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Theories on the Origin of the Philippine Islands

1. Land Bridges Theory
- AKA Ice Caps Theory, Ice Age Theory
- Theorizes that the Philippines used to be land masses
connected to each other and other countries.
- The land bridges connecting the Philippines were
submerged when the ice caps melted
2. Continental Drift Theory
- AKA Diastrophism Theory
- Theorizes that the Philippines was part of the
prehistoric continent Laurasia.
- Laurasia was drifting away from another continent,
- The Philippines eventually separated from Laurasia
due to geological changes.
3. Bottom-of-the-Sea Theory
- Theorizes that the Philippines rose from the bottom of
the sea due to upfolding and upthrust.
4. Asiatic Theory
- Theorizes that the Philippines was part of the
continental shelf of Asia.
- It was separated due to diastrophism, upfolding, and
5. Pacific Theory
- AKA Volcanic Eruption Theory
- Theorizes that the Philippines was formed by the
eruption of volcanoes along the Pacific Ocean.
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6. Lost Continent Theory

- Theorizes that the Philippines is whats left of a
prehistoric continent that has mostly submerged.
Mythology on the Origin of the Philippine Islands
1. The Kite, The Sea, and The Sky
This legend about the creation of the Philippines
tells of a great bird known as a Kite flying a vast
endless ocean with nowhere to rest. Frustrated, the
Kite, made the Sea and the Sky fight, causing them to
throw rocks at each other, forming the Philippines.
2. Bathala, Amihan at Aman Sinaya
This legend shows how three gods, Bathala, Aman
Sinaya and Amihan, divided the universe among
themselves. Bathala claimed the sky, Aman Sinaya
claimed the sea, and Amihan claimed the space in
between. Over time, Bathala and Aman Sinaya grew
jealous of each others domain and began fighting by
throwing rocks at each other. Amihan tried to stop the
fighting by turning into a golden bird. The rocks
became the Philippines.
3. Pili at Pinas
A great warrior named Pili once protected his
village that lived on a big island, with his love, Pinas,
the farmers daughter. One day a foreign king invaded
the island. Pili prayed to Bathala to save them and
Bathala sent his fist to crack the ground and swallow
the invaders. The island was then broken in the many
islands. After the invaders had gone, Pili and Pinas
were nowhere to be found. The islands were then
named in their honor, Pilipinas.

Theories on the Origin of the Filipino People

1. Migration Theory
- AKA Waves of Migration Theory
- Proposed by American anthropologist, Henry Otley
- Theorizes that Filipinos descended from the different
groups such as the Aetas, Dawnmen (Cavemen),
Indones and Malays, which came from Southeast
- Each group had a distinct culture, with its own
customs and traditions.
2. Core Population Theory
- AKA Evolution Theory
- Proposed by Filipino anthropologist, Felipe Landa
- Counters Beyer by explaining that there werent clear
discrete waves of migration.
- Instead theorizes that early inhabitants of Southeast
asia were of the same ethnic group with similar
culture, but differed from environmental factors
- The cultures then proceeded to separate
Mythology on the Origin of the Filipino People
1. The Legend of The Three Races
One day, Kabunian gathered clay and shaped it
into the form of a man. He baked the clay in his oven but
left it in too long and it was burned. He made another
clay man, and baked that one too,but he took it out too
early. He tried again and made another clay man, this
time making sure to cook it right. Kabunian succeeded
and then breathed life into all the clay men. The burnt
ones became the black men. The undercooked ones
became the white men. And the ones that were just right
became the Filipinos.

2. Malakas at Maganda
(continued from The Kite, The Sea, and The Sky)
The Land Breeze and the Sea Breeze had a child
which they named Bamboo. One day, Bamboo
accidentally hurt the Kite. The Kite, angered, pecked at
Bamboo until it split in half. From it came forth two
beings. Malakas (Strong One) on one side, and Maganda
(Beautiful One) on the other. Malakas and Maganda then
had many children.
3. Lumawig
The Great Spirit called Lumawig descended from
the skies and cut numerous reeds and divided them into
pairs to which he said "You must speak." And the reeds
became people right away. Each pair having a man and a
woman who could speak, though their language seems
to differ for every pair. Lumawig then commanded each
pair to marry, with their children speaking the same
language as them, the parents. The cycle went on, the
children married and soon enough, the earth became
Mabel Cook Cole, Philippine Folk Tales (Chicago: A. C. McClurg
and Company, 1916), pp. 99-101.