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Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road

HYDROLOGICAL STUDY REPORT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGE AT 4/1 WELIGAMA TELIJJAWILA B466
ROAD
107 DENIPITIYA BRIDGE

Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3

Methodology of the Assessment........................................................................................... 3


2.1

Salient Steps ........................................................................................................................................ 3

2.2

Assimilation of Topographic and Hydrological Data ..................................................................... 3

2.2.1

Topographic Data for Catchment Delineation ................................................................................. 3

2.2.2

Hydrologic Data .............................................................................................................................. 3

2.3

Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves ..................................................................... 4

2.4

Intensive Site Reconnaissance Survey for Understanding Prevailing Drainage Issues ............ 5

2.5

Hydrologic and Hydraulic Computations Capacity Adequacy Checks ...................................... 6

2.6

Hydrologic Design .............................................................................................................................. 6

2.6.1

General........................................................................................................................................... 6

Conclusions and Recommendations .................................................................................. 11


3.1

Conclusions ....................................................................................................................................... 11

3.2

Recommendations............................................................................................................................ 11

Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road


HYDROLOGICAL STUDY FOR BRIDGE NO 4/1 WELIGAMA TELIJJAWILA B466 ROAD

Introduction

This report hydrological and hydraulic analysis which was carried out after site reconnaissance. It provides
recommendations for the proposed opening sizes for the bridge at Weligama Telijjawila B466 Road.
The main stream is the Polwatte Ganga.

Methodology of the Assessment

2.1 Salient Steps


The proposed methodology for the drainage assessment consists of the following steps.
(1) Assimilation of all relevant topographic and hydrologic data relevant to the roads drainage. i.e. 1:50,000 digital
maps of Survey Department were mainly used in a GIS base along with Google Earth satellite imagery.
(2) Site reconnaissance and understanding the prevailing drainage and scour issues especially around the
candidate bridge.
(3) Hydrologic and hydraulic computations to ascertain the capacity adequacy of the candidate bridge
(4) Conclusions regarding the structure capacity in terms of the present and proposed opening sizes/cross section,
scour depth etc.

2.2

Assimilation of Topographic and Hydrological Data

2.2.1 Topographic Data for Catchment Delineation


Digital maps with 1:50,000 scale was used to locate the bridge catchment areas as these maps are accurate and user
friendly while gathering information related the catchment. Bridge location was obtained through GPS coordinates and
the locations were transmitted to a GIS database (Arc Maps).

2.2.2 Hydrologic Data


The main hydrologic data required for the hydrological and hydraulic assessments apart from the topographic
information are;

Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency Curves (IDF Curves) for different road stretches

Time of concentration

Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road


Figure 1-Location Map of Bridge No 4/1Weligama Telijjawila B466 Road

2.3

Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves

Rainfall and Intensity Duration Frequency [IDF] Curves were obtained from the research paper Entitled Towards More
Efficient Hydraulic and Hydrological Design of Cross Drainage Structures Using New Developed Intensity Duration
Frequency Equations by D G L Ranathunge. This paper has presented IDF curves for many localities throughout the
country where pluviograph rainfall data are present (mainly the principal met stations manned by the Department
Meteorology and selected other stations manned by the Department of irrigation).These IDF curves equations serve as
secondary data derived from primary rainfall data obtained from the Department of Meteorology and Department of
Irrigation etc. IDF curves for Galle was used for the calculations as this is the closest meteorological stations with IDF
information.
Figure 2-Hydrological Stations and Zones Sri Lanka

Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road


The IDF data relevant to this project are collected and presented below.
Figure 3- Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency Curves (IDF Curves)

RAINFALL INTENSITY - MM/HR

250

R A I N FA L L I N T E N S I T Y D U R AT I O N F R EQ U E N C Y C U RV E S G A L L E S TAT I O N

2yr: I= 1806*[t+35}^-0.78257
10yr:I= 3861*[t+48]^-0.82798
50yr:I= 5933*[t+55}^-0.84987
100yr:I=6471*(t+55)^-0.84823

