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# Individual Study Plan: Mechanics

Subject:
Student:

Physics

Teacher:
Unit

Unit 1

Mechanics ISP
This ISP covers the Mechanics part of Physics Unit 1: Physics on the Go. While much of the
topic contains mathematical concepts which you will be asked quantitatively (using
numbers) you may be asked to explain these ideas qualitatively (using words). This ISP
will help you build the skills required to answer both styles of questions and aid you to
build your knowledge for your assessments. It is of imperative importance that you can
answer both quantitative and qualitative Physics questions; without this skill you will
struggle to do any better than a D grade. To achieve a grade A-C you will need to be able
to bring together different areas of Physics you have learnt (e.g. linking forces with
equilibrium). You must also be able to use an equation in a qualitative manner, explaining
the implications of changing a variable in the equation. The specification points by this
ISP are all of the specification points within the Mechanics module (see your introduction
to AS Physics booklet).
s needed
1
Specification points covered : 2, 3, 5
AS
Q
E
M
You should read through the notes
Physics
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from lessons and p10-15 from the
Text book
course textbook. The areas to focus
on are:
Explainin
1. the differences between scalars and g
EBI
vectors
Everythin
2. a list of base units,
g
3. information that can be deduced
number
from displacement, velocity and
1
MRI
acceleration time graphs
Complete Explaining Everything 1
Mechanic
Complete questions 1 to 5 from
s ISP
booklet
2

## Specification points covered : 1

notes from lessons and p16-17 from
the course textbook. The areas to
focus on are:
1. the equations of motion (uniform
acceleration)
2. the experiment and demonstrations
we performed to demonstrate the
equations of motion and the value
of g
Complete Explaining Everything 2
Complete questions 6 to 9 from
Specification points covered :
6,7,9,10,11
You should read through the notes

AS
Physics
Text book
Explainin
g
Everythin
g
number
2
Mechanic
s ISP
booklet
AS
Physics
Text book

Q
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WWW

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## from lessons and p18-30 from the

course textbook. The areas to focus
on are:
1. trigonometry and resolving vectors
2. Newtons 3 laws and their
applications
Complete Explaining Everything 3
Complete questions 10 to 14 from

## Specification points covered : 8,

You should read through the notes
from lessons and p31-33 from the
course textbook. The areas to focus
on are:
1. Equilibrium (statics) and resolving
forces to find horizontal and vertical
components.
Complete Explaining Everything 4
Complete questions 15 to 16 from

## Specification points covered :

4,6,7,12,13,14,15,16,17
You should read through the notes
from lessons and p34-44 from the
course textbook. The areas to focus
on are:
1. How to resolve velocities into their
horizontal and vertical components.
2. How to find the time of flight and
maximum range of a projectile
3. How energy, work and power are
can be described.
Complete Explaining Everything 5
Complete questions 17 to 18 from

Explainin
g
Everythin
g
number
3

EBI

MRI

Mechanic
s ISP
booklet

AS
Physics
Text book
Explainin
g
Everythin
g
number
4
Mechanic
s ISP
booklet
AS
Physics
Text book
Explainin
g
Everythin
g
number
5
Mechanic
s ISP
booklet

Q
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## List of data, formulae and relationships

Data
Acceleration of free fall
Boltzmann constant
Coulombs law constant

g = 9.81 m s

k = 1.38 10

## (close to Earths surface)

23

JK

k = 1/4 o
9

= 8.99 10 N m C
19-

31

kg

Electron charge

e = 1.60 10

Electron mass

me = 9.11 10

Electronvolt

1 eV = 1.60 10

Gravitational constant
Gravitational field strength

G = 6.67 10
g = 9.81 N kg

11

19

J
2

## Permittivity of free space

o = 8.85 1012 F m1

Planck constant

h = 6.63 10

Proton mass

mp = 1.67 10

N m kg

34

Js

27

kg

c = 3.00 10 m s

5.67 108 W m2 K4

## Unified atomic mass unit

u = 1.66 10

27

kg

Mechanics
Kinematic equations of motion

v = u + at
s = ut + at
2

v = u + 2as
Forces

F = ma
g = F/m
W = mg

W = Fs
Ek = mv

Egrav = mgh
Materials
Stokes law

F = 6rv

Hookes law

F = kx

Density

= m/V

Pressure

p = F/A

Youngs modulus

E = / where
Stress = F/A
Strain = x/x

Eel = Fx

## Explaining Everything 1 Distance velocity and acceleration time graphs

What can we conclude from the shape of a Distance time graph, and a velocity time graph?
Key words to include: Area underneath Tangent
Displacement Acceleration

