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Introduction

In todays world, automation is needed in many systems which provide better performance. Large
numbers of systems are fully automated. Vehicle system is composed automotive electrical architectures
consist of a large number of electronic control units (ECU) carrying out a variety of control functions. In
vehicle system we generally want greater safety, more comfort, convenience, pollution control and less
fuel consumption. Modern vehicle may have many electronic control units (ECU) for various subsystems.
Different such subsystems are airbags, antilock braking, engine control, audio systems, windows, doors,
mirror adjustment etc. Some of these subsystems form independent dependent subsystems.
Communications among dependent sub systems is essential.
Traditional electronic control system can improve a vehicle dynamics, economy comfort. But some
problems also have come up, such as the body wiring complexity, space constraints and some reliability
issues. In order to solve these problems, the vehicle network technology has been created. In-vehicle
networking protocols must satisfy requirements which include, significant reduction of wiring harness,
reducing body weight and costs, improving the efficiency of fault diagnosis, low latency times and
configuration flexibility and enhancing the level of intelligent control. Sub-systems (ECU) require the
exchange particular performance and position information within defined communication latency.
Therefore the requirement for each ECU is to communicate via network technology called CAN
(Controller Area Network) bus. The project focuses on using CAN bus protocol for vehicle automation.

Objective:
The goal of this project is to develop few automated features for the driver-vehicle control system using
CAN Protocol. In this project we control switching of the vehicles AC/Fan using temperature sensor and
help the vehicle in parking using ultrasonic obstacle sensor. The status of the car temperature and the rear
distance of the vehicle from obstacle are conveyed to the user by displaying on the LCD. The primary
aim of the project is to learn about the CAN Protocol which is a highly reliable protocol and has good real
time performance with very low cost.

Scope of the Project:


The scope of our project is to achieve AC/Engine Heat controlling technique and Vehicle parking system
which can be implemented in all the automobiles. The use of CAN protocol to implement the above
features accurately is our main goal.
With rapidly changing computer and information technology and much of the technology finding way
into vehicles. They are undergoing dramatic changes in their capabilities and how they interact with the
drivers. Hence the automated features inside a vehicle are very much necessary to be achieved. The
AC/Engine Heat control mechanism and vehicle parking system used in our project uses ARM 7
processors and CAN controllers where each ECU is connected across the CAN bus and communicates
with the Monitor ECU. The project can be further extended for vehicle security, cruise control and electric
power steering (EPS), audio systems, power windows, doors, mirror adjustment, battery and recharging
systems for hybrid/electric cars.

BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM

Basic Block Diagram of CAN communication

CAN is a multi-master broadcast serial bus standard for cis able to send and receive messages, but not
simultaneously.
Each node requires a:
Central processing unit or host processor
The host processor decides what received messages mean and which messages it wants to transmit
itself.
Sensors, actuators and control devices can be connected to the host processor.
CAN controller; hardware with a synchronous clock
Receiving: the CAN controller stores received bits serially message is available, which can then be
fetched by the host processor (usually after the CAN controller has triggered an interrupt).

Sending: the host processor stores its transmit messages to a CAN controller, which transmits the bits
serially onto the bus.
Transceiver
Receiving: it adapts signal levels from the bus to levels that the CAN controller expects and has
protective circuitry that protects the CAN controller.
Transmitting: it converts the transmit-bit signal received from the CAN controller into a signal that is
sent onto the bus.

Applications:
The primary applications for this project are for the drivers. The project delivers the following two
features:
ye Blink sensor
2. GPS (Global Positioning System)

Hardware Requirement:
ARM7 LPC2129:
The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles. The RISC
instruction set and related decode mechanism are much simpler than those of Complex Instruction Set
Computer (CISC) design. This simplicity gives:
A high instruction throughput.
An excellence real-time interrupts response.
A small, cost-effective, processor macro cell.
The ARM7TDMI core is the industrys most widely used 32-bit embedded RISC Microprocessor
solution. Optimized for cost and power-sensitive application, the ARM7TDMI solution provides low
power consumption, small size, and high performance needed in portable, embedded application. The
ARM7DMI-S is synthesizable version of ARM7TDMI core.