200
150
100
50
0
0

15
2yr

2.4

30

45
10yr

60

75

90

DURATION50yr
- MIN

105

120

135

150

100yr

Intensive Site Reconnaissance Survey for Understanding Prevailing Drainage Issues

Drainage issues were identified during a site visit on 21st March 2014. The relevant stakeholders close to the bridge
were met and their views were obtained to assess the prevailing flooding issues. The Bridge in consideration has the
following observations.
1. The Downstream connect with the sea about 3 km distance.
2. Down stream Polwaththa and upstream Koledanda bridges are on the same river.
Figure 4- Location Map and Important details for the Hydrological Analysis

Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road


3. Has never flooded according to the information received.

2.5 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Computations Capacity Adequacy Checks


Hydraulic computations were carried out to test the adequacy of the hydraulic structures using the SCS Formula for
peak flow computations employing HEC HMS flood model software of US Corps of Engineers and Mannings equations
for hydraulic capacity computation using Hydraulic Toolbox software.
2.6

2.6.1

Hydrologic Design

General

The Hydrologic Calculation of the Denipitiya Bridge will be governed by the Hydrological condition of the Koledanda
Bridge which is only 500m in the Upstream of the Polwatte Oya.
Therefore the Outflow of the Koledanda Bridge will be the inflow of Denipitiya Bridge,

Same Calculation of defining the peak flow for the Koledanda Bridge is used here (Considering the Flood Plain Effect)

For this calculation it is assumed that the water reaching the bridge at certain level starts to collect in the flood plain. In
Koledanda bridge it is above 0.00mMSL elevation. And the rate of the water level increase is assumed 20mm per every
15 minutes at the peak discharge time.
To find the Peak Discharge Itterative method used with the help of Hydraulic Tool Box software and is presented below.

30.90432721 - 50.94005432

99

99

152
.

3.3
6

70.97578145 - 91.01150856

Haliela Wewa

91.01150857 - 111.0472357
111.0472358 - 131.0829628

30.48

30.48
60 .95
999 9

99 9

21

50.94005433 - 70.97578144

30.48

60
.9
59

9
15 2.3

399

.95

121.92

60

91
.4

40
00

182.8

99
9

121.92

10.86860009 - 30.9043272

30.48

182
.8 8

99
9

00

48

0 - 10.86860008

8
.4

95

0
.44

.92
121
9 99
.3 9
.88
182

9
99
39
2.
15
2
1.9
12

9
999

8
182.8

121
.9 2

-29.20285416 - 0

60
.

30

HY_Hydro_Pg

<VALUE>

91

99

Catchment Area

121.92

Digili Ela

15 2

30.

HY_Hydro_Li

Moramba Wewa
Moramba Wewa

30.48

TE_LI1

00
44 0
9 1.
.8 8
182
8

91.4400
0

TE_Pt1

.9 2

.4
30

91
.44
00
02
12
1.9
2

9
99

.9
59
60

30.48

.95
9

0 0 0 2 3 0 .4 8

121.92

12 1

60

99
99 60.95
5
999 9
.9

92
12 1.

0
00

30.48

4
.4

121.92
1.92

2.8
8

5
60.9

48
30.
30.48
60.
95 9
999

60

60.959999

Udugan Oya 91.44

92
12 1. 91.440002

18

Legend

Nilwala Ganga

30 .
48

.36
213
4
243.8

Udugan Oya

91

999

.9
121

5
60.9

2 43
.8 4

213.3

121.92

.48
30

95
99
9

.3
99
99
121
.9 2

121.9 2

60.95999
9

Hulandawa Ganga

Digili Ela

15
2

213.36
243.84
8
8
.
2
18
.8 8
82

91.440002

91.440002

2 2
1.9 1
152.399
99

99 9 9

.48

30

12

15 2.3

9
60.95999

a
Oy
8
an
.4
ug
30
Ud

182.88
60
.9
59
99

8
60
.

2
1.9

02

213.36
18
2.8
8

92
1.