Velocity

Explain how we can use strobe photography or video analysis software to analyse the
motion of moving objects.
Key phrases to include: Time

Displacement

Reference point

## Explaining Everything 2 Distance velocity and acceleration time graphs

What can we conclude from the shape of a Distance time graph, and a velocity time graph?
Key words to include: Area underneath Tangent Gradient Velocity
Explain how we can use strobe photography or video analysis software to analyse the
Displacement Acceleration
motion of moving objects.
Key phrases to include: Time

Displacement

Reference point

Explain how you can use Newtons three laws to describe a bouncing ball.
Key phrases to include: Balanced Unbalanced Equal
Line of action Opposite

Reaction

## Explaining Everything 3 Newtons Laws

Acceleration

Explain how an object can be travelling at a constant velocity down a slope. Draw a diagram, a
free body force diagram, and a vector triangle to explain how you could calculate the size of
the forces acting on the object.
Key phrases to include: Balanced Equal Reaction Acceleration
Opposite
Component
Frictional

Slope

Trigonometry

Perpendicular

## Explaining Everything 5 Projectiles and Energy

Explain how you could calculate the range and maximum height of a ball thrown at an angle
with a velocity of u.
Key phrases to include: Resolve

Negligible Components
Air resistance

Horizontal

Vertical

Explain how you could calculate power of an electric motor that is lifting a mass.
Key phrases to include: Gravitational potential energy
Calculate Power

Kinetic energy

Efficiency

## ISP - Mechanics Booklet

1.

The graph below shows how the velocity of a motorbike varies with time during the final 10 s of a race.
/ m s

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10
t / s

(a)

(i)

## Describe the motion shown by the graph.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Show that during the final 10 s the motorbike travels a distance of approximately 800 m.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................(3)

(b)

Using the axes below, sketch a graph showing how the distance of the motorbike from the finishing
line varies with time during the final 10 s of the race.
800
D is ta n c e fro m
fin is h in g
lin e / m

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

10
t / s

2.

(3)
(Total 8 marks)

A hot-air balloon is rising vertically at a speed of 10 m s1. An object is released from the balloon. The graph
shows how the velocity of the object varies with time from when it leaves the balloon to when it reaches the
ground four seconds later. It is assumed that the air resistance is negligible.

v e lo c ity
/m s 1

15
10
5
0
0 .5

1 .0

1 .5

2 .0

2 .5

3 .0

3 .5

4 .0

4 .5

tim e /s

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
(a)

## Use the graph to

(i)

show that the object continues to rise for a further 5 m after it is released.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

determine the total distance travelled by the object from when it is released from the balloon to
when it reaches the ground.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Total distance = .......................................
(2)

(b)

Hence determine the objects final displacement from its point of release from the
balloon. ......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
Displacement = .........................................................................
(2)

(c)

Using the axes below, sketch a graph showing how the acceleration of the object changes during the
time from when it leaves the balloon to when it hits the ground.
Mark any significant values on the axes.

a c c e le ra tio n
/ m s 1

0 .5

1 .0

1 .5

2 .0

2 .5

3 .0

3 .5

4 .0

4 .5

tim e / s

(3)
(Total 8 marks)

3.

(a)

## State the difference between distance and displacement.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Figure 1 shows an idealised displacement-time graph for the journey of a train along a straight
horizontal track, from the moment when it passes a point A on the track.
Initially the train moves in an easterly direction away from A.
Figure 1

700
600
D is p la c e m e n t
fro m A
500
/m
400
300
200
100
0

-1 0 0

8
9
T im e /m in u te s

-2 0 0
-3 0 0

(i)

Describe the position of the train relative to A at the end of the 8 minutes covered by the graph.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Use the grid, Figure 2, to plot a velocity against time graph of the journey shown in Figure 1.
Do the calculations that are required on the lines below the grid.
Figure 2

V e lo c ity
/m s -1

7
9
8
T im e /m in u te s

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

4.

