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CHM151Y

Name: Ruo yi (Caroline) LinStudent #: 1001333112

Section: 112

Experiment #9 performed on February 16th, 2015: Investigating light-matter


interactions.
Abstract
The effect of addition of colour filters in the path of a light beam on the voltage
generated by that beams action on a photocell was examined by placing
successive numbers of filters within the path. Blue, green and a combination of blue
and green filters were used. The effect of the concentration of Copper (II) Sulphate
placed in the path of the light beam on voltage was also examined, using solutions
of varying concentration. The voltage produced by the photocell had an exponential
relationship to the number of filters applied, as well as to the concentration of the
copper (II) sulphate. The absorbance of the filters and solution were found to have
linear relationships to their number and concentration. The voltage-concentration
curves were used to find the concentration of an unknown solution of copper
sulphate. Finally, limitations of the Lambert-Beer law were examined by observing
the photofluorescence of chlorophyll solution. These results confirm the LambertBeer law, while also showing some of its limitations, proving that UV-VIS
spectrometers can be used to help identify various properties of chemical
compounds.
Introduction
Experimental
50mL of distilled water was poured into a round-bottom flask and heated to 50
degrees Celsius in a water bath. 240mg of trans-[Co(en)2Cl2]Cl was added to the
flask and stirred. Aliquots of the solution were taken with a pipette and transferred
to test tubes in an ice bath at 2,3,4,5,7,9,13,15,20,25,30 and 40 minutes into the
reaction. The first 8 samples had their absorbance measured in a Milton-Roy
Spectronic 301 at 450nm, and all samples had their absorbance measured at
508nm. The Milton-Roy was tared at 508nm. A cleaned plastic cuvette was used to
hold the samples when measuring absorbance.
Results and Discussion
TIME
(S)

121
181
241
308
428
542

A508
(AT)

0.02
0.07
0.255
0.309
0.324
0.552

A450

1.06
0.495
0.764
0.792
0.699
0.78

AINFA508

AINFAT/AINFAO=[MCL]/[MCL]O

LN(AIN
F)

0.961
0.911
0.726
0.672
0.657
0.429

1.186
1.124
0.896
0.829
0.811
0.530

0.171
0.117
-0.110
-0.187
-0.210
-0.636

AINF..*[MLN[M 1/
CLO]
-CL]T [M=CL
(GIVES
]T
CONCENTR
ATION AT
TIME T)
0.020 -3.915
50.143
0.019 -3.968
52.895
0.015 -4.195
66.372
0.014 -4.273
71.706
0.014 -4.295
73.343
0.009 -4.721
112.31
8

CHM151Y
Name: Ruo yi (Caroline) LinStudent #: 1001333112
778
915

0.479
0.655

1200

0.673
0.755

Section: 112

0.502
0.326

0.620
0.402

-0.479
-0.910

0.010
0.007

-4.564
-4.996

0.584

0.397

0.490

-0.713

0.008

-4.799

1495

0.564

0.417

0.515

-0.664

0.009

-4.750

1802

0.602

0.379

0.468

-0.760

0.008

-4.845

2400

0.61

0.371

0.458

-0.781

0.008

-4.867

95.986
147.80
1
121.37
1
115.55
0
127.13
4
129.87
6

Table 1. Absorbances given over time and associated calculations. Ainf is the
absorbance of the sample as time approaches infinity. The value of A 450 used in the
calculation of Ainf .is the average of the measured A450, omitting the first two
samples.

Plot of time against ln[M-Cl] (first order reaction test)


0.000

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

-1.000
-2.000

ln[M-Cl] (M)

-3.000
-4.000
-5.000

f(x) = - 0x - 4.17
R = 0.6

-6.000

time (s)

Graph 1. Plot of time against ln[M-Cl]. If the reaction is first-order, this plot should
be a line of the form ln[M-Cl]=-kt+ln[M-Cl]o. The calculated value of [M-Cl]o from this
graph is 0.0154M. k is 0.0004.

