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Reading Assignment

Diagnostic Assessment in Science as a means to improving teaching, learning, and assessment

Andi Citra Pratiwi (57060311)
1. How the author say about pre-instructional knowledge, and how it gives effect to the learning of
Pre-instructional knowledge are sensible and coherent understanding regarding natural
phenomena and concepts which are constructed by students themselves and do not match with
universally accepted scientific concepts. This pre-instructional knowledge will cause the students
experience difficulties in integrating any new information into their existing schema. If this preinstructional knowledge are not challenged, and become integrated into students schema, the new
information will be understood inappropriately.
2. The author explained about assessment by OECD. How the author explain about it. Does he
agree or disagree? Explain!
Answer: According to the author, assessment conducted by OECD provided information of
students learning in a summative manner, thus it cant provide feedback for both students and
teacher regarding students learning of the concept being investigated. As a consequence, the
author emphasizes the need of assessment which assess students thinking, rather than students
possession of information.
3. Why do we have to use diagnostic formative assessment method?
We have to use diagnostic formative assessment since it is useful to provide information
regarding students understanding of a concepts. Thus information, can further be used by the
teacher to improve students learning. The author explained that diagnostic formative assessment
method is a refinement from the old assessment method. Implementation of diagnostic formative
assessment is useful for teachers to develop sophisticated clinical judgement about student
understanding of significant ideas. Thus, it will enable educators to discuss educational progress,
rather than simply measure.
4. What is the difference between two tiers and traditional multiple choice test?
Answer: Traditional multiple choice provided only the possible answers of the question, and it
does not require students to give justification of their choice. Meanwhile, two tiers diagnostic
assessment test not only require students to choose one of the possible answers, but also requires
studentsto give justification of their choice.
5. What is the advantage of two tiers multiple choice test?
Answer: Two-tier multiple choice item provide a sensitive and effective way of assessing
meaningful learning among students, thus address the limitation of traditional multiple-choice
test items. Furthermore,It is convenient to administer and not time consuming.

6. Explain the 3 steps for construct two tier multiple choice test that have been explained in paper!
Answer: Three main steps in developing two tiers diagnostic test as follows:
a. Define the content by identification of propositional content knowledge statements of the
topic to be taught and the development of a concept map that accommodates the
propositional statements.
b. Information about students conceptions is obtained from the extant research literature, where
available, and where not available by having students provide free response explains to their
answers and conducting unstructured interviews with students who have previously been
taught the content/concepts.
c. The development of the two tiers multiple choice diagnostic item.

7. Explain what is the component of first tier and second tier

Answer: the first tier of each multiple-choice item consists of a content question having usually
two to four choices. The second tier of each item contains a set of usually four possible reasons
for the answer give to the first part.
8. Explain the criteria when the teacher score by using two tier!
Answer: According to the author, students answers to each item are considered to be correct
only if the correct answer and correct reason are given. Based on this assertion, it can be inferred
that the score (e.g. 1) will be give if students choose both correct answer and reason. Meanwhile,
the score will not be given (e.g. 0) if the students give correct answer but false reason, false
answer but correct reason, or both answer and reason are false.
9. What is the benefit of diagnostic instrument for teacher?
Answer: The using of two tier diagnostic test in the beginning or on completion of a specified
topic, science instructors can achieve better understanding about the nature of students
understanding and the existence of any alternative conceptions or misconceptions in a particular
topic being studied. Thus, it enables the instructors to modify the instruction in order to remedy
the problem by developing and/or utilizing alternative teaching approach that specifically
address students non-scientifically acceptable conceptions.
10. The author said about the problem of science learning in Australia. Explain the suggestion of the
author to help students learn science actively.
Answer: The problem that occurred is continuing low participation rate of students taking
science in higher level. The author explained that one way to encourage students to study science
is by presenting science in such a way that enable students to question and understand the
underlying science concepts. It can be done by implementing planned formative assessment
using multiple-choice diagnostic test. Through this way, students will be encouraged to think
about the concepts and consider alternative explanations rather than memorise basic facts for a
test or examination which are then forgotten. Most importantly, the use of two tiers diagnostic
test can contribute to students deeper understanding of the science concepts, since it helps the
students to examine their own thinking.