A cyclist and a car are both stationary at traffic lights. They are alongside each other with their front wheels
in line. The lights change and they both move forward in the same direction along a straight flat road. The
idealised graph shows the variation of velocity against time for both the cyclist and the car from the instant
the lights change to green to the instant they are again level.
V e lo c ity
/m s 1
18
C ar
16
14
12
C y c lis t

10
8
6
4
2
0

(a)

10

11
12
T im e /s

What does the time interval of 0.8 s at the beginning of the graph represent?
.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

(i)

How long does it take, from the instant the lights change to green, for the car to reach the same
velocity as the cyclist?
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Determine the distance between the cyclist and the car at this time.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Distance = ..........................................................
(3)

(c)

What is the relationship between the average velocity of the cyclist and the average velocity of the car
for the time interval covered by the graph?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

5.

An athlete runs a 100 m race. The idealised graph below shows how the athletes velocity v changes with
time t for a 100 m sprint.
u / m s 1
um

ax

10

t / s

12

By considering the area under the graph, calculate the maximum velocity vmax of the athlete.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
Maximum velocity = ........................................
(3)

Using the axes below, sketch a graph showing how the acceleration of this athlete changes with time during
this race. Mark any significant values on the axes.
A c c e le ra tio n

T im e
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

6.

A lorry is travelling at 25 m s down a mountain road when the driver discovers that the brakes have failed.
She notices that an escape lane covered with sand is ahead and stops her lorry by steering it on to the sand.

Sand

E s c a p e la n e

The lorry is brought to a halt in 40 m. Calculate the average deceleration of the lorry.
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
Average deceleration =............................
(3)

Suggest how the depth of the sand affects the stopping distance. Justify your answer.
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

7.

A student is working on a spreadsheet to model the fall of a golf ball from rest from the window of a tall
building.
(a)

## He assumes that the acceleration remains constant at 9.81 m s

Comment on whether this is a reasonable assumption.

## for the first two seconds of the fall.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
(b)

time from
start / s

velocity reached/
1
ms

C
distance fallen
during 0.20 s time
interval / m

0.00
1.96
3.92
5.89
7.85
9.81
11.77
13.73
15.70
17.66
19.62

0.00
0.20
0.59
0.98
1.37
1.77
2.16
2.55
2.94
3.34
3.73

0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00

D
total distance
from the start
/m
0.00
0.20
0.78
1.77
3.14
4.91
7.06
9.61
12.56
15.89
19.62

Cell B6 is calculated using the formula B6 = 9.81*A6. Explain why this is appropriate.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

(i)

## Explain what (B6+B7)/2 represents.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

## Why is this fraction multiplied by 0.20?

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

Give an appropriate spreadsheet formula that uses cell D9 to calculate cell D10.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(e)

You can check that this spreadsheet model is giving sensible answers for the total distance fallen by
calculating the distance using an equation from the list of formulae at the back of the paper. Calculate
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

8.

An astronaut on the moon drops a hammer. The gravitational acceleration is 1.6 m s2.
(a)

How long does the hammer take to fall 1.0 m from rest?

Time = .....................................
(2)

(b)

Calculate the velocity of the hammer just before it hits the ground.

Velocity = ................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

9.

A careless soldier shoots a bullet vertically into the air at 450 m s . Calculate the time the bullet takes to
reach the top of its flight. State any assumption you have made.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Time
(3)

Sketch and label fully a velocity-time graph for the bullets complete flight.

## Explain the shape of your graph.

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Use your graph to calculate the distance travelled by the bullet before it hits the ground.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(7)
(Total 10 marks)

10.

(a)

## Complete the following statement of Newtons third law of motion.

If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B .....................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A man checks the weight of a bag of potatoes with a newtonmeter. Two of the forces acting are shown
in the diagram.

N e w to n m e te r

P ush of
g ro u n d o n
m an

W e ig h t o f p o ta to e s

The table below gives these forces. For each force there is a corresponding force, the Newtons third
law pair force. In each case state

the body that the Newtons third law pair force acts upon

Force

## Body the Newtons

third law pair force
acts upon

Type of force

Direction of the
Newtons third law
pair force

Weight of
potatoes
Push of ground
on man

## Normal contact force

(3)
(Total 5 marks)

11.

