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pubs.acs.org/IECR

Monisha Mridha Mandal, Palka Aggarwal, and K. D. P. Nigam*

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

ABSTRACT: The mixing of liquids is a common operation in process industries such as reneries and chemical and pharmaceutical

industries, etc. However, the problem of mixing of dierent liquids has not been rigorously characterized. Therefore, the objective of

this paper is to investigate liquidliquid mixing in a novel coiled ow inverter (CFI). The device works on the principle of ow

inversion which is achieved by bending a coiled tube to 90 at equidistant length. In the present study, velocity eld and scalar

concentration distribution of liquids were characterized. The mixing performances and pressure drop in CFI was investigated and

compared with that of a straight, coiled tube and helical element mixer (HEM) for a liquid ow range of 98 e Re e 1020. CFI

exhibits signicant mixing of two liquids with negligible change in pressure drop as compared to a coiled tube as well as a HEM. The

present study reveals that CFI is an ecient device for the mixing of two liquids in process industries.

1. INTRODUCTION

Mixing in the laminar ow regime is mainly driven by

molecular diusion. Liquid-phase mixing generally inuences

the heat and mass transfer rates and reactant conversion in any

reactor. However, a careful analysis of the data reported in

literature shows that very high uid ow rate is required in order

to induce signicant mixing in coiled tubes.1,2 It is not possible to

narrow the residence time distribution (RTD) beyond a certain

limit in coils with xed curvature ratio. Hence, in order to reduce

axial dispersion, many devices such as motionless mixers,39 ow

inverters,10 and chaotic congurations1114 have been reported

in the past. Static mixers have limitations for very viscous uids as

it can induce prohibitive pressure drop resulting in higher

pumping cost. To overcome this limitation a novel concept

was introduced to develop an economical and eective alternative named as the coiled ow inverter (CFI).1

The conguration of a CFI is a novel design, which works on

the principle of complete ow inversion. The geometrical conguration of a CFI consists of 90 bends at equal intervals of

length in coiled tube geometry. This device helps in intensifying

the convective transfer processes and provides enhanced transfer

area per unit volume of space. Its performance is substantially

closer to plug ow. A modied axial dispersion model has been

presented to describe the liquid-phase RTD in gasliquid ow

under the conditions of both negligible and signicant molecular

diusion in a CFI.2 It was observed that the axial dispersion was

reduced with an increase in liquid ow rate and number of bends.

The reduction in dispersion number was 2.6 times in the CFI

having 15 bends as compared to a coiled tube for two phase

gasliquid ow under identical process conditions. Further

experiments have been carried out to investigate the eect of

design parameters such as gas and liquid ow rates, curvature

ratio, pitch, and the number of bends on pressure drop for

gasliquid ow in the CFI.15 The transition of ow regimes in

gasliquid ow was observed at critical Reynolds numbers of

800010000. Pitch had negligible eect on the pressure drop of

gasliquid ow in the CFI. The empirical correlations for the

friction factor have been reported for the dierent gasliquid

regimes in the CFI. These correlations take into account the

r 2011 American Chemical Society

rates.

The void fraction of gasliquid ow in a CFI was investigated.16 The gas void fraction decreased with the increase

in number of bends. The eect of pitch on gas void fraction

was found to be negligible. At a given gas ow rate, the gas holdup decreased with the increase liquid ow rate. An empirical

correlation to predict the void fraction for dierent ow regimes

has been developed.

Liquidliquid ow exists in chemical process industries.

Information about liquid ow development, pressure drop, and

mixing eciency is required to design as well as optimize

operating conditions in the industries. Literature survey shows

that information on liquidliquid ow is available for a straight

tube conguration.1720 However, very limited eorts have been

made in the past to explore the hydrodynamics of liquidliquid

ow in coiled tubes.21 Therefore, the objective of the present

work is to investigate the ow development and distribution of

scalar concentration in a CFI with = 10 and a pitch of 0.02 m.

An attempt is made to study the mixing of two liquids in straight,

coiled, and CFI tubes for the ow range of 98 e Re e 1020. The

eect of Reynolds number and number of 90 bends in the CFI

on the mixing eciency has been investigated. The pressure drop

as well as mixing performance in the CFI was also compared with

the existing experimental data of the helical element mixer

(HEM).6,7 All the computations were carried out on a SUN

FIRE V440 workstation in the Chemical Reaction Engineering

laboratory at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India.