Features:
16/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a 64 or 144 pin package.
16 kB on-chip Static RAM, 128/256 kB on-chip Flash Program Memory
In-System Programming (ISP) and In-Application Programming (IAP) via on- chip boot-loader
software. Flash programming takes 1 ms per 512 byte line. Single sector or full chip erase takes 400 ms.
Two interconnected CAN interfaces with advanced acceptance filters.
Four channel 10-bit A/D converter with conversion time as low as 2.44 ms.
Two 32-bit timers (with 4 capture and 4 compare channels), PWM unit (6 outputs), Real Time Clock
and Watchdog.
Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs (16C550), Fast I2C (400 Kbits/s) and two SPIs.
60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PhaseLocked Loop.

Vectored Interrupt Controller with configurable priorities and vector addresses.


Up to forty-six, 5 V tolerant general purpose I/O pins.
On-chip crystal oscillator with an operating range of 1 MHz to 30 MHz
Two low power modes Idle and Power-down.
Processor wake-up from Power-down mode via external interrupt.
Individual enable/disable of peripheral functions for power optimization.
Dual power supply.
- CPU operating voltage range of 1.65V to 1.95V (1.8V +/- 8.3%).
- I/O power supply range of 3.0V to 3.6V (3.3V +/- 10%).

Block Diagram of ARM7 LPC2129:

4.1.1.1 Analog to Digital Converter (ADC):


Basic clocking for the A/D converters is provided by the APB clock. A programmable divider is included
in each converter, to scale this clock to the 4.5 MHz (max) clock needed by the successive approximation
process. A fully accurate conversion requires 11 of these clocks.

Features:
10 bit successive approximation analog to digital converter.
Input multiplexing among 4 pins.
Power-down mode.
Measurement ranges 0 V to VREF (typically 3 V; not to exceed VDDA voltage level).
10 bit conversion time = 2.44 s.
Burst conversion mode for single or multiple inputs

ADC Routine Flowchart:

START

INITIALIZE
INPUT PORT- P0.30

START

IS
CONVERSI
ONDONE

YE
S

CONVERTED
DATA PRESENT

STO
Global Positioning System (GPS)

N
O

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides
location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the earth where
there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical
capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The United States
government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a
GPS receiver.
The US began the GPS project in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation
systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified
engineering design studies from the 1960s. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) developed
the system, which originally used 24 satellites. It became fully operational in 1995. Bradford
Parkinson, Roger L. Easton, and Ivan A. Getting are credited with inventing it.
Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to
modernize the GPS system and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and
Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX). Announcements from Vice President Al
Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, the U.S. Congress authorized
the modernization effort, GPS III.

Fundamental
The GPS system concept is based on time. The satellites carry very stable atomic clocks that are
synchronized to each other and to ground clocks. Any drift from true time maintained on the
ground is corrected daily. Likewise, the satellite locations are monitored precisely. GPS receivers
have clocks as wellhowever, they are not synchronized with true time, and are less stable. GPS
satellites continuously transmit their current time and position. A GPS receiver monitors multiple
satellites and solves equations to determine the exact position of the receiver and its deviation
from true time. At a minimum, four satellites must be in view of the receiver for it to compute
four unknown quantities (three position coordinates and clock deviation from satellite time).

More detailed description


Each GPS satellite continually broadcasts a signal (carrier frequency with modulation) that
includes:

A pseudorandom code (sequence of ones and zeros) that is known to the receiver. By
time-aligning a receiver-generated version and the receiver-measured version of the code,
the time of arrival (TOA) of a defined point in the code sequence, called an epoch, can be
found in the receiver clock time scale

A message that includes the time of transmission (TOT) of the code epoch (in GPS
system time scale) and the satellite position at that time

Conceptually, the receiver measures the TOAs (according to its own clock) of four satellite
signals. From the TOAs and the TOTs, the receiver forms four time of flight (TOF) values, which
are (given the speed of light) approximately equivalent to receiver-satellite range differences.
The receiver then computes its three-dimensional position and clock deviation from the four
TOFs.
In practice the receiver position (in three dimensional Cartesian coordinates with origin at the
earth's center) and the offset of the receiver clock relative to GPS system time are computed
simultaneously, using the navigation equations to process the TOFs.
The receiver's earth-centered solution location is usually converted to latitude, longitude and
height relative to an ellipsoidal earth model. The height may then be further converted to height
relative the geoid (e.g., EGM96) (essentially, mean sea level). These coordinates may be
displayed, e.g. on a moving map display and/or recorded and/or used by other system (e.g.,
vehicle guidance).