(a)

The diagram below shows the forces acting on a shopping trolley at rest.

N o rm a l
c o n ta c t
fo rc e

N o rm a l
c o n ta c t
fo rc e

W e ig h t
(i)

## State Newtons first law of motion.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

In everyday situations, it does seem that a force is needed to keep an object, for example the
shopping trolley, moving at constant speed in a straight line.
Explain why.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

The vertical forces acting on the trolley are in equilibrium. Explain what equilibrium means.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

(i)

The weight of the trolley is one of a Newtons third law force pair. Identify what the other force
in this pair acts upon and what type of force it is.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Give two reasons why the two normal contact forces do not form a Newtons third law pair.
1 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

12.

The diagrams show a man standing on the Earth and two free-body force diagrams, one for the man and one
for the Earth.
B

M an

E a rth

E a rth

Force A can be described as the Earth pulling the man down with a gravitational force. Use a similar form
of words to describe force C which forms a Newton third law pair with force A.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Noting that forces A and C are a Newton third law pair, write down three similarities and two differences
between these two forces.
Similarities:
(i) ...............................................................................................................................
(ii) ..............................................................................................................................
(iii) .............................................................................................................................
Differences:
(i) ...............................................................................................................................
(ii) ..............................................................................................................................
(5)

## Which two forces show whether or not the man is in equilibrium?

...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

13.

## A child is crouching at rest on the ground

Below are free-body force diagrams for the child and the Earth.

D
C
A

E a r th

Force

Description of
force

force

acts on

Gravitational

Earth

Child

B
C
(4)

## All the forces A, B, C and D are of equal magnitude.

Why are forces A and B equal in magnitude?
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
Why must forces B and D be equal in magnitude?
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(2)

The child now jumps vertically upwards. With reference to the forces shown, explain what he must do to

## jump, and why he then moves upwards.

..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

14.

Figure 1 shows a box resting on the floor of a stationary lift. Figure 2 is a free-body force diagram showing
the forces A and B that act on the box.
B ox

L ift flo o r
B
For each of the following situations, tick the appropriate boxes to show how the magnitude of the forces A
and B change, if at all, compared with when the lift is stationary.
Force A

Situation
increases

no change

Force B
decreases

increases

no change

decreases

Lift
accelerating
upwards
Lift moving
with constant
speed upwards
Lift
accelerating
downwards
Lift moving
with constant
speed
downwards
(Total 4 marks)

15.

The diagram shows the two vertical forces acting on a helicopter hovering at a constant height. In this
situation the two forces are equal in magnitude.

## The mass of the helicopter is 1500 kg.

Calculate the magnitude of the lift force.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Lift force = .........................................................
(1)

Forward thrust is obtained by tilting the helicopter forward by 17. The speed of the rotor blades is increased
so that the helicopter remains at the same height as it accelerates forwards.

Explain why the vertical component of the force produced by the rotor blades must still be equal in
magnitude to the weight.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

## The force produced by the rotor blades is now 15 400 N.

Show that the horizontal component of the force is about 4500 N.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

## Calculate the forward acceleration of the helicopter.

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Acceleration = ...................................................
(2)

Calculate the horizontal distance the helicopter will have travelled from rest after 10 s assuming the
acceleration is constant.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Distance = .........................................................
(2)

Explain whether this is likely to be the actual distance travelled in this time.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

16.

Two campers have to carry a heavy container of water between them. One way to make this easier is to pass
a pole through the handle as shown.

The container weighs 400 N and the weight of the pole may be neglected. What force must each person
apply?
(1)

An alternative method is for each person to hold a rope tied to the handle as shown below.

In the space below draw a free-body force diagram for the container when held by the ropes.

(2)

The weight of the container is 400 N and the two ropes are at 40 to the horizontal. Show that the force each
rope applies to the container is about 300 N.
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
Force = .....................................................
(3)

Suggest two reasons why the first method of carrying the container is easier.
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Two campers using the rope method find that the container keeps bumping on the ground. A bystander
suggests that they move further apart so that the ropes are more nearly horizontal. Explain why this would
not be a sensible solution to the problem.
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

17.