12

2
1.9

12

99

30.48

999
9

.92

99

213.36

99 60.9
59
30
99
.4
9
8

1
12

92

18

30.48

1.

8
2.8

.95
99
99
30
.48
60
.95
99 60.959999
99
60
.95
9
30.48
99
9
30.48

.95

95
99
9

9 152.3
999
9
91.4
400
02 182.8

91 .440
0

60

60.9
5

5999

99

121.92

60 .959
9

60.9

599

2
60

9
1.
12

.48
30

91
.44
00
0

60.959999

60
.

99

12

0
00
44

8
.4

9
99
59
.9
60 30 .48

Urala Ela

30
.4

60.
9

9
.39
152
0
00
44

.
91

30

Mamina Dola

91.4
400
0

.
91

8
30 .4

Gin Ganga

131.0829629 - 151.1186899
151.11869 - 171.154417

30.48

.4

30

30.4
8

30
.48

251.2973256 - 271.3330526
271.3330527 - 291.3687798
291.3687799 - 311.4045069
311.404507 - 331.440234
331.4402341 - 351.4759611
351.4759612 - 371.5116882

30
.

30.48

30
.

48

30.48

231.2615985 - 251.2973255

48
30.

.
30

30.48

48

211.2258714 - 231.2615984

30.48

48

.4

191.1901443 - 211.2258713

8
30.4

8
.4
30 9 9
99
.95
60

30

171.1544171 - 191.1901442

30 .48

2
12
.9
6
21
182.88
Holuwagoda ElaMaha Dola 121.92
92
1
.
3.3
1
9
2
1
21
30
4 000 2
999
.4
3
1
.
9
2
121.92 12 1.9
.48
9
Nilwala Ganga
15
2
99
9
121
59
9
599 9
.9 2
9
9
1
Polwatta
Ganga
.
9
.
8
0
2
6
60.9
1
9
60
30.4
60.9
121.
599 Hiyare Reservoir
12 1.9 .9 2
59
5 999
99 9
9
9
9
2
5
99
2
.9
.
9
60
3
8
60
60
91.440002
.95 0.48
0.4
30
999
.959999
9
3
60
5
99
.9
0
6
.4
30
02
99 60.95
02
2
99
0
8
0
91.4400
00
0
999
.
4
9
121.92
.4
4
4
91
91.440002
83
9
59
1.4
9
9
.
0
2
0
8
.
8
.4
0
4
6
0
9
4
3
0
8
30.48 15 2.3 99 9
30.
30 .48
440
Badulla Oya
121.92
30.48 60.959999
91.
30.48
30
6 0 .9
30.48
.48
5 99 9
40002
91.4
30 .
9
48
30.4
8
30.48
9
30.48
60 .95
99
30.48
60
99 9 9
95 9
.95
60 .
9
99
99
99 60
30.4
59
.9599 9
8
9 60.9
30.48 3
0.
48
30
.4
8 30
Koggala Lake
Polwatta Ganga
.4 8
Boralu Wewa
0

DENIPITIYA BRIDGE

8027'5.1"E, 558'55.6"N
Polwatta Ganga

1,550 3,100

6,200

9,300

12,400
Meters

Date

Time
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14
1-Jan-14

IN Flow m3/s
800
815
830
845
900
915
930
945
1000
1015
1030
1045
1100
1115
1130
1145
1200
1215
1230
1245
1300
1315
1330
1345
1400
1415
1430
1445
1500
1515
1530
1545
1600
1615
1630
1645
1700
1715
1730
1745
1800
1815
1830
1845
1900
1915
1930
1945
2000
2015
2030
2045
2100
2115
2130
2145
2200
2215
2230
2245
2300
2315
2330
2345
2400