User-satellite geometry

Although usually not formed explicitly in the receiver processing, the conceptual time
differences of arrival (TDOAs) define the measurement geometry. Each TDOA corresponds to a
hyperboloid of revolution (see Multilateration). The line connecting the two satellites involved
(and its extensions) forms the axis of the hyperboloid. The receiver is located at the point where
three hyperboloids intersect. It is sometimes incorrectly said that the user location is at the
intersection of three spheres. While simpler to visualize, this is only the case if the receiver has a
clock synchronized with the satellite clocks (i.e., the receiver measures true ranges to the
satellites rather than range differences). There are significant performance benefits to the user
carrying a clock synchronized with the satellites. Foremost is that only three satellites are needed
to compute a position solution. If this were part of the GPS system concept so that all users
needed to carry a synchronized clock, then a smaller number of satellites could be deployed.
However, the cost and complexity of the user equipment would increase significantly.

Receiver in continuous operation


The description above is representative of a receiver start-up situation. Most receivers have a
track algorithm, sometimes called a tracker, that combines sets of satellite measurements
collected at different timesin effect, taking advantage of the fact that successive receiver
positions are usually close to each other. After a set of measurements are processed, the tracker
predicts the receiver location corresponding to the next set of satellite measurements. When the
new measurements are collected, the receiver uses a weighting scheme to combine the new
measurements with the tracker prediction. In general, a tracker can (a) improve receiver position
and time accuracy, (b) reject bad measurements, and (c) estimate receiver speed and direction.
The disadvantage of a tracker is that changes in speed or direction can only be computed with a
delay, and that derived direction becomes inaccurate when the distance traveled between two
position measurements drops below or near the random error of position measurement. GPS
units can use measurements of the doppler shift of the signals received to compute velocity
accurately. More advanced navigation systems use additional sensors like a compass or an
inertial navigation system to complement GPS.

Non-navigation application

In typical GPS operation as a navigator, four or more satellites must be visible to obtain an
accurate result. The solution of the navigation equations gives the position of the receiver along
with the difference between the time kept by the receiver's on-board clock and the true time-ofday, thereby eliminating the need for a more precise and possibly impractical receiver based
clock. Applications for GPS such as time transfer, traffic signal timing, and synchronization of
cell phone base stations, make use of this cheap and highly accurate timing. Some GPS
applications use this time for display, or, other than for the basic position calculations, do not use
it at all.
Although four satellites are required for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases. If one
variable is already known, a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites. For
example, a ship or aircraft may have known elevation. Some GPS receivers may use additional
clues or assumptions such as reusing the last known altitude, dead reckoning, inertial navigation,
or including information from the vehicle computer, to give a (possibly degraded) position when
fewer than four satellites are visible

GSM

The GSM technical specifications define the different elements within the GSM network
architecture. It defines the different elements and the ways in which they interact to enable the
overall system operation to be maintained.
The GSM network architecture is now well established and with the other later cellular systems
now established and other new ones being deployed, the basic GSM network architecture has
been updated to interface to the network elements required by these systems.
Despite the developments of the newer systems, the basic GSM system architecture has been
maintained, and the network elements described below perform the same functions as they did
when the original GSM system was launched in the early 1990s.GSM network architecture
elements
The GSM network architecture as defined in the GSM specifications can be grouped into four
main areas:

Mobile station (MS)

Base-Station Subsystem (BSS)

Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS)

Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS)

The different elements of the GSM network operate together and the user is not aware of the
different entities within the system.
A basic diagram of the overall GSM system architecture with these four major elements is shown
below:

Simplified GSM Network Architecture Diagram

Mobile station
Mobile stations (MS), mobile equipment (ME) or as they are most widely known, cell or mobile
phones are the section of a GSM cellular network that the user sees and operates. In recent years
their size has fallen dramatically while the level of functionality has greatly increased. A further
advantage is that the time between charges has significantly increased.
There are a number of elements to the cell phone, although the two main elements are the main
hardware and the SIM.
The hardware itself contains the main elements of the mobile phone including the display, case,
battery, and the electronics used to generate the signal, and process the data receiver and to be
transmitted. It also contains a number known as the International Mobile Equipment Identity
(IMEI). This is installed in the phone at manufacture and "cannot" be changed. It is accessed by
the network during registration to check whether the equipment has been reported as stolen.