A coin is flicked off a table so that it initially leaves the table travelling in a horizontal direction with a speed
1
of 1.5 m s . The diagram shows the coin at the instant it leaves the table. Air resistance can be assumed to
have a negligible effect throughout this question.
D ire c tio n o f m o v e m e n t

C o in

F lo o r

(a)

Add to the diagram the path followed by the coin to the floor.
(1)

(b)

(i)

The table is 0.70 m high. Show that the coin takes approximately 0.4 s to reach the floor.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Hence calculate the horizontal distance the coin travels in the time it takes to fall to the floor.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Horizontal distance = ......................................................
(2)

(c)

A coin of greater mass is flicked with the same horizontal speed of 1.5 m s . Compare the path of this
coin with that of the coin in the first part of the question. Explain your answer. You may be awarded a
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(Total 10 marks)

18.

A weightlifter raised a bar of mass of 110 kg through a height of 2.22 m. The bar was then dropped and fell
freely to the floor.
(i)

Show that the work done in raising the bar was about 2400 J.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

It took 3.0 s to raise the bar. Calculate the average power used.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Power = .
(2)

(iii)

## State the principle of conservation of energy.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv)

(1)

## lifting the bar,

(2)

the bar falling to the floor. Do not include the impact with the floor.

(1)

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(2)

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(v)

Calculate the speed of the bar at the instant it reaches the floor.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Speed = .
(3)
(Total 12 marks)

1.

(a)

(i)

Describe motion

(1)

1
90 m s ) (1)
(ii)

## Show that distance is approximately 800 m

Any attempt to measure area under graph or select appropriate
equations of motion required to determine total distance (1)
Correct expression or value for the area under the graph between
either 0-4 s [240 m] or 4-10 s [540 m] (1)
1

Eg distance = 60 m s 4 s + 90 m s 6 s
= 240 m + 540 m
= 780 (m)
Eg distance in first 4 s
vu
90 m s 1 30 m s 1
t
2
s= 2
4 s = 240 m
Distance in final 6 s
1
s = ut = 90 m s 6 s = 540 m
Total distance = 240 m + 540 m = 780 (m)
(b)

Sketch graph
Graph starts at 760 m 800 m/their value and initially shows
distance from finishing line decreasing with time (1)
The next two marks are consequent on this first mark being awarded
Curve with increasing negative gradient followed by straight line (1)
Graph shows a straight line beginning at coordinate (4 s, 540 m)
and finishes at coordinate (10 s, 0 m) (1)

3
[8]

2.

(a)

(i)

Eg distance = area of small triangle = 0.5 1 s 10 m s

(ii)

=5m

## Total distance travelled [Allow ecf of their value]

Distance travelled between 1 s and 4s [45 m] (1)
Eg distance fallen = area of large triangle
1
= 0.5 3 s 30 m s
= 45 m
total distance =45m + 5m = 50m

(b)

(c)

Objects displacement
40 m (1)
Below (point of release) or minus sign (1)
use their distance 2 their additional height]

## Acceleration time graph

Line drawn parallel to time axis extending from t = 0 (1)
[Above or below the time axis]
The line drawn parallel to the time axis extends from 0 s to 4 s (1)
[If line continues beyond or stops short of 4 s do not give this mark]
2
Acceleration shown as minus 10 m s (1)
[This mark is consequent on the second mark being obtained]

3
[8]

3.

(a)

## Displacement and distance?

Displacement has direction distance doesnt or displacement is
a vector, distance is a scalar or an explanation in terms of an example. (1)

## [Candidates who describe displacement as measured from a point

but do not mention direction or equivalent do not get this mark]
(b)

(i)

## Position of train relative to A

300 m (1)
West (of) or a description
[Do not accept backwards, behind or negative displacement] (1)

(ii)

## Velocity against time graph

Constant velocity shown extending from t = 0, positive / negative (1)
[Above mark awarded even if graph does not reach or stop at
t = 4 min]
Constant velocity shown beginning at t = 4 min and ending at t =8 min, negative/positive
(respectively) (1)
1

## Values 2.5 (m s ) or 3.75 (m s ) or 3.8 (m s ) seen

[either calculated or on graph] (1)
Both values [allow their values] correctly plotted using a scale (1)
[Only give this fourth mark if marking points 1 and 2 are correct.
Also a clear scale must be seen eg 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3.
The plot must be accurate to about half a small square.]

