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3/9/2015

HEATTRANSFER­briefnotes

CHEMICALENGINEERING1h:HEAT

TRANSFER­briefnotes

Introduction

Aslongasthereisatemperaturedrivingforcebetweentwopointsheatwillbetransferreddownthe

temperaturegradient(fromhottocold).Everydayexamplesweencounterarecentralheating,air

conditioning,doubleglazing,refrigeration,etc.Inanengineeringcontextheattransferisimportantin

manyunitoperations.Reactantsneedtobeheatedtoreactiontemperature,temperaturesinreactors

needtobecontrolled,distillationrequiresbothboilingandcondensation,etc.Inthiscourse,weaimto

studyheattransferinachemicalengineeringcontext,sothattheprocessofheattransfermaybe

undertoodandthatinitialdesignofaheatexchangermaybedone.

Therateofheattransferdependsonthetemperaturedrivingforce,theareaavailableforheattransfer,

thenatureofthematerialandthemodeofheattransfer(conduction,convectionorradiation).

Conduction

Vibrationalenergyistransferredbetweenatomsormoleculesthatdonotthemselvesmove.Itisthe

basictransfermechanismforheattransferinsolidsbutcanalsooccurthroughlayersofliquidsand

gasesthatarenothighlymobile.Thethicknessofthematerialisimportanttotherateofheattransfer

givingthebasicequation:

givingthebasicequation: Thermalconductivityistheconstantofproportionality.

Thermalconductivityistheconstantofproportionality.

Moregenerally,

Moregenerally, ThisisFourier'slawofheatconduction.
Moregenerally, ThisisFourier'slawofheatconduction.

ThisisFourier'slawofheatconduction.

Typicalvaluesofthermalconductivityforarangeofmaterialtypesaregivenbelow:

Copper 390

a t 3 0 0 K at300K

Glass

1.05

a t 3 0 0 K at300K

Asbestos 0.088

a t 3 0 0 K at300K

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HEATTRANSFER­briefnotes

Air

0.026

at300KAir 0.026

Water

0.61

a t 3 0 0 K at300K

Forcompositeplanarmaterialstheheatflowthrougheachslabisthesame:

Convection

Convection

Energyistransferredbylargescale(macroscopic)motions.Thereforeitislimitedtoliquidsandgases

wheretheatomsormoleculesarefreetomove.Asthefluidisaconductingmedium,conductionstill

occurs.Forcedconvectionoccurswhenanexterioragentdrivesthefluidmotion,naturalconvection

occurswhenbuoyancydifferencescausedbylocaltemperaturedifferencesdrivetheflow.

Convectiveheattransfernormallytakesplacefromasolidsurfacetoafluid.Adjacenttoasolidwall

largescalemotionsdieawayleavingavirtuallystilllayeroffluid.Conductivetransferoccursacross

thisfilmwhichisofunknownthickness.

thisfilmwhichisofunknownthickness. where h

wherehistheheattransfercoefficientforthefilm.Valuesdependonthematerialandonthewayitis

beinghandled.

Wecouldwritebothequationsforheattransferbyconductionandconvectionmakinguseofthe

resistancetoheattransfer,R:

Forconduction

Forconduction

Forafluidfilm

Forafluidfilm
R : Forconduction Forafluidfilm

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HEATTRANSFER­briefnotes

Whereheattransferprocessesoccurinseries(asindoubleglazing),wemayaddresistances

Radiation

Radiation

Allbodiesemitenergyintheformofelectro­magneticwaves.Whenthisfallsonasecondbodysome

isreflected,somepassesthroughandsomeisabsorbed.Theproportionsofeachdependonthe

physicalpropertiesofthematerial.Thetransferdoesnotdependonthepresenceofanyphysical

mediumbetweenthetwobodies.

mediumbetweenthetwobodies.

Radiantheattransferbecomesincreasinglyimportantwithincreasingsurfacetemperature.

Thegoverningequationis:

Thegoverningequationis: istheStefan­Boltzmannconstantwithavalueof5.67
Thegoverningequationis: istheStefan­Boltzmannconstantwithavalueof5.67

istheStefan­Boltzmannconstantwithavalueof5.67

istheStefan­Boltzmannconstantwithavalueof5.67 Theemissivity, ,isapropertyofasurface. . Blackbody = 1

Theemissivity, ,isapropertyofasurface.

.
.

Blackbody = 1

Polishedmetal = 0.21

Oxidisedmetal = 0.64to0.78

Stronglyoxidisedmetal = 0.95

Mattblackpaint = 0.91

laggedbar1
laggedbar1

3/9/2015

HEATTRANSFER­briefnotes

3/9/2015 HEATTRANSFER­briefnotes DavidBalmer Lastmodified:ThuSep310:30:52BST
3/9/2015 HEATTRANSFER­briefnotes DavidBalmer Lastmodified:ThuSep310:30:52BST

Lastmodified:ThuSep310:30:52BST