2. NUMERICAL MODEL

The coiled ow inverter device with circular cross-sectional

having diameter, d; coil diameter, D, and pitch, H was considered

Special Issue: Ananth Issue

Received: February 2, 2011

Accepted: June 1, 2011

Revised:

May 24, 2011

Published: June 01, 2011

13230

ARTICLE

F is a body

FmB

u dr,k is

force, m is the viscosity of the mixture. (m = nk = 1Rkk). B

the drift velocity for secondary phase k. The last term denotes the

net rate of momentum transfer per unit volume by the action of

drift velocity. The drift velocity for secondary phase can be

up B

u m where B

u p is velocity of secondary

expressed as B

u dr,p = B

phase. The energy equation for the mixture can be expressed as

n

Rk Fk Ek r 3

t k 1

for the present study. The details of the geometry considered for

computation has been shown in Figure 1.22

2.1. Governing Equations. The governing equations for

mass, momentum, and scalar transport in the CFI were solved

with the control volume finite difference method (CVFDM)

using commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.23 In the present study,

the mixture model was used to model the liquidliquid flow in

the tube. This model is used to study flows where the phases

move at different velocities. It works for the case where phases are

interpenetrating. This model has been previously used to simulate mixing of liquids in different configurations.8,9 The mixture

model approach is used which assumes homogeneous flow with

variable volume fraction of each phase. The summed up momentum equation of the phases with phase averaged physical

properties is solved. Unlike the Eulerian model, where the

conservation equations are coupled via interphase interactions

terms, in the mixture model, the mixture continuity, momentum

equation, and energy equation are solved along with additional

transport equations for the volume fraction of secondary phases.

In the present study, the governing continuity equation may be

written as

1

volume fraction of phase k, B

u m is the mass-averaged velocity

where B

u m = (nk = 1RkFkuk)/(Fm), m_ represents mass transfer, t

represents time. In the case of secondary phase, the volume

fraction equation for secondary phase p can be expressed as

Rp Fp r 3 Rp Fp uBm r 3 Rp Fp uBdr, p

t

F u r 3 Fm uBm uBm

t m Bm

rP r 3 m r uBm r uBTm Fm gB

B

F r3

k1

Fm Ck

r 3 Fm uBm Ck km rCk Skm k 1, ::::, N 5

t

where km = Rlkl and Skm = lSkl are the mixture diusivity and

source term for transport variable Ck.

The mesh of the geometry was built in GAMBIT software. It

was then computed in FLUENT 6.3 software. Segregated solver

was used to model the ow of liquids. Liquids with constant

velocity were employed at the inlet. No-slip boundary condition

and the zero derivative conditions for the scalars were treated on

the tube wall. Flow was considered as fully developed at the

outlet. The scalar transport technique was used to compute the

mixing characteristics of liquids. Dierent scalar concentrations

were employed in the two halves of the tube inlet. The interface

for initializing the scalar concentration was perpendicular to

the direction of the secondary ow. Second-order upwind

scheme was used to model the convection term in the governing

equations. The coupling between velocity and pressure was

resolved using SIMPLE algorithm. The computation was considered converged when the residual summed over all the

computational nodes at nth iteration, Rn, satised the following

m

8

criterion: Rn/ Rm

e 10 , where R denotes the maximum

residual value of variable after m iterations, applied for p, ui,

and for scalars.

The mixing performance of the geometry was measured in

terms of coecient of variation (COV). It is represents the

standard deviation of concentration to the mean concentration of

liquids.

!0:5

Z

Cavg Ci 2 dA

summing the individual momentum equations for all phases. It

can be expressed as

conductivity; ke was calculated as Rkkk where Rk is the volume

fraction of any phase k and kk is the conductivity of phase k.

The term on the right-hand side of equation represents energy

transfer due to conduction. The ow of incompressible uids was

assumed in the given two-phase system.

The transport equation for an arbitrary scalar k is

F rFm uBm m_

t m

Rk Bv k Fk Ek p r 3 kef f rT

k1

COV

where

Cavg

where r(FmB

u mB

u m) represents convection term, 3P, represents

T

pressure, r 3 [m(ru

Bm ru

Bm )] represents viscous forces,

Cavg

Z

1 A

Ci dA

A 0

Cavg is the ow weighted average value of the scalar concentration over the cross-sectional area.

A systematic grid sensitivity investigation was performed.

Grid-sensitivity tests were carried out with three grids consisting

of 625 2050, 625 3100, 690 3100 (cross-section x axial).

The pressure drop values calculated for the three grids is shown

13231

Table 1. Grid Test

ARTICLE

cell density,

pressure drop

cells/mm3

(100 Pa/m)

625 2050

parameter

inlet 1

inlet 2

density (kg/m3)

780

872

1.75

0.007

0.069

625 3100

1.69

10 108

10 108

690 3100

1.69

of pressure drop at dierent water volume fraction of oilwater owing

in straight tube with D = 0.055 m, L = 8 m.

necessary to obtain grid independent results. Hence, geometry

with 625 3100 grids was used in the present study because it

produced data with good accuracy and also saved computation

time.

axial distance in straight tube, coiled tube, and CFI with one, two, and

three bends having d = 0.01 m.

