You are on page 1of 9

Chapter

5
1. Kinesics

Body language / Movement


! Facial Expressions
! Gestures
! Eye communication
!


2. Proxemics
! Study of space and how we use it
! Territoriality -Marking ones environment

3. Artifacts
! Personal objects used to announce our identities and adorn ourselves

4. Paralanguage
! Use of the voice to communicate
- Qualities of Voice
" Loudness (loud/soft)
"

Pitch (high females/low males)

" Rate (speed)


- Vocalizations
" laughing, crying, whispering, whining, coughing

5. Touch (Haptics)
! who touch who, where, when and why. Ex: Men holding hands

6. Chronemics
! How we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction

7. Olfactory (Smell)
! Attraction, Taste, Memory, Identification

8. Nonverbal Communication
! All aspects of communication other than words themselves
! Symbols that are not words, including non-word vocalizations
! Nonverbal accounts for 90% of our communication

9. Congruent Messages
! Verbal and nonverbal match

10. Incongruent Messages
! Verbal and nonverbal do not match

11. Disfluencies (fillers)
! Uh, Um, So, Ok, Like, You know, And

Chapter 5 - Nonverbal
1. How is nonverbal communication different from verbal communication? ** Not a
good answer. See p.80

Nonverbal messages: are equal to/more powerful than verbal messages!






2. How does nonverbal communication modify verbal communication? (See Table 5.1,
p. 81) ** Not a good answer. See p.81

Nonverbal can: Substitute take the place of verbal communication




3. How can we improve our interpretations and use of Nonverbal Communication?
(pg. 94-95)

" Be sensitive to context
" Look for congruency with verbal messages
" Look for congruency with other nonverbal messages
" Be sensitive to your audience (culture, sub-culture)
" Empathy

4. Monochromic/polychromic orientations

Chronemics:
How we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction

" Monochromic (M-time) Ex: Germany, Australia, U.S., Switzerland
- Scarce resource
- Linear, sequential
- Talk about time like it is money. Ex: spent saved wasted lost

" Polychromic (P-time) Ex: Arab, African, Indian, Latin American, South Asian
- People and human relationships, not tasks, are of utmost importance
- Multiple activities, flexibility
- For example, for some Africans the person they are with is more important
than the one who is out of sight (Matsumoto, p. 278).



5. Know the types of nonverbal behavior listed in your textbook. Ill probably give
you an example and ask you to identify the nonverbal code (PP & Table 6.4, pg.138)

Types of Nonverbal Communication:

Kinesics:
Body language/Movement, Facial Expressions, Gestures, Eye communication

Physical Characteristics:
Sex, age, size, skin color, etc. Or Beauty, attraction

Haptic: (Touch)
All about touching. Who touch who, where, when and why

Paralanguage:
Use of the voice to communicate

Proxemics:
Study of space and how we use it



Artifacts:
Personal objects used to announce our identities and adorn ourselves
- Attachments to human body. Ex: clothes, tattoos, nickels.

Chronemics:
How we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction

- Monochromic (M-time) Ex: Germany, Australia, U.S., and Switzerland
- Polychromic (P-time) Ex: Arab, African, Indian, Latin American, and South Asian

Olfactory: (Smell)
Of or relating to the sense of smell.
- Attraction, Taste, Memory, Identification


Silence:
SHHH!
- Library, Hunting.







Chapters 6 & 7
1. Self-disclosure
Revealing information about ourselves that others are unlikely to discover on
their own

2. Conflict in Relationships
Conflict may be overt or covert

" overt
- People express differences in a straightforward manner
" covert
- Partners deny or camouflage disagreement or anger and express
it indirectly

3. Relational Dialectics
Opposing and continual tensions that are normal in personal relationships
" autonomy/connection
" novelty/predictability
" openness/closeness

4. Defining Personal Relationships
Unique commitments between irreplaceable individuals who are influenced
by relational dialectics, rules, and surrounding contexts

5. Social Exchange Theory
Develop relationships that will enable you to maximize your profits
- Profits = Rewards Costs

6. Social Penetration Model

7. Complementary Relationship
Differences bring you together. (p. 126-127)

8. Symmetrical Relationship
" Similarities bring you together. (P. 126-127)

9. Intimacy ** Not a good answer
From Google:

Communication in Intimate Relationships


When you are in an intimate relationship, you should feel understood and accepted for who you are.
You trust the other person and can open up completely to them. Intimacy can be intellectual,
emotional, and physical.

An intimate relationship is one in which you:
- Pay attention to your partner
- Share ideas and thoughts
- Share feelings with each other without fear
- Try to understand why you and your partner behave as you do

You can communicate in many ways:
- Words (what you say and what you do not say in phone calls, in person, in writing)
- Gestures (turning away from your partner, nodding your head, showing that you are listening)
- Facial expressions (smiling, frowning, looking disgusted)
- Touch (hugs, holding hands, sexual intimacy)


10. Low-context culture and High-context culture ** Not a good answer. See p.117
From Google:
-
High-context cultures (including much of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South
America) are relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative. This means that people in
these cultures emphasize interpersonal relationships. Developing trust is an important first
step to any business transaction.
-
Low-context cultures (including North America and much of Western Europe) are
logical, linear, individualistic, and action-oriented. People from low-context cultures value
logic, facts, and directness. Solving a problem means lining up the facts and evaluating one
after another. Decisions are based on fact rather than intuition. Discussions end with
actions. And communicators are expected to be straightforward, concise, and efficient in
telling what action is expected.