4
[7]

4.

(a)

(b)

Meaning of 0.8 s
Reaction time (of cyclist and car driver) (1)
[Accept descriptions of reaction time eg time it takes both to take
in that the lights have changed to green. Accept response time]
(i)
(ii)

## Same speed time

Answer [6.8 s 6.9 s] [Accept any value in the range] (1)

Either
For measuring area under car graph at 6.8 s (1)
6 s 9 m s 1
2
eg =
= 27 m [27.5 m if 6.9 s used]
For measuring area under cyclist graph at 6.8 s (1)
2 s 9 m s 1
1
2
eg
+ 4 s 9 m s = 45 m [45.9 m if 6.9 s used]
1

## [For candidates who read the velocity 9 m s as 8.5 m s but

otherwise do their calculation(s) correctly give 2/3]
[Allow one mark to candidates who attempt to measure an
appropriate area]
Answer [(45 m 27 m =) 18 m] (1)
Or
For recognising the area enclosed by cyclist and car graphs
as the difference in distance travelled (1)
Using values from the graph to determine this area (1)
Answer [(45 m 27 m =) 18 m] (1)
1
1
eg distance = 2 (6.8 2.8) s 9 m s
= 18 m

(c)

## Relationship between average velocities

They are the same (1)

1
[6]

5.

Maximum velocity
Area = 100 m (1)
Attempt to find area of trapezium by correct method (1)
1

= 10 m s (1)

Sketch graph
Horizontal line parallel to x axis
Some indication that acceleration becomes 0 m s

2
2

## The initial acceleration labelled to be max 2 [ initial a = 5 (m s ) (1)

(ecf)]
t = 2 (s) where graph shape changes (1)

4
[7]

6.

Average deceleration
2

## Select = u + 2ax, m = Fx and F = ma OR equations of motion (1)

Correct substitutions of 40 m and 25 m s
a = 7.8 m s

(1)

## Depth of sand and stopping distance

More sand shorter stopping distance/stops more quickly/slows
down faster Because lorry sinks further/ bigger resisting
force / bigger friction force (1)

1
[4]

7.

(a)

Comment on assumption
Yes air resistance negligible OR still close to Earth (ignore upthrust)
or No air resistance becomes significant (1)

(b)

st

## Recall of v = u + at (accept v = a t or v = at for 1 mark) (1)

2
(v is B6), u is zero, a is 9.81 [m s ] and t is A6 (1)
(c)

(i)

(B6 B7)
2
Explanation of
it is average speed (for that interval)

(u v)
2
or
(1)
(ii)

(B6 B7)
2
Why
is multiplied by 0.20
because dist = ave speed time [accept s = vt]
and 0.20 is the time (1)

(d)

= D9 + C10 (1)

(e)

## Calculation to check D11

Use of appropriate equation of motion (1)
Correct answer [12.557 m] [no ue] (1)

Example of calculation:
s = ut + at

2
2

= 0 + 9.81 m s (1.6 s)

= 12.557 m
2
2
N.B. use of = u + 2as gives answer s = 12.563 m
[8]

8.

(a)

Use of s = ut + at (1)
Example of calculation:
2s
2 1
t

1.1 s
a
1.6

(b)

Use of v = u + at (1)
1
Correct answer [1.8 m s ] (1)
Example of calculation:
1
v = u + at = 1.6 1.1 = 1.8 m s

2
[4]

9.

Calculation of time bullet takes to reach top of its flight and statement of any assumption made:
2

## 9.8 m S = (0 m s 450 m s )/t

t = 46 s
Assumption: air resistance is negligible, acceleration constant or equivalent
Sketch of velocity-time curve for bullets flight:
Label axes
Show the graph as a straight line inclined to axis
1
+ 450 m s and 46 s shown correctly
1
450 m s or 92 s for a correctly drawn line

4 5 0 m s1

46 s
4 5 0 m s 1

## Explanation of shape of graph:

Why the line is straight - acceleration constant
or equivalent or why the velocity changes sign
or why the gradient is negative
Calculate the distance travelled by bullet, using graph:

92 s

Identification of distance with area between graph and time axis or implied
in calculation
2
20 700 m for g = 9.8 ms or alternative answers from different but
acceptable g values.

