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Chapter1
OverallprotocolstructureforRANAP
IuCSinterfaceprotocol
.RadioAccessNetworkApplicationPart,(RANAP)isSS7userlayer.TheIuinterfaceisspecifiedat
theboundarybetweentheUMTSTerrestrialRadioAccessNetwork(UTRAN)andtheCoreNetwork
(CN).MSCisthefunctionalentityusedintheCSdomainoftheCN.ItisconnectedtotheUTRAN
throughtheIuCSinterface.ItsinterfacerunsRANAPprotocol.
.IuCSinterfaceprotocolincludes

RANAPProtocol
Chapter1OverallprotocolstructureforRANAP
IuCSinterfaceprotocol.RadioAccessNetwork
ApplicationPart,(RANAP)isSS7u...

WCDMACoreNetworkOverview
ContentsChapter1CoreNetworkEvolution
DefinitionofCoreNetworkCNincludesa
seriesofphysicalentitiestorealizeu...

ControlPlaneItincludescontrolplanesignalingRANAPandSignalingBearer
UserPlaneItincludesUserPlaneprotocolIuUPandDataBearer
TransportNetworkControlPlaneItincludesdatabearercontrolsignalingALCAPandSignaling
Bearer

WCDMACSbasicconception
Chapter1basicconceptionofsignalingnetwork
1.1WhatssignalingSignalingisthecontrol
signaltransferredbetweencommunicat...

SIGTRANprotocol
Chapter1overviewSIGTRANdefinition.Two
layersofprotocolsareincludedintheSIGTRAN
protocolstack,i.e.,transmissionprotocol...

McInterfaceDataConfiguration
Chapter1BasicConceptsSection1Mc
InterfaceIntroductionMcInterface
IntroductionMediaGateway
ControlMGC...
SCCPSignalingAnalysisandProcess
Chapter1General1.1LimitationofMTP
Transmission.Thesignalingpointcodeisnot
thestandardinternationalcode,itiso...

MTPSignalingAnalysisandProcess
Chapter1OverviewofSS7BasicConcept
DirectConnectionNetworkingQuasidirect
connectionnetworkingDifferencebet...

OverallprotocolstructureforRANAP

ISUPSignalingAnalysisandProcess

.TheTS25.412SpecificationprovidestwoATMbasedsignalingbearermodes:BroadbandSS7

CorrespondingRelationsofSS7withOSISeven
layerArchitectureISUPMessageFormatF:
SignalUnitPeggingFlagCK:...

(SAALNNI,MTP3B,SCCP)andIPbearerSS7(IP,SCTP,M3UA).
.Fromthepointofviewoflayers,RANAPcanbedividedintotwoparts:radioaccessnetwork
ApplicationProtocolintheRadioNetworkLayer,usingRANAPprotocol(TS25.413),andthe

NetworkingAndInternetworkingDevices

SignalingBearer,residentintheTransportNetworkLayer.

NetworkingAndInternetworkingDevicesTwoor
moredevicesconnectedforthepurposeof
sharingdataorresourcesarestationsonaNet...

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NetworkPlanning
1.IntroductiontoGSMNetworkGSMSystem
ArchitectureGSMBandwidthGSM900and
GSM1800aretwins...

BLOG ARCHIVE

BlogArchive
TELECOM

CoreNetwork(8)GSMSystem(1)Telecom(1)
Chapter2
RANAPmainfunctionandclassificationofmessage

DATACOM

Datacom(5)