3
3
3
3.02
3.14
3.44
4.05
5.12
6.88
9.76
14.28
21.41
34.93
58.27
90.44
128.44
169.02
209.86
249.85
288.47
325.46
360.85
394.73
427.32
458.86
489.17
517.84
544.85
570.37
594.57
617.59
639.52
660.43
680.31
699.08
716.56
732.38
745.41
754.39
758.8
769.18
755.07
748.19
738.71
727.08
713.6
698.49
681.91
663.91
644.53
623.82
601.88
578.72
554.24
528.32
500.74
471.27
439.57
405.27
367.82
326.28
279.5
230.33
183.58
138.51

Out Flow
m3/s

120.43
121.919
123.81
125.716
127.637
129.524
131.526
133.493
135.475
137.472
139.485
141.513
143.557
145.616
147.69
149.78
151.885
154.006
156.142
158.294
160.462

Discharge to the Flood


Remarks
Plain

172.844

8.01 2.85 Depth


47.101
86.05
124.134
160.833
195.936
229.324
261.237
291.845
321.388
349.685
376.327
401.293
424.754
446.88
467.81
487.635
506.424
524.168
540.786
556.098
732.38
580.659
754.39
589.974
769.18
582.226

176.558

562.152

180.358

533.242

184.248

497.662

188.214

456.316

192.272

409.608

196.924

357.316

201.984

298.756

207.124

232.446

203.862

163.958

164.751
168.826

210.288
220.075

69.212
10.255 3.83 Depth

Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road


Calculation of Backwater effect.
Sea level could rise to about 0.95m MSL in a combined extreme event with maximum spring tide (0.35m) wind set up
(0.2m), wave set up (0.1m), cyclone 0.3m totaling to 0.95m

Backwater profiles along the main stream was calculated using the direct step method from a sea water level of 0.95 m
MSL. M2 type backwater curves are found to exist along the streams towards the bridges. Simplified floodway
parameters are assumed in the direct step method calculations. Backwater profiles and the design flood levels at the
bridge is given in the Figure below.

Backwater Curve Polwatte Oya

1.4
1.2

Depth

Denipitiya Bridge

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

500

1000

1500
Length

2000

2500

3000

ECHO OF INPUT:
3

-1

Discharge Q = 220.075 m s BottomwidthB=60mSideslopez=5m/m


Bottom slope So=.001m/mManning'sn=.03
Specified flow depth at the downstream boundary yd=0.95m
Number of computational intervals n = 200

Number of tabular output intervals m = 50

OUTPUT:
Computationaldepthintervaly=0.0013mTabularoutputdepthinterval(y)t=0.005m
Normal depth yn=1.21mNormal-depthFroudenumberFn=0.345

k
0
4

Depth
(m)

Area
(m2)

Velocity
(m s-1)

Velocity
head
(m)

Specific
Wetted Hydraulic
head
perimeter radius
(m)
(m)
(m)

Friction
slope
(m/m)

Specific
Average
head
Length
slope difference increment
(m/m)
(m)
(m)

Total
length
(m)