[10]

10.

(a)

## Complete statement of Newtons Third Law of Motion

....exerts an equal force on (body) A (1)
(but) in the opposite direction (to the force that A exerts on B) (1)
[exerts an equal but opposite force on body A would get both marks]

(b)

## Complete the table

1 mark for each of the three columns (1) (1) (1)

[Accept from earth for up. Accept towards ground or towards earth for down]

Earth

Gravitational. [Not
gravity. Not
gravitational field
strength]

Ground

Up(wards) /

Down(wards)
/
[5]

11.

(a)

(i)

## Newtons First law of Motion

An object will remain (at rest or) uniform/constant velocity/speed/motion
in a straight line unless (an external/impressed) force acts upon it /
provided resultant force is zero. (1)

(ii)

Everyday situation
Reference to air resistance / friction / drag etc. (1)

(iii)

(i)

## Identify the other force

Earth (1)
Gravitational [consequent on first mark] [Do not credit gravity.] (1)

(ii)

Equilibrium
The resultant force is zero / no net force /sum of forces is zero /
forces are balanced / acceleration is zero (1)
[Accept moments in place of force]

(b)

Why normal contact forces are not a Newtons third law pair
Do not act along the same (straight) line / do not act from the same point (1)
They act on the same body (1)
They act in the same direction / they are not opposite forces (1)
They are of different magnitudes (1)
max 2
[7]

12.

## Description of force C which forms a Newtons third law pair with A

Man pulling Earth upwards
with a gravitational force
Similarities and differences
Similarities [any 3]:
Magnitudes or equal

## Kind (or type) of force or gravitational forces

Line of action [but not same plane, or point, or parallel]
Time interval or duration
Constant [not true in general but true in this instance]

Max 3

Differences:
On different bodies [must say bodies or equivalent]
Direction [again, it answers this particular question] or opposite

## Two forces which show whether or not man is in equilibrium:

A and B

1
[8]

13.

Completion of table:
Force

Description of force

Body which
exerts force

Gravitational

Earth

Child

## (Normal) reaction OR contact

OR E/M (1)

Gravitational
[Not gravitational weight] (1)

Earth
Child
(1) for both

child
Earth
4

## Why A and B are equal in magnitude:

Child is at rest/equilibrium OR otherwise child would move/accelerate (1)
[NB use of N3 would contradict this]
Why must forces B and D be equal in magnitude:
Newtons third law OR action + reaction equal and opposite (1)
[NB use of N1 or N2 here would contradict this] [Not Newton pair]

## What child must do to jump and why he moves upwards:

Push down, increasing D (1)
B increases [must be clearly B or description of B] (1)
and is > A OR there is a resultant upward force [clearly on child] (1)
[Not movement]

3
[9]

14.

## How A and B change

Force B
For ticking no change in all 4 boxes (1)
Force A
4 ticks right
3 ticks right
2 ticks right
increases

(1)
(1)
(1)
no change

decreases

[4]

15.

## Show that lift is about 14 700 N

Lift = weight = mg
= 1500 kg 9.81 N kg

= 14 700 N (1)

## Explanation of why vertical component equals weight

No vertical acceleration / resultant vertical force = zero / vertical
forces balanced (1)

## Show that horizontal component is about 4500 N

Horizontal component = Fsin
OR
= 15 400 N sin 17 OR 15 400 N cos (90 17) (1)
= 4503 N [no up] (1)

a=F / m (1)
= 4503 N 1500 kg
2

= 3.0 m s (1)

s = ut + at

2
2

= 150 m (1)

## Explanation of whether likely to be actual distance

Distance likely to be less (1)
Air resistance / drag will decrease resultant force / acceleration (1)

2
[10]

16.

Force:
200 N (1)

## Free body force diagram:

[Unlabelled arrows = 0; ignore point of application of force]
[Double arrows = 0] [Arrows required for marks]
W / weight / 400 N /mg/ pull of Earth / gravitational force (1)
[Not gravity]
Two tensions OR Two 300 N OR two 311 N (1)
[Accept T for tension OR any label that is not clearly wrong,
e.g. R/W/N 200 N]

Applied force:
Attempt to resolve vertically (1)
2T sin 40 = 400 (1)
[400 cos 40 306 N(no marks)
400 sin 40 257 N (no marks)

## 200/cos 40 = 261 N gets 1 out of 3 (attempted to resolve)]

T = 310 (N) OR 311 (N) [No unit penalty] (1)
Two reasons why first method is easier:
Force applied is smaller/feels lighter/tension smaller [Not weighs less] (1)
They are not pulled sideways/forces only upwards/pulling against each other (1)

## Why solution is not sensible:

Because the tension (or description of tension) would be greater (1)
OR bigger sideways force

## [Do not accept bigger force]

[9]

17.