2.1RANAPMainFunction
.RANAPprotocolmainlycompletethefunctionsbetweenCNandRNCfollowing
Connectionfoundation,backout,Datatransportation
ASN.1coding/decodingandmessagechecking
OverloadControl
Paging
ResetandResetResource
SecurityModeControl
Moving
SubscriberResourceConfiguration
.BesidesthefunctionsinfrontRANAPmoduladdsomecorrelatedcharacteristicofproduction.
Itincludesbackuprearrangement,alarmcallingstatistictestingtraceandsoon.
2.2RANAPmessagecode/decode
RANAPmessageadoptsASN.1PERcode.Itsmassageneeddecodingtollstoanalysis.Thetypeof
messageisfixedinfronttwobytesofpositioninmessagecode.Thefollowingcodeexampleis
RANAPmessageRelocationComplete
0x000x0D0x400x030x000x000x000x00
ThereintoThefirstbyte0x00denotesprocedureinitiatingmessageThesecondbyte0x0D
denotesprocesscodeand0x0DdenotesRelocationCompleteprocedureAccordingtothefront
oftwobytesWecanjudgethatthemessageisRelocationCompletemessage.
ARANAPmessageonlywithmessagetype,itsASN.1PERcodeis7byteswhichlikeslast
example.thelengthofRANAPmessagecannotlessthan7bytesafterASN.1PERcoding.
2.3ClassificationofRANAPmessage
.Accordingtodifferentmessagetransportmodes,RANAPEPsareclassifiedinto:connection
orientedandconnectionless.
.TheformerissupportedbyaUEspecificsignalingconnectionfortransportthelatterissupported
byacommonsignalingconnectionfortransport.Allotherproceduresuseconnectionoriented
servicetotransportexceptthatReset,ResetResource,OverloadControl,andPaginguseSCCP
connectionlessserviceandErrorIndicationbasestheactualconditionstomakeadetermination
betweentheconnectionlessserviceandtheconnectionorientedservice.
.ConnectionorientedmessagesareonesbetweenaspecificUEandthenetwork,suchasUE
locationupdateprocedureandcallprocedure.Connectionlessmessagesareonespertainingto
systemmaintenanceandadministrationandaffectpartorallofUEusers.MostofRANAP
connectionlessmessagemaybeupordown(exceptPAGING).Mostofconnectionoriented
messagesareunidirectional(exceptERRORINDICATIONandDIRECTTRANSFER).

Chapter3
RANAPelementaryprocedures
3.1ClassificationofRANAPElementaryProcedures
.Accordingtodifferentresponsetypes,RANAPEPsaredividedintoClasses1,2and3.
CLASS1ElementaryProcedureswithresponse(success/orfailure).ForClass1EPs,
Successfulmeansasignalingmessageexplicitlyindicatesthattheelementaryprocedure
successfullycompletedwiththereceiptoftheresponse.Unsuccessfulmeansasignalingmessage
explicitlyindicatesthattheEPfailedorontimesupervisionexpiry.

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CLASS2ElementaryProcedureswithoutresponse.Class2EPsareconsideredalways
successful.
CLASS3ElementaryProcedureswithpossibilityofmultipleresponses.Class3EPshave
severalresponsemessages.
ClassificationofRANAPElementaryProcedures

1.Class1withresponse

2.Class2withoutresponse

3.Class3withpossibilityofmultipleresponses

3.2DescriptionofRANAPElementaryProcedures
RABAssignment
.RABAssignment(RadioAccessBearerAssignment)
RABassignmentisinitiatedbytheCN.ButtheCNonlydeterminesanRABIDvalueand
concernedRABparameters.TheRNCexecutestherequest,allocatesuserplaneresources,and
reportstotheCNtheoutcomeoftheprocedureinoneormoreresponses.Theelementaryprocedure
withresponseisconnectionoriented.

RABReleaseRequest
.RABReleaseRequest
TheRNCusesthisproceduretorequesttheCNtoreleaseconcernedRABresources.The
elementaryprocedurewithoutresponseisconnectionoriented.Whenafailureoccurringtothe

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correspondinguserplaneresourceofRABIDisfoundattheRNC,theRNCinitiatesanRABrelease
requestmessagetotheCNinnormalcases.

IuReleaseRequest
.IuReleaseRequest
ThisprocedureisusedbytheRNCtorequesttheCNtoreleasetheIuconnectionfora
particularUE.ItisduetosomeUTRANgeneratedreason,e.g.O&MIntervention,User
Inactivity,RadioConnectionWithUELost",etc.TheIuReleaseRequestprocedurewithout
responseisconnectionoriented.

IuRelease
.IuRelease
ThepurposeoftheIuReleaseprocedureistoenabletheCNtoreleasetheIuconnectionand
allUTRANresourcesrelatedonlytothatIuconnectiontobereleased.Theprocedurewithresponse
isconnectionoriented.
TheprocedureisinitiatedbytheCNforatleastthefollowingreasons:
.CompletionoftransactionbetweenUEandCN
.ReceptionofIuReleaseRequestmessagebyCN
.CompletionofrelocationofSRNS.

Paging
.Paging
ThepurposeofthisprocedureistoenabletheCNtosendapagingmessagetoaparticular
UE.Theprocedurewithoutresponseisconnectionless.WhentheUEisidle,pagingisperformedvia
acommonpagingchannelwhentheUEhasalreadyhadaRadioResourceControl(RRC)
connection,pagingisperformedviaitsdedicatedRRCconnection.

CommonID

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.CommonID
Thisprocedureisused,afteranRRCconnectionisestablishedfortheUE,tocreatea
referencebetweenacommonidentityoftheUE(e.g.IMSI)andtheRRCconnectionandstoreitin
theRNC,sothatsubsequentpagingmessagescanbetransportedthroughtheRRCconnection.The
procedurewithoutresponseisconnectionoriented.