The SIM or Subscriber Identity Module contains the information that provides the identity of the
user to the network. It contains are variety of information including a number known as the
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) section of the GSM network architecture that is
fundamentally associated with communicating with the mobiles on the network. It consists of
two elements:

Base Transceiver Station (BTS):

The BTS used in a GSM network

comprises the radio transmitter receivers, and their associated antennas that
transmit and receive to directly communicate with the mobiles. The BTS is
the defining element for each cell. The BTS communicates with the mobiles
and the interface between the two is known as the Um interface with its
associated protocols.

Base Station Controller (BSC):

The BSC forms the next stage back into

the GSM network. It controls a group of BTSs, and is often co-located with one
of the BTSs in its group. It manages the radio resources and controls items
such as handover within the group of BTSs, allocates channels and the like. It
communicates with the BTSs over what is termed the Abis interface.

Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)


The GSM system architecture contains a variety of different elements, and is often termed the
core network. It provides the main control and interfacing for the whole mobile network. The
major elements within the core network include:

Mobile Switching services Centre (MSC):

The main element within the

core network area of the overall GSM network architecture is the Mobile
switching Services Centre (MSC). The MSC acts like a normal switching node
within a PSTN or ISDN, but also provides additional functionality to enable the
requirements of a mobile user to be supported. These include registration,
authentication, call location, inter-MSC handovers and call routing to a mobile
subscriber. It also provides an interface to the PSTN so that calls can be

routed from the mobile network to a phone connected to a landline.


Interfaces to other MSCs are provided to enable calls to be made to mobiles
on different networks.

Home

Location

Register

(HLR):

This database contains all the

administrative information about each subscriber along with their last known
location. In this way, the GSM network is able to route calls to the relevant
base station for the MS. When a user switches on their phone, the phone
registers with the network and from this it is possible to determine which BTS
it communicates with so that incoming calls can be routed appropriately.
Even when the phone is not active (but switched on) it re-registers
periodically to ensure that the network (HLR) is aware of its latest position.
There is one HLR per network, although it may be distributed across various
sub-centres to for operational reasons.

Visitor Location Register (VLR):

This contains selected information from

the HLR that enables the selected services for the individual subscriber to be
provided. The VLR can be implemented as a separate entity, but it is
commonly realised as an integral part of the MSC, rather than a separate
entity. In this way access is made faster and more convenient.

Equipment Identity Register (EIR):

The EIR is the entity that decides

whether a given mobile equipment may be allowed onto the network. Each
mobile equipment has a number known as the International Mobile
Equipment Identity. This number, as mentioned above, is installed in the
equipment and is checked by the network during registration. Dependent
upon the information held in the EIR, the mobile may be allocated one of
three states - allowed onto the network, barred access, or monitored in case
its problems.

Authentication Centre (AuC):

The AuC is a protected database that

contains the secret key also contained in the user's SIM card. It is used for
authentication and for ciphering on the radio channel.

Gateway Mobile Switching Centre (GMSC):

The GMSC is the point to

which a ME terminating call is initially routed, without any knowledge of the


MS's location. The GMSC is thus in charge of obtaining the MSRN (Mobile
Station Roaming Number) from the HLR based on the MSISDN (Mobile Station
ISDN number, the "directory number" of a MS) and routing the call to the
correct visited MSC. The "MSC" part of the term GMSC is misleading, since the
gateway operation does not require any linking to an MSC.