CHM151Y
Name: Ruo yi (Caroline) LinStudent #: 1001333112

Section: 112

Plot of time against 1/[M-Cl] (Second-order reaction test)


160.0
140.0

f(x) = 0.04x + 66.25


R = 0.6

120.0
100.0

1/[M-Cl] (M-1)

80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Time (s)

Graph 2. Plot of time against 1/[M-Cl]. If the reaction is second-order, this plot
should be a line of the form 1/[M-Cl]=kt+1/[M-Cl] o. The calculated values of [M-Cl]o
and k would be 0.0151M and 0.0355 respectively.
1/T
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
T (oC)
30
35
40
45
50
60
k (run
0.0000 0.0001 0.0003 0.0005 0.0004 0.0039
1)
730
55
05
91
00
30
k (run
0.0000 0.0001 0.0003 0.0005
0.0038
2)
728
45
01
98
70
k (run
0.0000 0.0001 0.0003 0.0005
0.0040
3)
741
51
03
87
20
lnk (1)
-9.53
-8.77
-8.10
-7.43
-7.82
-5.54
lnk (2)
-9.53
-8.84
-8.11
-7.42
-5.55
lnk (3)
-9.51
-8.80
-8.10
-7.44
-5.52
lnk
-9.52
-8.80
-8.10
-7.43
-7.82
-5.54
(avg)
Table 2. Rate constants at different temperatures from the lab manual. The value
of k found from graph 1 was placed in the 50 degrees Celsius spot in run 1.

CHM151Y
Name: Ruo yi (Caroline) LinStudent #: 1001333112

Section: 112

Plot of 1/T against lnk (determination of Ea)

lnk

0.00
0.02
0.02
-1.00
ln(average k)
-2.00
-3.00
-4.00
-5.00
-6.00
f(x) = - 237.03x - 1.92
-7.00
f(x) = - 209.35x - 2.78
0.96
Linear (Avg R
(no=
R
=outlier))
0.86
-8.00
-9.00
-10.00

0.03

0.03

Linear (ln(average k))

0.04
Avg (no outlier)

1/T (degrees C-1)

Graph 3. A plot of (1/T) against lnk. According to the Arrhenius equation, the such a
plot should yield a line of the form lnk=(-E a/R)(1/T)+lnA, where A is the Arrhenius
constant, R the gas constant, and Ea the activation energy. Two trendlines were
plotted on this graph: one for all points, and another for all points excluding the
outlier at T=50degrees C. The values of k were taken by averaging the 3 values of k
at each temperature given in the lab manual.
Sample Calculations for table 1.
[M-Cl]o=0.240g(1mol/285.49g)(0.050L)=0.0168mol/L
A450=AVERAGE(0.764, 0.792, 0.699, 0.78, 0.673, 0.755)=0.744
Ainf=(1.005/0.762)A450=0.981
Ao=(0.175/0.762)A450=0.171
For the first row (time=121s):
Ainf-A508=0.981-0.02=0.961
(Ainf-At)/(Ainf-Ao)=(0.981-0.02)/(0.981-0.171)=0.961/0.810=1.186 (This value is equal
to [M-Cll]t/[M-Cl]o by equation (14) of the lab manual.)
ln((Ainf-At)/(Ainf-Ao))=ln(1.186)=0.171
[M-Cl]t=[M-Cl]o((Ainf-At)/(Ainf-Ao))=0.0168(1.186)=0.020 (notice that this is a
nonsensical result which indicates that the concentration of [M-Cl] increased in the
first two minutes of the hydration reaction; see discussion for details.)
ln[M-Cl]t=ln(0.020)=-3.915
1/[M-Cl]t=1/0.020=50.1
All other such calculations were done using excel.
Discussion
Conclusions

CHM151Y
Name: Ruo yi (Caroline) LinStudent #: 1001333112

Section: 112

The Lambert-Beer law in conjunction with a simple spectrometer can be used to find
the concentration of an unknown sample of a given chemical compound. For this
experiment, and unknown concentration of Copper Sulphate which gave a voltage
of 3.60V was calculated to have a concentration of 2.61x10 -3M. Using coloured
filters, the validity of the Lambert Beer law in an experimental setting was
confirmed. Limitations of the Lambert-Beer law were observed using the
phenomenon of chlorophyll photofluorescence. In conclusion, the Lambert-Beer law
is shown to be a useful tool for the identifications of the concentrations of
compounds, although not without limitations.
References
1. Hollas, Michael J. Modern Spectroscopy. John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
2. Sawyer, Heineman, and Beebe. Chemistry Experiments for Instrumental
Methods, John Wiley & Sons, 1984.
3. Skoog, Holler and Nieman. Principles of Instumental Analysis, 5th ed.,
Saunders College Publishing, 1998.