SecurityModeControl
.SecurityModeControl
ThisprocedureisusedbytheCNtopasscipherandintegritymodeinformationtothe
UTRAN.TheUTRANusesthesealgorithmsduringthesubsequentRABconnectionestablishment,
relocation,etc.procedures.Thisprocedurewithresponseisconnectionoriented.

UELocationReportingControl
.UELocationReportingControl
ThisprocedureisusedbytheCNtorequesttheRNCtoprovideinformationonthelocationofa
givenUE.Thecontrolparametermaybeofdirectreporttype,changereporttypeorstopreport
type.Theprocedurewithoutresponseisconnectionoriented.

UELocationReport
UELocationReport
ThisprocedureisusedbytheRNCtoreporttheUE'slocationinformationtotheCN.The
reportiscontrolledbytheLOCATIONREPORTINGCONTROLmessage.Theprocedurewithout
responseisconnectionoriented.

InitialUEMessage
.InitialUEMessage
ThisprocedureisusedbytheRNCtotransparentlytransfertotheCNtheradiointerfaceinitial
message(NASPDU)ofthethirdlayerfromtheUEwhenanIusignalingconnectionisestablished
bytheRNC.Theprocedurewithoutresponseisconnectionoriented.

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DirectTransfer
.DirectTransfer
ThisprocedureisusedtotransparentlycarryUECNsignalingmessagesbytheUTRAN
overtheIuinterface.TheRNCdoesnotperformanyoperationsonthem.TheUECNsignaling
messagesaretransportedasaparameterintheDIRECTTRANSFERmessagemessages.This
procedurewithoutresponseisconnectionoriented.

OverloadControl
.OverloadControl
ThisprocedureisinitiatedbyeithertheRNCortheCNincasethatsignalingoverloadhappens
atitsside.Theotherpartyperformsoverloadcontrolaccordingtoacertainalgorithm.Thepurpose
todosoistoappropriatelyreducethetrafficprocessedbytheRNCortheCN,soastoensurethe
normaloperationofthesystem.Theprocedurewithoutresponseisconnectionless.

Reset
.Reset:isdesignedforalltransactionsontheIuinterfaceattheRNCortheCN.Afterreset,allcall
connections(alreadyestablishedorbeingestablished)willbereleased.CallmessagesfromtheUE
willnotbeacceptedduringtheresetprotectiontime.Theprocedurewithresponseisconnectionless.

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ErrorIndication
.ErrorIndication
TheErrorIndicationprocedureisinitiatedbyanodetoreportdetectederrorsinoneincoming
message,providedtheycannotbereportedbyanappropriatefailuremessage.Iftheerrorsituation
arisesduetoreceptionofamessageutilizingdedicatedsignaling,thentheErrorIndication
procedurewithoutresponseusesconnectionorientedsignaling.Otherwisetheprocedurewithout
responseusesconnectionlesssignaling.

RelocationofSRNS
.RelocationofSRNS
ThisprocedureisusedtorelocatetheServingRNS(SRNS)fromoneRNStoanother.This
procedurecanbedividedintoseveralstages:RelocationPreparation,RelocationResource
Allocation,RelocationDetectandRelocationComplete.Inaddition,RelocationCancelisalso
included.
3.3MainProceduresofRANAP
IuCSInterfaceLocationProcedure
.IuCSinterfacelocationprocedure
Thelocationupdateprocedureisconnectionoriented.Purposesofthelocationupdate
procedureare:
InsertintheVLRthesubscriptioninformationoftheUEintheHLR:Anexampleissubscribed
services(telecommunicationservices,supplementaryservices).
LocationupdateisthepremisefortheUEtoactasthecallingpartyorthecalledparty.Nomatterthe
UEisthecallingorcalledparty,VLRmustcontainthisusersdata:whetheracertainservice(e.g.
SMS)issubscribed,whetherasupplementaryservicesuchascallforwardingisregistered/activated,
andsoon.
WhentheUEisthecalledparty,MSC/VLRpreservesitsLAIsoastosendpagingmessages.HLR
preservestheUEresidentMSC/VLRnumbersothatroamingnumbercanbeobtained.

