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Elements of Educational process

Educational process is comprised of the following elements:




Teacher is an essential element of the process of education that transmits the curricular content to
the students. He guides the students in the selection of ways of life. He also supervises the cocurricular activities. No system of education of the world can get the objective of education
without the active participation of the teacher in educative process. Teacher is the person who
transmit the curricular content and thereby causes positive changes in the character of the
stuents. The instructional process cannot be conducted without the presence of a teacher. Teacher,
content, methodology and the students should rightly understand their responsibilities for the
successful conduct of the instructional process. The instructional process begins with the teacher
and he himself evaluates the instructional process. The experts agree that a teacher makes the
instructional process meaningful and purposeful. As there is a gardener for the garden, a soldier
for watching the border, a teacher is necessary for supervising the educating and training process
of the children.


Learning is one of the most important activities in which humans engage. It is at the very core of
the educational process, although most of what people learn occurs outside of school. For
thousands of years, philosophers and psychologists have sought to understand the nature of
learning, how it occurs, and how one person can influence the learning of another person through
teaching and similar endeavors. Various theories of learning have been suggested, and these
theories differ for a variety of reasons. A theory, most simply, is a combination of different
factors or variables woven together in an effort to explain whatever the theory is about. In
general, theories based on scientific evidence are considered more valid than theories based on
opinion or personal experience. In any case, it is wise to be cautious when comparing the
appropriateness of different theories. In addition to formal theories, people hold personal
theories, including theories of learning and teaching. Some typical questions such theories might
involve are: How does one determine if learning has occurred? What factors determine whether
or not learning occurs? Are these factors located in the environment or within the individual?

This entry focuses first on different conceptions and definitions of learning. Next, the evolution
of theories and conceptions of learning over the past 100 years is discussed, highlighting some of
the advantages and limitations of different theoretical perspectives. Following a discussion of the
relationship between theory and practice, examples of different types of learning are presented,
and the appropriateness of different theories for different learning situations is pointed out.


The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific
course or program. In dictionaries, curriculum is often defined as the courses offered by a school,
but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools. Depending on how broadly educators
define or employ the term, curriculum typically refers to the knowledge and skills students are
expected to learn, which includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are expected
to meet; the units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to students;
the books, materials, videos, presentations, and readings used in a course; and the tests,
assessments, and other methods used to evaluate student learning. An individual teachers
curriculum, for example, would be the specific learning standards, lessons, assignments, and
materials used to organize and teach a particular course.
In many cases, teachers develop their own curricula, often refining and improving them over
years, although it is also common for teachers to adapt lessons and syllabi created by other
teachers, use curriculum templates and guides to structure their lessons and courses, or purchase
prepackaged curricula from individuals and companies. In some cases, schools purchase
comprehensive, multigrade curriculum packagesoften in a particular subject area, such as
mathematicsthat teachers are required to use or follow. Curriculum may also encompass a
schools academic requirements for graduation, such as the courses students have to take and
pass, the number of credits students must complete, and other requirements, such as completing a
capstone project or a certain number of community-service hours. Generally speaking,
curriculum takes many different forms in schoolstoo many to comprehensively catalog here.


Student is a most significant element of the process of education. A student is a person who has
the desire to bring about changes in his behavior, attitudes and skills. This is the person for
whom the learning process is conducted. The instructional process cannot be held without the
students. To me, he is the pivot and central focus of the educative process. The objective of all
the educational activities produce changes in the behavior of student. In the past, the student was

regarded as the person sitting in the classroom and listening to his teacher. Now, in the modern
word the concept of a student is absolutely changed. Now, a student is a person who learns
through formal, non-formal and in-formal methods of education. There are a lot of possibilities
of learning before us. We learn from nature, mistakes and experiences and also from teachers.
Now, the responsibilities of the students have been increased. In spite of all these, formal
education cannot survive without the presence of students.


Every individual is born in a society in this way he is a part of a society. The educative process
can only be conducted in a society. Education cannot be separated from society. Education
cannot be carried out and organized in space. It requires a society to take birth. Society affects
individuals. Likewise, the role of an individual also affects the society. Social stability can be
ensured and maintained if there is a harmony between individuals and society. If we wish to
develop the abilities of the individuals, we will have to produce an appropriate social
environment. This environment can only be produced through the establishment of the educative
process. Education can never ignore the needs of society. Society can never survive without the
existence of education. If there is no society, there is no education. The existence of education
and society is interlinked and inter-dependent.

Here the following are being discussed because the learning of students is largely based
on the following:

1. Aims of education
2. Pedagogy
3. Evaluation

Aims of education

The aims and objectives of education can be stated after defining the difference between
education and instruction. Education helps in the complete growth of an individuals personality,
whereas instruction merely trains an individual or a group in the efficient performance of some
task. A human being may be a great general, an efficient carpenter or a first-class pilot, a lawyer,
a mechanic or a pathologist, a renowned doctor, a chemical engineer or a chartered accountant,

but still remain a semi-educated, ill-mannered, immoral, unrighteous or unjust person. Similarly,
someone may be a very fine painter, a good poet; or possess a love of beauty which is highly
delicate and sensitive, but may, at the same time, be cruel or brutal, or an untruthful, unsocial
individual, who deliberately ignores his or her duty towards neighbors or even spouse and
children. We can say that people who have specialized in certain educational fields are wellinstructed individuals, but we cannot necessarily regard them as truly educated. On the other
hand, someone who knows and performs his or her duty towards self, family, neighbors and
humanity, and at the same time has acquired a basic knowledge about how to earn a livelihood
honestly and live a decent life, should be called an educated person. Such a person may not have
specialized in a particular field of knowledge, but lack of expertise does not automatically
prevent him or her from being recognized as an excellent human being. Good people are not
necessarily complete people. In fact, no-one around us can be regarded as complete, because
there is no end to the growth of human personality. A wide knowledge of many subjects helps in
the growth of personality provided that we know how to adjust our knowledge to our behavior,
and how knowledge and action are to be integrated into a broad, total framework of life. The
outlook of an educated person is not static, but is modified and mellowed as he or she applies
principles to practice and acquires an outlook enriched by experience.


A pedagogy of teacher education must go well beyond the simple delivery of information
about teaching. This book describes and explores the complex nature of teaching and of
learning about teaching, illustrating how important teacher educators' professional
knowledge is and how that knowledge must influence teacher training practices. This
research is highlighting the vast complexity of teachers work and specifying just what
the nature of that work truly is. As Lovat further emphasises: a teacher is a highly
developed autonomous professional, with a requisite professional knowledge base and
practitioner skills which could stand alongside the equivalent in medicine, law and