Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

OPTIMAL COORDINATION OF MOBILE SENSORS FOR

TARGET TRACKING UNDER ADDITIVE AND


MULTIPLICATIVE NOISES
Guide name: Mr. mahendharan
Saravana R

Pukkesh Nathan M

UG Scholars, Department of CSE


Panimalar Engineering College
str.saravana10@gmail.com

UG Scholars, Department of CSE


Panimalar Engineering College
ninja.cancer@gmail.com

ABSTRACT- In this project, the target tracking problem is investigated for a

tracking system with mobile range-only sensors. Being different from most
previous studies, both additive and multiplicative noises in measurements are
taken into consideration. An optimal coordination strategy, including sensor
selection and sensor motion, is proposed to maximize the tracking accuracy. In
particular, by fully utilizing the properties of objective function, the search space
and variables of the original optimization problem can be significantly reduced.
Based on this reduction, three algorithms are designed, respectively, for the
following: 1) efficient selection of task sensors; 2) reduction on combinations of
task sensors; and 3) efficient search of optimal sensor motion. The performance of
the proposed coordination strategy is illustrated by simulations.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Networking is the word


basically relating to computers and
their connectivity. It is very often used
in the world of computers and their
use in different connections. The term
networking implies the link between
two or more computers and their
devices, with the vital purpose of
sharing the data stored in the
computers, with each other. The
networks between the computing
devices are very common these days
due to the launch of various hardware

and computer software which aid in


making the activity much more
convenient to build and use. When a
computer communicates with another
computer on the network, it sends out
both the other computers MACaddress and the MAC-address of its
own. In that way the receiving
computer will not only recognize that
this packet is for me but also, who
sent this data packet so a return
response can be sent to the sender.

II.

FEASIBILITY STUDY

EXISTING SYSTEM:

Tracking accuracy is one of the most


important goals for sys-tem designers,
which strongly depends on the
relative positions between sensors and
target. In the optimal sensor
placement for range-only target
tracking system is analyzed, and the
optimal angular configuration is
derived. Reference studies the optimal
sensortarget geometries for rangeonly-, time-of-arrival, and bearingonly-based localization and identifies
the
optimal
sensortarget
configuration for different number of
sensors. Undoubtedly, by providing
mobility to the sensors, the tracking
accuracy
can
be
significantly
improved
via
sensor
motion
coordination. In a motion strategy for
the mobile sensors is designed to
satisfy
the
optimal
angular
configuration, in which there is no
limitation on the mobility of sensors.
It is assumed that each sensor can
move a given distance at each time
step, and the motion strategies are
designed under the constraint.
Reference develops a distributed
flocking algorithm for multiple robots
to track the estimated target and avoid
collision.
DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING
SYSTEM:

In an existing system, the


experimental data show the
existence of multiplicative noise
(MN), and the variance of MN is
often three to four times larger
than that of AN. Due to the
existence of MN, the measurement
error will significantly increase
with the increase in sensortarget
distance.
Therefore, MN cannot be ignored
in the design and analysis of a
target
tracking
system.
Unfortunately, the target tracking
problem with MN is quite different
from that with AN; thus, it cannot
be treated as a simple extension of
previous results.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:
In this paper, the target tracking
problem with both additive and
multiplicative noises (AMN) is
investigated for mobile range-only
sensors. The ultimate goal is to design
an optimal sensor coordination
strategy, including sensor selection
and motion, to improve tracking
accuracy. Following a target tracking
framework similar to this task can be
transformed into optimizing a certain
metric,
which
represents
the
localization accuracy of each step, by
properly selecting sensors and
adjusting their positions. Then, the
optimization of such metric can be
formulated as a multivariable
nonlinear optimization problem.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED
SYSTEM:
The relationship between the
metric and the sensortarget
distance, the search space of each
sensor, as well as the optimization
variables associated with each
sensor, can be greatly reduced.
This reduction enables the
following algorithmic design.
By utilizing the reduction of search
space, two algorithms are designed
to reduce, respectively, the number
of possible task sensors and the
number of possible sensor
combinations, such that the
computational
complexity
is
significantly simplified.
According to the reduction of
optimization variables, an iterative
algorithm is applied to efficiently
solve the nonlinear optimization
problem and yield the optimal
motion strategy of mobile sensors.
III.

SYSTEM STUDY

FEASIBILITY STUDY
The feasibility of the project is
analyzed in this phase and business
proposal is put forth with a very
general plan for the project and some
cost estimates. During system analysis
the feasibility study of the proposed
system is to be carried out. This is to
ensure that the proposed system is not
a burden to the company.
For
feasibility
analysis,
some
understanding
of
the
major

requirements
essential.

for

the

system

is

Three key considerations involved in


the feasibility analysis are
ECONOMICAL EASIBILITY
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY
This study is carried out to check the
economic impact that the system will
have on the organization. The amount
of fund that the company can pour
into the research and development of
the
system
is
limited.
The
expenditures must be justified. Thus
the developed system as well within
the budget and this was achieved
because most of the technologies used
are freely available. Only the
customized products had to be
purchased.