(a)
(b)

Path of coin
Curved line that must begin to fall towards the ground immediately (1)
(i)

Show that..

1
2
Selects s = (ut +) 2 at or selects two relevant equations (1)
Substitution of physically correct values into equation or both (1)
equations.
Answer [0.37 s 0.38 s] (1)
2
[Allow use of g = 10 m s . Must give answer to at least 2 sig. fig.,
bald answer scores 0. No ue.]

1
2 2
eg 0.7 m = 2 (9.81 m s )t
(ii)

## Horizontal distance [ecf their value of t]

d
vu
t
Use of v = t with correct value of time. [s = 2
is sometimes (1)
used. In this case v and u must be given as 1.5 m s1 and t must
2
be correct. Also s = ut + 0.5at OK if a is set = 0.]
Answer [0.55 m 0.60 m] (1)
1

= 0.57 m
(c)

## A coin of greater mass?

QWOC (1)
It will follow the same path [accept similar path,
do not accept same distance] (1)
All objects have the same acceleration of free fall / gravity or
acceleration of free fall / gravity is independent of mass / it will take
the same time to fall (to the floor) (1)
Horizontal motion / velocity is unaffected by any force or (gravitational)
force (acting on coin) has no horizontal component or horizontal
motion/velocity is the same/constant. (1)

4
[10]

18.

(i)

Work done
Use of work done = force distance (1)
2
Answer given to at least 3 sig fig. [2396 J, 2393 J if 9.8 m s is used, (1)
2
2442 J if g = 10 m s is used. No ue.]

## Work done = 110 kg 9.81 m s 2.22 m

= 2395.6 J
(ii)

Power exerted

work done
time
Use of power =
or power = F v (1)
Answer: [799 W. 800 W if 2400 J is used and 814 W if 2442 J is
used. Ecf value from (i)] (1)

2396 J
Power = 3s
= 798.6 W

(iii)

## Principle of Conservation of Energy

Either
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed (1) (1)
OR
Energy cannot be created/destroyed or total energy is not lost/gained (1)
(merely) transformed from one form to another or in a closed/isolated
system. (1)

## [Simple statement Energy is conserved gets no marks]

[Information that is not contradictory ignore. Q = U + W, with
terms defined acceptable for 1st mark]
(iv)

## How principle applied to...

Lifting the bar: Chemical energy (in the body of the weightlifter) or work done
(lifting bar) = (gain in) g.p.e. (of bar) (1)
[Reference to k.e. is acceptable]
The bar falling: Transfer from g.p.e. to k.e. (1)
(and that) g.p.e. lost = k.e. gained (1)

## [g.p.e. converted to k.e. would get one mark]

[References to sound and thermal energy are OK, but gpe to sound or
thermal energy on its own gets no marks]
(v)

## Speed of bar on reaching the floor

2
2
Setting mv = m g h or mv = work done or 2400 J (1)
[ecf their value]
[Shown as formulae without substitution or as numbers substituted
into formulae]
Correct values substituted (1)
2
[allow this mark if the 110 kg omitted substitution gives v = (1)
2 2
2 2
2
43.55(6) m s or 44.4 m s if g = 10 m s is used]
1
1
2
Answer: [6.6 m s . 6.7 m s if g = 10 m s is used.]
2

## 110 kg v = 110 kg 9.81 m s 2.22 m or = 2400 J / 2396 J

1
1
2
v = 6.6 m s [6.66 m s if 10 m s used] (1)
OR
2
2
Selects v = u + 2as or selects 2 relevant equations (1)
Correct substitution into equation (1)
1
Answer [6.6 m s ] (1)
2

v = 0. + 2 9.81 ms 2.22m
1
v = 6.6 m s

3
[12]