11. Gunnysacking ** Not a good answer. See p.131

From dictionary:
-
Gunnysacking: when your boss or spouse saves up a bunch of complaints and dumps them
all on you at once instead of taking care of one problem at a time.

Chapters 6 & 7 - Interpersonal


1. Know the four ways that people may manage the relational dialectics in their
interpersonal relationship. Identify them in an example given in the exam.

Managing Dialectics:



2. Recognize the differences between low-context and high-context cultures. ** Not
a good answer. See p.117
From Google:
-
High-context cultures (including much of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South
America) are relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative. This means that people in
these cultures emphasize interpersonal relationships. Developing trust is an important first
step to any business transaction.
-
Low-context cultures (including North America and much of Western Europe) are
logical, linear, individualistic, and action-oriented. People from low-context cultures value
logic, facts, and directness. Solving a problem means lining up the facts and evaluating one
after another. Decisions are based on fact rather than intuition. Discussions end with
actions. And communicators are expected to be straightforward, concise, and efficient in
telling what action is expected.

3. Be able to recognize (from examples) the 4 elements of the definition of personal


relationships (unique, commitments, Rules, contexts).

#1 Uniqueness:
Particular peoplewho they are and what they think, feel and dodefine
the value of the communication

#2 Commitment:
A decision to remain in the relationship
- Passion: intense positive feelings and desires
- Investments: material (money, possessions), time, energy, thought, feelings

#3 Relationship Rules:
- Cultural Rule: Constrain everyone in that culture.
- Example: You must wear clothing in public.


- Sociological Rule: Pertain to sub-groups.
- Example: Talk to professors more politely than your friends


- Psychological Rule: Created through disclosure.
- Example: I think hes cute.


#4 Contexts:
- Neighborhoods, social circles, family units, and society as a whole (culture)
- Changes in society and social norms. Technological advances


4. Be able to identify a relationship rule (cultural, sociological, and
psychological) from an example.

- Cultural Rule: Constrain everyone in that culture.
- Example: You must wear clothing in public.


- Sociological Rule: Pertain to sub-groups.

- Example: Talk to professors more politely than your friends


- Psychological Rule: Created through disclosure.
- Example: I think hes cute.


5. Know why people join groups and seek out others Schutzs Theory (p. 107-108)

Schutzs Theory of Interpersonal Needs says that they are looking to obtain three main
needs:

1. Affection 2. Inclusion 3. Control

The theory is based on the belief that when people get together in a group, there are three main
interpersonal needs they are looking to obtain affection/openness, control and inclusion.

6. Be able to recognize (from examples) the 3 alternatives to self-disclosure.



The 3 alternatives to self-disclosure Alternatives:

" Lies deception
" Equivocation
- Equivocal language has two or more plausible meanings
" Hinting
- more direct than equivocal statements
- aimed at changing others behavior

7. Gender and Language (p. 116-117)

" In general women
- Build more connection with others rapport talk
- Want to talk about problems
- Build closeness through dialogue

" In general men
- Compare/compete with others
- Use report talk
- Want to fix problems
- Build closeness through doing

" In general women
- Use more tag questions (isnt it?)
- Add hedges (Im not sure, but)
- Use intensifiers (super fun)

" In general, men use
- Fewer descriptors for colors
- Less enhanced language (What a cute baby!)(Those jeans are so nice!)

8. Conflict Management Styles recognize from examples. When could each be an
appropriate response?

#1 Avoidance. (Lose/Win)
Members who use this style may change the subject, avoid bringing up a
controversial issue, or even deny a conflict exists.

" Avoiding conflict can be an appropriate approach specifically when:
- The issue is not that important to you
- You need to take time to collect your thoughts and control your
emotions
- Other group members are addressing the same concerns effectively

- The consequences of confrontation are too risky




#2 Accommodation Yielding. (Lose/Win)
Give to other members at the expense of your own goals. Motivated by a
genuine desire to get along.

" Accommodating conflict can be an appropriate approach specifically
when:
- The issue is very important to others but not to you
- It is more important to preserve group harmony than to resolve the
current issue
- You realize that you are wrong or you have changed your mind
- You are unlikely to succeed in persuading the group to adopt your
position

#3 Competition Power-Forcing. (Win/Lose)
Competitive members want to win; they argue that their ideas are superior.

" Approach conflict competitively when:
- You have strong beliefs about an important issue
- The group must act immediately
- The consequences of the groups decision may be very serious or
harmful
- You believe that the group may be acting unethically or illegally

#4 Compromise -Halving the Loaf. (Lose/Lose)
Conceding some goals in order to achieve others. Everyone loses equally.

" Groups should consider compromising when:
- Other methods of resolving the conflict will not be effective
- The members have reached an impasse and are no longer
progressing toward a reasonable solution
- The group does not have enough time to explore more creative
solutions

9. Review Communication Counts in your College Experience on page 110. Know
the 4 suggested strategies for dating and interacting with potential partners
while maintaining honesty. ** No answer. See p.110