SOCIAL FEASIBILITY
The aspect of study is to check
the level of acceptance of the system
by the user. This includes the process
of training the user to use the system
efficiently. The user must not feel
threatened by the system, instead
must accept it as a necessity. The level
of acceptance by the users solely
depends on the methods that are
employed to educate the user about
the system and to make him familiar
with it. His level of confidence must
be raised so that he is also able to
make some constructive criticism,
which is welcomed, as he is the final
user of the system.

IV.

ARCHITECTURE

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
This study is carried out to check the
technical feasibility, that is, the
technical requirements of the system.
Any system developed must not have
a high demand on the available
technical resources. This will lead to
high demands on the available
technical resources. This will lead to
high demands being placed on the
client. The developed system must
have a modest requirement, as only
minimal or null changes are required
for implementing this system.

Figure 1: architecture diagram

In this figure,the target tracking


problem with both additive and
multiplicative noises (AMN) is
investigated for mobile range-only
sensors. The ultimate goal is to design

an optimal sensor coordination


strategy, including sensor selection
and motion, to improve tracking
accuracy. Following a target tracking
framework similar to this task can be
transformed into optimizing a certain
metric,
which
represents
the
localization accuracy of each step, by
properly selecting sensors and
adjusting their positions. Then, the
optimization of such metric can be
formulated as a multivariable
nonlinear optimization problem.
V.

VI.

ALGORITHM

IMPLEMENTATION

Target State Estimation


It utilizes a maximum likelihood
estimator to prelocate the position of
the target and makes a conversion of
the measurement to remove the
sensing nonlinearity; then, a standard
Kalman filter is used for state
prediction and estimation. In this
module, we develope a scenario with
highly irregular radio ranges, typical
of harsh indoor or extremely
obstructed outdoor environments. The
irregularity in the radio range is
modeled in these simulators as a
degree of irregularity (DoI) parameter.
The DoI represents the maximum
radio range variation per unit degree
change in direction.
Target State Prediction

In this module we develop target state


prediction module, where we develop
component of our inference process,
which obtains a nodes location from
noisy RSS measurements, using target
state prediction
Sensor Selection
We perform extensive simulations and
compare our solution with to state of
the art algorithms, using both realworld and synthetic data. In this
module, we create the network and
deploy it. Our network model consists
of two entities with Client and Router.
Where the module is developed using
socket programming in C#.net. So we
can execute the system in single
system or multiple systems. In client
system, we can target the location. In
router node, we simulate Wireless
Sensor Network nodes. We propose a
range-free scheme called virtual-hop
localization, which makes full use of
local information to mitigate the nonuniform node distribution problem.
Using
virtual-hop,
the
initial
estimated locations are more accurate
than those output by other range-free
schemes.
Sensor Movement
In this module, those identified good
nodes are regarded as references and
used to calibrate the location of bad
ones. Links with different ranging
quality are given different weights.
Outliers in range measurements are
tolerated using robust estimation.

VII.

CONCLUSION AND
ENHANCEMENT

FUTURE

In
this
paper,
a
coordination
strategy,
including sensor selection
and
motion,
has
been
proposed for a range-only
tracking system with mobile
sensors randomly scattered.
According to the properties of
the tacking accuracy metric,
which is derived based on the
measurement model with
both AMN, the search space
of each sensor is reduced
from a round to a curve.
Then,
considering
the
movable region of each
sensor,
an
algorithm
is
designed
to
select
the
candidate task sensors at
each time step, following
upon an algorithm for the
reduction on the number of
sensor combinations. They
both simplify the process of
sensor selection in a great
deal. An iterative algorithm is
adopted to move sensors for
the improvement of tracking
accuracy. Simulation results
illustrate the efficiency of our
proposed
strategy.
Our
proposed
coordination
strategy can be extended to
other cases. For the case of

bearing-only sensors with AN,


the FIM-based metric is also a
function
of
sensortarget
distance and angles, and a
shorter distance leads to a
better tracking performance,
which
is
in
the
same
mathematical form of the
range-only
sensors
we
considered. Therefore, our
proposed
coordination
strategy
can
be
easily
extended to the case of
bearing-only
sensors.
In
addition,
multiple
target
tracking is an interesting
extension of our work, which
will involve much more
complicated
problems,
including data association,
task assignment, and balance
on sensor motion.
VIII.

REFERENCES

[1] X. Wang, M. Fu, and H. Zhang,


Target tracking in wireless sensor
networks based on the combination of
KF and MLE using distance
measurements,
IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 11,
no. 4, pp. 567576,
Apr. 2012.
3468 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS,
VOL. 61, NO. 7, JULY 2014

[2] S. Martnez and F. Bullo,


Optimal sensor placement and
motion coordination
for target tracking, Automatica, vol.
42, no. 4, pp. 661668,
Apr. 2006.

[4] Y. Bar-Shalom, X. Li, and T.


Kirubarajan, Estimation With
Applications
to Tracking and Navigation: Theory
Algorithms and Software. Hoboken,
NJ, USA: Wiley, 2001.

[3] F. Zhao, J. Shin, and J. Reich,


Information-driven dynamic sensor
collaboration
for tracking applications, IEEE
Signal Process. Mag., vol. 19,
no. 2, pp. 6172, Mar. 2002.

[5] H. Wang, K. Yao, and D. Estrin,


Information-theoretic approaches for
sensor selection and placement in
sensor networks for target localization
and tracking, J. Commun. Netw., vol.
7, no. 4, pp. 438449, Dec. 2005.

IX.