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IuCSinterfacemobilecallingprocedure
.IuCSinterfacemobilecallingprocedure:
TheinitialmessagefortheUEtooriginateacalliscontainedintheNASPDUoftheINITIAL
UEmessage
AftertheIuinterfaceconnectionisestablished,theCNcaninitiatetheCommonIDprocedurefor
pagingcoordination
TheCNjudgeswhethertheUEisentitledtoaccess.IftheUEisentitled,allowanceisshownby
triggeringtheAuthentication/EncryptionprocedureorDirectTransfer(Cmserviceaccept)isdirectly
sent.Otherwise,theCNinitiatestheIuReleaseprocedure
ThecallednumbercontainedintheDirectTransfer(Setup)messageissenttotheCN.After
numberanalysis,theCNdeterminesthenatureofthecall:outgoingcalltoPSTNorlocalofficecall,
etc
.Afterthecallednumberissuccessfullyanalyzed,theCNsendsCALLPROCEEDINGandstarts
theRABAssignmentprocedure
.Afterthecalledpartyhearsringingtone,theCNsendsanALERTINGmessagetotheUE
.Afterthecalledpartyhooksoff,theCNsendsaCONNECTmessagetotheUE
.UponreceiptoftheCONNECTmessage,theUEsendsaCONNECTACKmessage.Thecallis
connected
.IfthecallisterminatedbythecallingUE,thecallingUEsendsaDISCONNECTmessagetothe
CN.Ifthecalledpartyhooksonfirst,theCNsendsaDISCONNECTmessagetothecallingUE.

IuCSinterfacemobilecalledprocedure
.IuCSinterfacemobilecalledprocedure:
TheCNanalyzeswhetherornotthecalledpartyresidentUEiswithinitsscope.IftheUEis,the
CNsendsaconnectionlessPAGINGmessage.
Whenamessageindicatingtopageitselfisfound,theUEoriginatesconnectionsetupwitha
PAGINGRESPONSEmessagebyusingtheRNC
TheCNcaninitiatetheCommonIDproceduretosupportRNCpagingcoordination
TheCNsendsaSETUPmessagecontainingthecallingnumber(iftheUEisentitledtoCLIP
service)
.UponreceiptoftheCALLCONFIRMEDmessagefromtheUE,theCNstartstheRABAssignment
procedure

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.Afterthecalledpartyhearsringingtone,theUEsendsanALERTINGmessagetotheCN
.Thecalledpartyhooksoff,theUEsendsaCONNECTmessagetotheCN
.TheCNreturnsaCONNECTACKmessage.Thecallisconnected
.Themessageflowaboutonhookisthesameasthatofthemobilecallingprocedure.

SwitchingprocedurebetweenRNCsinthesameCN
.SwitchingprocedurebetweenRNCsinthesameCN
Infigure,solidlinesrepresentnormalswitchingproceduresanddottedlinesrepresentabnormal
procedures.
Afterasuccessfulswitch,theCNshallinitiatetheIuReleaseproceduretothesourceside.Ifthe
CNfailstoinitiatetheIuReleaseproceduretotheRNCbeforethetimerexpires,thesourceRNC
shallactivelyinitiatetheIuReleaseRequest.

ResourceallocationfailureprocedureabouttargetRNCrelocation
.ResourceallocationfailureprocedureabouttargetRNCrelocation
OnceresourceallocationforrelocatingthetargetRNCfails,thetargetRNCsendsa
RELOCATIONFAILUREmessagetotheCN
UponreceiptofthemessagebytheCN,theCNsendsaRELOCATIONPREPFAILUREmessage
tothesourceRNC
TheIuconnectionforrelocatingthetargetRNCisreleased.Thecallcontinuestobeheldatthe
sourceside.

Relocationcancelprocedurebysourcesideactively
.Relocationcancelprocedurebysourcesideactively
RelocationCancelmaytakeplaceduringoraftertheRelocationPreparationprocedure.Inother
words,RELOCATIONCANCELmessagemaybesentbeforetheRELOCATIONCOMMANDfrom
theCNisreceived,orbesentbytheRNCaftertheCNhassentaRELOCATIONCOMMAND
message

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AfterthesourceRNChasinitiatedtheRelocationRequiredprocedure,asuccessiveinitiationof
theRelocationRequiredprocedurecannotbedoneiftheRELOCATIONCANCELor
RELOCATIONCOMMANDmessagefromtheCNisnotreceived.


Chapter4

RANAPcorrelateddataconfiguration
RANAPcorrelateddataconfiguration
.RANAPprotocolrunsbetweenSoftX3000andRNC.ItmaynotonlybearonATMbutalsoon
IP.ItrunsQAAL2protocolbetweenMGWandRNC.
.Now,DataoftentransfersthroughMGWinnetapplicationSignalingbetweenSoftX3000and
MGWistransportedwithIPbearerandittransportswithATMbearerbetweenMGWandRNC.
ThestepofdataconfigurationfromMSCtoRNCBasedonIP

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