3.1. Comparison of Numerical Predictions with Experimental Results. There is lack of quantitative analysis for

and reliability of the computation technique, computations were

first validated with the experimental data set reported in the

literature19 for liquidliquid flow in straight tube. CFD simulations were carried out to calculate the pressure drop of two-phase

flow of oil and water in a 0.055 m diameter, 8 m long straight

tube. The oil had a density of 790 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of

0.0016 kg/(m s) at 25 C. Figure 2 shows the comparison

between the existing experimental values and predicted values of

present CFD study for different water volume fraction ranging

from 0.2 to 0.75. The maximum deviation between the CFD

predictions and the experimental data was within (2.5%.

3.2. Development of Velocity Contours. The computations

were further carried out for an industrially important system of

two crude oils, named Arab Mix and Mangla crude, flowing in

straight, coiled, and CFI tubes of equal length (L = 5.34 m) and

tube diameter (d = 0.01 m). The pitch (H) and curvature ratio

() of the tubes considered for the coiled tube and the CFI were

0.02 m and 10, respectively. Table 2 presents the properties of

liquids used in the present study. The study was carried out for

average Reynolds numbers varying from 98 to 1020 and the

number of 90 bends in CFI being from 1 to 3.

Figure 3 shows the development of velocity prole at dierent

axial length for straight, coiled and CFI tube of equal length and

tube diameter. It can be seen from the gure that the velocity

contours were fully developed for the straight tube within length

equivalent to rst bend (i.e., L = 1.33 m). There was no change in

contours with the increase in axial length. However, the velocity

contours in coiled tube as well as CFI became asymmetrical as

m/s at dierent axial distances in straight, coiled, and CFI tubes having

d = 0.01 m.

on the uid ow due to the curvature of the coil shifted the liquid

with maximum velocity toward the outer wall of the coil. The

ow was fully developed in coiled tube at axial length of 1.33 m

which is also length of CFI equivalent to one bend. No further

13232

ARTICLE

for straight, coiled, CFI tube, and HEM.

phase liquids owing in straight, coiled, CFI tube, and SMX static mixer.

axial length. It was further found that the velocity contours in CFI

was inverted to 90 at second bend (L = 2.67 m). This was due to

change in the direction of uid owing with an introduction of a

90 bend. The contours were again rotated to 90 due to the

rotation of the plane of vortex at third bend (L = 4.01 m).

3.3. Mixing Performance. The scalar concentrations of 0 and 1

were set in the two halves of the inlet of the tube. The initial

concentration was prescribed perpendicular to the direction of

the secondary flow. Figure 4 represents the distribution of scalar

concentration of liquids at different axial lengths in straight tube,

coiled tube, and CFI with one, two, and three 90 bends having

d = 0.01 m. The red and blue color denotes the different scalar

concentrations of two liquids. It was observed that the streamlines of scalar concentrations were straight in the straight tube.

The two liquids came out from the straight tube exactly as they

entered except at the interface where the mixing takes place due

to molecular diffusion. There was no convective mixing in either

the tangential or radial directions. This shows that mixing of

liquids was not significant in case of straight tube. However, in

the case of the coiled tube, the mixing in the coiled tube was

enhanced due to the presence of Dean vortices. These vortices

mix two liquids through advection. It was also observed that the

CFI displays a significant increase in uniformity of concentration

contours as compared to the straight tube and the coiled tube

having equivalent length. The figure clearly shows that the concentrations were almost uniform within 3 bends (L = 4.01 m).

This was due to increase in radial mixing of the liquids after

introduction of each bend.

3.3.1. Effect of Reynolds Number. COV values computed

using eq 6 at the outlet of different geometries were normalized

with a COV0 value at the inlet. Normalized COV represents the

ratio of standard deviation of concentration to the mean concentration of the unmixed fluid at the injection stage. Figure 5

shows the value of normalized COV with varying Reynolds

number for straight, helical coil tube, and CFI of equal lengths. It

can be observed from the figure that there was no significant

change in normalized COV of liquids flowing in the straight tube

with an increase in Reynolds number. However, the COV value

of liquids decreased with increase in Reynolds number in coiled

as well as CFI. The mixing efficiency increased because of an

increase in intensity of secondary flows. However, the normalized COV value of liquids flowing in the CFI was found to be

nearly 1626 times lower than that of the coil tube having equal

length. This was due to the increase in radial mixing of liquids

owing to the fluid flow inversion after the 90o bend in the CFI.

The mixing performance of the CFI was also compared with the

existing experimental data available for the HEM.7 It was also

observed that the COV value for the CFI was found to be 5 to

8 times lower than that for an equivalent length of motionless

mixer such as HEM having 18 elements over the range of 98 e

Re e 1020. This shows that the CFI performance is superior

as compared to a motionless mixer under identical process

conditions

3.3.2. Effect of Number of Bends. Figure 6 represents the effect

of number of bends on COV of liquids flowing at Re = 490 in

straight, coiled, and CFI tube having d = 0.01 m. The figure shows

that there was no substantial variation in mixing performance

with an increase in length of straight tube. It was observed for the

CFI having one bend and the coiled tube having equivalent

length that the COV value of liquids was nearly the same.

