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Correccin del Factor de

Potencia

Condensadores

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It is dangerous to base correction on the full load characteristics of the


motor as in some cases, motors can exhibit a high leakage reactance
and correction to 0.95 at full load will result in over correction under no
load, or disconnected conditions.
Static power factor correction should provide capacitive current equal to
80% of the magnetizing current, which is essentially the open shaft
current of the motor.
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It is better practice to use two contactors, one for the motor and one
for the capacitors. Where one contactor is employed, it should be
up sized for the capacitive load.
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Solid State Soft Starter.


Static Power Factor correction capacitors must not be connected to the
output of a solid state soft starter. When a solid state soft starter is used,
the capacitors must be controlled by a separate contactor, and switched
in when the soft starter output voltage has reached line voltage. Many
soft starters provide a "top of ramp" or "bypass contactor control" which
can be used to control the power factor correction capacitors.

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It is recommended that capacitors should be at least 50 Meters away


from Soft starters to elevate the impedance between the inverter and
capacitors
and
reduce
the
potential
damage
caused.
Switching capacitors, Automatic bank correction etc, will cause voltage
transients and these transients can damage the SCRs of Soft Starters if
they are in the Off state without an input contactor. The energy is
proportional to the amount of capacitance being switched. It is better to
switch lots of small amounts of capacitance than few large amounts.

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Determinacin de la potencia del Condensador


Clculo aproximado:
QC 0.3* a * S
a = factor de simultaneidad
S = potencia aparente instalada de los receptores
Se supone una compensacion a 0.9 de 0.75

Compensacin posterior.- en instalaciones que se


encuentren ya en servicio: medicin y planillas
elctricas.
Medicin con contandores:
QC Wb Wwt*tan 2
Wb

energia reactiva (kvarh)

Ww energia activa (KWh)


t

tiempo de operacion

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El Factor de Potencia y los Armnicos

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Tringulo de potencia
P P1 V1I1 cos 1
Q1 V1I1sen1
S Vrms I rms V1 I12 I 22 I 32 ... I n2
Q2 S 2 P2
Q V I V I cos 1 V
2

2 2
1 1

2 2
1 1

Q V I sen 1 V
2

2 2
1 1

2
1

2
1

i n

2
I
i
i 2

i n

2
I
i
i 2

Q 2 Q12 QD2
S 2 P 2 Q12 QD2
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S1
Q1

QT

ST

QD

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Voltage Distortion Limits


The utility is responsible for maintaining the quality of voltage on the overall system. Table 3.3.1 summarizes
the voltage distortion guidelines for different system voltage levels.
Table 3.3.1
Harmonic voltage distortion limits
in % of nominal fundamental frequency voltage.

Bus Voltage at PCC


(Vn)

Vn 69kV
69 kV Vn 161kV
Vn 161kV

Individual Harmonic
Voltage Distortion
(%)

Total Voltage
Distortion - THDVn
(%)

3.0

5.0

1.5

2.5

1.0

1.5

THDVn

V
h2

Vn

2
h

100%

where:
Vh = magnitude of individual harmonic components (rms volts)
h = harmonic order
Vn = nominal system rms voltage (rms volts)
Note that this definition is slightly different than the conventional definition for total harmonic distortion, which expresses
the distortion as a function of the fundamental frequency voltage magnitude at the time of the measurement. The
definition used here allows the evaluation of the voltage distortion with respect to fixed limits rather than limits that
fluctuate with the system voltage

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Lmites de Corriente Armnica para Carga no


lineal en el Punto Comn de acoplamiento con
Otras Cargas, para voltajes entre 69,000 - 161,000
volts.
Maxima Distorsin Armnica Impar de la
Corriente,en % del Armnico fundamental
ISC/I
L

<11

11h
<17

17h
<23

23h
<35

35h

TD
D

<20*

2.0

1.0

0.75

0.3

0.15

2.5

20<5
0

3.5

1.75

1.25

0.5

0.25

4.0

50<1
00

5.0

2.25

2.0

0.75

0.35

6.0

100<
1000

6.0

2.75

2.5

1.0

0.5

7.5

>100
0

7.5

3.5

3.0

1.25

0.7

10.0
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Lmites de Corriente Armnica para Carga no lineal


en el Punto Comn de acoplamiento con Otras
Cargas, para voltajes > 161,000 volts.
Maxima Distorsin Armnica Impar de la Corriente, en
% del Armnico fundamental

ISC/I
L

<11

11h< 17h< 23h<


17
23
35

<50

2.0

1.0

0.75

50

3.0

1.5

1.15

35h

TD
D

0.30

0.15

2.5

0.45

0.22

3.75

Los armnicos pares se limitan al 25% de los lmites de


los armnicos impares mostrados anteriormente
* Todo equipo de generacin se limita a estos valores
independientemente del valor de Isc/Il que presente

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