gf}tL / cGof]ntfdf sfo{ ug'{ kb{5 . hlxn] klg Pp6} Structure jf6 ;~rfng ug]{ eg]
;lsb}g ljleGg ;dodf kl/j{tg /xG5 .
Organization theory is the study of how and why complex organization behaves as they do. Specifically it is the
study of formal structure informal process external constraints and the organization formal and informal b'j}
/xg ;S5 .
The role of government public organization
Controlling jfx\o kIfn] lgoGq0f u5{ vr{ lgoGq0f u5{ .
/fHosf] ;dGjo /xG5 zflGt ;'/Iff cfly{s ljsf;sf nflu formed work tof/L kfb{5 .
dS Models of Organization

Closed models organization open models Organization


Close model jfx\s kIf jf6 k|ToIf ?kdf Influence /xGb}g Tof] jfx\o k|Ifjf6 k|efljt g/xg] t/ cfGt/Ls ?kdf
rln/xg] ;+u7gnfO{ close models elgG5 Ruting wise sfo{ x'G5 .
Open Models
Top down jf6 adjust /xb}g
Routing jf6 sfo{ x'b}g S
Informal Organization
Kb;f]kgLo ;+/If0f x'b}g .
Knowledge sf] cfwf/df Positive x'G5 .

Close Model
Top jf6 adjust x'G5
Rutting wise sfo{ xG5 .
Formal organization
Responsibility Job df cfwfl/t x'G5
kb;f]kgL ;+/rgf x'G5 kbsf
Prestige x'G5 .

cfwf/df

Nature of Organization
Organization are Purposeful complex human collectivities organization are characterized by secondary relation
impersonal formal cj}olQms ;DaGw /xG5 .
Organization have specialization on gole lglZrt / vf; vf; nIo/ pb]Zo /xG5 .
Organization are characterized by sustain cooperatives activities
Organization are integrated to the large social system organization provides servise and product to their
environment
Organization ate depend upon exchanges with their environment society sf] jftfj/0f ;+u Close relationship /
decent /xG5 .
2069-11-15
Work devisor structure nfO{ s;/L Setup u/LG5 <
Characteristics of Organization
1. The presence of one or more power centers which wintrily the concerted efforts of the organization and direct
them towards its goals there power centers also most review comtomuousiy the organization performance and
repeater its stricture where necessary to increase its efficiency
2. Substitution of personnel I.E. unsatisfied actor persons can be removed and others assigned their tasks the
organization can also recombine its personnel through transfer and promotion etzation1964
3. Division of labor power and communication responsibilities divisions which are not random of traditionally
patterned but deliberately planned but deliberately planned to enhances the vitalization of specific gales
Foundation of the organization some grounds of the organization are the following
1.
2.
3.
4
5.

an organization has structure authority purpose and people


the structure of an organization affects the behavior
of its worseness participants and perhaps even casual members
Organization can be arterially cor scientifically designed structurally and procedurally to achieve their
goals in an effective and efficient manner
Organization can usefully be conceptualized as systems the resound to and affect their environment and
seek to gain information about the efficacy to those responses and

2069-12-6
Buaureaucarcacy :- Alternatives of buar
People participation
Partnership
sd{rf/L tGqsf zlQm u'0fx?
clwsf/ Ifq tyf zlQm lglZrttf
Specialization
Hierachy lnlvt b:tfj]hdf cfwfl/t k|zf;g sfof{no ;DaGwL s'/fdf Joltut k{ystf
k|0ffn\L lglZrttf
S Principle of scientific management
F.W. Tyloe 1980 swofte df o'/f]df cf}wf]lus/0f eof] cd]/Lsfdf a;fO;/fO x'g yfNof] .

F.W. Tyloe Mechanical emgommer x'g ;fj]n s}rL pg]n Scientific movement NofP h:n] ubf{ Mentail
revolution x'g yfNof]
House wife n] klg 3/sf] sfd ubf{ klg Scientific management ckgfp5g eGg] s'/f !(!) df dS 1910
Scientific Management sf] hGd efo 1911 df
slt ;do leqdf slt sfd ug{ ;lsG5 Incentive system
1914 df Lugunt n] klg o;nfO{ cuf8L a9fpb} uP 1915 df F.W. Tyloe d'To' eof]
S1930 df cfOk'Ubf of] l;4fGt xf] eg]/ movement ePsf] lyof] .
New tyoring (S.managem) managemnt is a science
Managment is a craft scinetfic nfu' x'g' eGbf cuf8L k|zf;gsf] cj:yf s:tf] lyof] <
Woner office personnel had little direct wintrct with Production woner mancg activity of] eGbf cuf8L ljrdf
sd ;DaGw x'Gyof] .
A Suppervisor was responsibility for all planning and staff function fPp6f Supervisor tf]s] kl5 ;a} p;n]
uYof] .
Working with Journery man meanness to try to saddle production no staff faction.
Work methods were determined by personnel machinist best on and what tools available for the job that measn
Rules of thume s'g} System gePsf] 7fpFdf j]lyltsf] sfd
Four Principle of Scientific manage
1. Replace rule of theme methods with methods best on a scientific study of the task ;+u7g Scientific
t/Lsfaf6 sfo{ ;~rfng ug'{ kb{5 .
2. Select train teach and development the most suitable person for is the job again scientifically rather than
parxivel living tham to trained them self select train ug]{ ltlgx?nfO{ sfo{ cg';f/ Systematic t/Lsfaf6 ug{
nfpg] xf] .
3. Managment most provide detaied instruction and supervisor to is worker to insure the job is done in a
scientific way x/]sf sfo{df Managment sf]odf role x/]s JolQm nfO{ e]6]/ sfo{ ug]{ ;DkGg u/fpg'
k5{ .
Father of Scientfic managment F.W.Tylor
Divide work between managment and work managment sf] sfd s] xf] workers sf] sfd s] xf] eg]/ Divied
ug'{ kb{5 . The managment applied scientfic managment principle to planning and supervisor the work and
the workers carry out the task managers super planning ubf{ h'grole x'G5 . New public managment nfO{
new tyloring elgG5 .
2069-12-8