SMS Gateway (SMS-G):

The SMS-G or SMS gateway is the term that is

used to collectively describe the two Short Message Services Gateways


defined in the GSM standards. The two gateways handle messages directed
in different directions. The SMS-GMSC (Short Message Service Gateway
Mobile Switching Centre) is for short messages being sent to an ME. The SMSIWMSC (Short Message Service Inter-Working Mobile Switching Centre) is used
for short messages originated with a mobile on that network. The SMS-GMSC
role is similar to that of the GMSC, whereas the SMS-IWMSC provides a fixed
access point to the Short Message Service Centre.

CAN Bus in an Automobile


The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a serial communications protocol which efficiently supports
distributed real time control with a very high level of security. CAN Bus is a vehicle bus standard
designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle.
Its domain of application ranges from high speed networks to low cost multiplex wiring. In automotive
electronics, engine control units, sensors, anti-skid-systems, etc. are connected using CAN with bitrates
up to 1 Mbit/s. At the same time it is cost effective to build into vehicle body electronics, e.g. lamp
clusters electric windows etc. to replace the wiring harness otherwise required.

Salient Features of CAN protocol:


o Message based protocol Invented by Robert Bosch GmbH in 1980 for automotive applications.
o Asynchronous Serial Bus.
o Simple 2-wire differential bus.

o Absence of node addressing.


Message identifier specifies contents and priority
Lowest message identifier has highest priority
o Non-destructive arbitration system by CSMA with collision detection.
o Multi-master / Broadcasting concept.
o Sophisticated error detection & handling system.

CAN Bus Technology


CAN is a multi-master broadcast serial bus standard for connecting ECUs. Each node is able to send and
receive messages, but not simultaneously. A message consists primarily of an ID (identifier), which
represents the priority of the message, and up to eight data bytes. The improved CAN (CAN FD) extends
the length of the data section to up to 64 bytes per frame. It is transmitted serially onto the bus. This
signal pattern is encoded in non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and is sensed by all nodes. The devices that are
connected by a CAN network are typically sensors, actuators, and other control devices. These devices
are not connected directly to the bus, but through a host processor and a CAN controller. If the bus is idle
which is represented by recessive level (Logical 1), any node may begin to transmit. If two or more nodes
begin sending messages at the same time, the message with the more dominant ID (which has the higherorder dominant - i.e., zero bit) will overwrite other nodes' less dominant IDs, so that eventually (after this
arbitration on the ID.) only the dominant message remains and is received by all nodes. This mechanism
is referred to as priority based bus arbitration. Messages with numerically smaller values of IDs have
higher priority and are transmitted first.

CAN Frames
A CAN network can be configured to work with two different message (or "frame") formats: the standard
or base frame format and the only difference between the two formats is that the "CAN base frame"
supports a length of 11 bits for the identifier, and the "CAN extended frame" supports a length of 29 bits
for the identifier All frames begin with a start the frame transmission. A CAN network can be configured
to work with two different message (or "frame") formats: the standard or base frame format and the

extended frame format. All frames begin with a start-of-frame (SOF) bit that denotes the start of CAN
has four frame types:
Data

frame: a frame containing node data for transmission

Remote
Error

frame: a frame requesting the transmission of a specific identifier

frame: a frame transmitted

Overload frame:

a frame to inject a delay between data and/or remote frame

Data frame

The data frame is the only frame for actual data transmission. There are two message formats:
Base

frame format: with 11 identifier bits

Extended frame

format: with 29 identifier bits

The CAN standard requires the implementation must accept the base frame format and may accept the
extended frame format, but must tolerate the extended frame format.

Control Flow at each CAN node:


START

Initialize ADC,CAN
controller,ISR.

N
O

Is 20ms
Or remote
request
received?

YES

Read ADC, create


message and set up
frame ID.
Is
Store packet in transmit
transmit
buffer of CAN controller.

YES

N
O

CAN

Data

Transmission:

STAR
Initialisation of I/O

Read Data from


sensor
Initialisation of CAN
Module
NO

While
(1)
Return

YE
S

Check
CAN Bus
Free
NO

YE
S

Assign
message ID
Transmit data on CAN

Delay

STO
P

CAN Data Reception:

STAR
Initialisation of I/O
ports
Initialisation of CAN

NO
While
(1)
YE
S
Chec
ECU1
interru
ptupt

Read ECU1

Chec
ECU2
interru
ptupt

Read ECU2
data
Fan control / Buzzer
alert

STO
P

Return