Nevertheless, the mixing efficiency increased with the introduction of bends in the CFI as compared to that of the straight tube

and coiled tube of equal lengths. This shows that the mixing of

the two liquids increased with an increase in the number of

bends. The figure shows that significant mixing was taking place

in the CFI within three bends. The length of CFI is not effectively

utilized for mixing after the third bend. This observation agrees

with the uniformity of scalar concentration shown in Figure 3.

COV values for an SMX static mixer46 were calculated for an

equivalent length of CFI from the following equation:

bL

8

COV a exp

d

Here a and b are adjustable constants and are predicted from

laminar flow experimental results of the SMX static mixer with

liquid viscosity ratio greater than 1. The values of the exponents

in eq 8 were a 15 and b 0.505 for the SMX static mixer in

laminar flow.5,6 Figure 6 shows that COV values for the static

mixer are significantly higher with respect to coiled and CFI tube

having length an equivalent one bend. The COV values decrease

with an increase in mixer length. Nevertheless, the COV value is

still nearly 4 times higher for the static mixer as compared to that

for the CFI at the outlet (n = 4).

3.4. Friction Factor in CFI. The multiphase flow studies in

coiled tubes mostly use the correlations based on the Lockhart

Martinelli parameter.24 Studies show that the pressure drop for

two-phase gasliquid flow through coiled tubes satisfies the

LockhartMartinelli correlation.2527 In the present study, the

friction factor was computed from the pressure drop in different

geometries. The details for calculation have been reported in our

previous papers.28 The friction factor values for different configurations

13233

congurations.

congurations.

ARTICLE

the variation of product of COV and friction factor against

Reynolds number. It was observed that the product of COV

and friction factor in the coiled tube was nearly 14 to 26 times

higher than the CFI. The values were found to be 26 to 35 times

higher in HEM than in CFI for Reynolds numbers varying from

981020.

The performance of coiled tube, HEM, and CFI with respect

to straight tube was analyzed in terms of gure of merit. Figure of

merit represents the ratio of the unmixedness of liquid in a

system to the increase in pumping power by the system. Figure 9

shows the ratio of the gure of merit in coiled tube, HEM, and

CFI to that of the straight tube. The gure shows that unmixedness in the CFI is nearly 1825 times lower than that in the

coiled tube and nearly 24 times lower than that in the HEM.

4. CONCLUSION

In the present study, the physics of ow of two miscible liquids

was examined in a complex ow generated in CFI geometry. It

was observed that the mixing performance in the CFI increased

with increase in Reynolds number as well as number of bends.

This was further substantiated by velocity and scalar concentration contours of two liquids. The product of COV and friction

factor, a new parameter, has been dened to quantify the mixing

of two liquids in ow systems. It was found that the enhancement

of mixing eciency in the CFI as compared to that of coiled tube

and HEM is higher than the increase in pressure drop of the

liquids. It was observed that the CFI oers higher mixing

eciency as compared to a coiled tube and motionless mixers

(HEM) of equivalent length. Hence, it may be concluded that the

CFI is a more ecient motionless mixer with reasonably lower

pumping cost as compared to conventional static mixer.

AUTHOR INFORMATION

Corresponding Author

of straight tube.

figure shows that the friction factor is least in the case of the

straight tube. It is interesting to observe that there was no

significant difference between the friction factor in the coiled

tube and the CFI with three bends over the Reynolds number

range studied in the present study. Similar observations were

reported in the literature for single phase flow.29 The experimental data for the friction factor in HEM6 has been compared

with that of the CFI. The friction factors in HEM were found to

3.36 times higher than that of CFI.

To assess the suitability of a given mixer for the homogenization of two liquids, it is essential to assess the combined eect of

mixing performance as well as power consumed by the mixers.

Hence, eorts were made to investigate the variation of product

of COV and friction factor with Reynolds number for straight

NOTATIONS

A = cross-sectional area (m2)

d = internal diameter of tube (m)

D = coil diameter (m)

g = gravity (m2/s)

H = dimensionless pitch, H = p/d

L = length (m)

Re = Reynolds number

p = pitch (m)

P = pressure (N/m2)

Rc = coil radius (m)

u = velocity, m/s

x = spatial position in x-direction, m

y = spatial position in y-direction, m

Greek symbols

r = volume fraction

k = curvature of free surface

= curvature ratio (D/d)

= surface tension (N/m)

= viscosity (kg/(m 3 s))

F = density of uid (kg/m3)

13234

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13235

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