0.95

147.01

1.5

0.114

1.064

159.69

0.92

0.002252

0.955

147.84

1.49

0.113

1.068

159.74

0.93

0.002211

0.002216

0.001

0.8

3.2
6.5

0.96

148.67

1.48

0.112

1.072

159.79

0.93

0.002171

0.002176

0.001

0.8

12

0.966

149.5

1.47

0.11

1.076

159.85

0.94

0.002132

0.002137

0.001

0.9

9.9

16

0.971

150.33

1.46

0.109

1.08

159.9

0.94

0.002094

0.002099

0.001

0.9

13.5

20

0.976

151.16

1.46

0.108

1.084

159.95

0.95

0.002057

0.002062

0.001

0.9

17.2

24

0.981

151.99

1.45

0.107

1.088

160.01

0.95

0.002021

0.002025

0.001

21.1

28

0.986

152.82

1.44

0.106

1.092

160.06

0.95

0.001985

0.00199

0.001

25.1

32

0.992

153.65

1.43

0.105

1.096

160.11

0.96

0.001951

0.001955

0.001

1.1

29.3

36

0.997

154.48

1.42

0.103

1.1

160.17

0.96

0.001917

0.001921

0.001

1.1

33.7

40

1.002

155.31

1.42

0.102

1.104

160.22

0.97

0.001884

0.001888

0.001

1.2

38.2

44

1.007

156.15

1.41

0.101

1.108

160.27

0.97

0.001851

0.001855

0.001

1.2

43

48

1.012

156.98

1.4

0.1

1.113

160.32

0.98

0.001819

0.001823

0.001

1.3

47.9

52

1.018

157.81

1.39

0.099

1.117

160.38

0.98

0.001788

0.001792

0.001

1.3

53.1

56

1.023

158.64

1.39

0.098

1.121

160.43

0.99

0.001758

0.001762

0.001

1.4

58.4

60

1.028

159.48

1.38

0.097

1.125

160.48

0.99

0.001728

0.001732

0.001

1.4

64.1

64

1.033

160.31

1.37

0.096

1.129

160.54

0.001699

0.001703

0.001

1.5

69.9

68

1.038

161.14

1.37

0.095

1.133

160.59

0.001671

0.001675

0.001

1.6

76.1

72

1.044

161.98

1.36

0.094

1.138

160.64

1.01

0.001643

0.001647

0.001

1.6

82.5

76

1.049

162.81

1.35

0.093

1.142

160.7

1.01

0.001616

0.001619

0.001

1.7

89.2

80

1.054

163.64

1.34

0.092

1.146

160.75

1.02

0.00159

0.001593

0.001

1.8

96.3

84

1.059

164.48

1.34

0.091

1.15

160.8

1.02

0.001563

0.001567

0.001

1.9

103.7

88

1.064

165.31

1.33

0.09

1.155

160.85

1.03

0.001538

0.001541

0.001

111.4

92

1.07

166.15

1.32

0.089

1.159

160.91

1.03

0.001513

0.001516

0.001

2.1

119.6

96

1.075

166.98

1.32

0.089

1.163

160.96

1.04

0.001489

0.001492

0.001

2.2

128.2

100

1.08

167.82

1.31

0.088

1.168

161.01

1.04

0.001465

0.001468

0.001

2.3

137.3

104

1.085

168.65

1.3

0.087

1.172

161.07

1.05

0.001441

0.001444

0.001

2.4

146.8

108

1.09

169.49

1.3

0.086

1.176

161.12

1.05

0.001418

0.001421

0.001

2.6

156.9

112

1.096

170.33

1.29

0.085

1.181

161.17

1.06

0.001396

0.001399

0.001

2.7

167.6

116

1.101

171.16

1.29

0.084

1.185

161.22

1.06

0.001374

0.001377

0.001

2.9

179

120

1.106

172

1.28

0.083

1.189

161.28

1.07

0.001352

0.001355

0.001

3.1

191.1

124

1.111

172.84

1.27

0.083

1.194

161.33

1.07

0.001331

0.001334

0.001

3.3

203.9

128

1.116

173.67

1.27

0.082

1.198

161.38

1.08

0.00131

0.001313

0.001

3.5

217.6

132

1.121

174.51

1.26

0.081

1.203

161.44

1.08

0.00129

0.001293

0.001

3.8

232.3

136

1.127

175.35

1.26

0.08

1.207

161.49

1.09

0.00127

0.001273

0.001

4.1

248.1

140

1.132

176.19

1.25

0.08

1.211

161.54

1.09

0.001251

0.001253

0.001

4.4

265.2

144

1.137

177.03

1.24

0.079

1.216

161.6

1.1

0.001232

0.001234

0.001

4.8

283.6

148

1.142

177.86

1.24

0.078

1.22

161.65

1.1

0.001213

0.001215

0.001

5.2

303.6

152

1.147

178.7

1.23

0.077

1.225

161.7

1.11

0.001195

0.001197

0.001

5.7

325.6

156

1.153

179.54

1.23

0.077

1.229

161.75

1.11

0.001177

0.001179

0.001

6.3

349.7

160

1.158

180.38

1.22

0.076

1.234

161.81

1.11

0.001159

0.001161

0.001

376.5

164

1.163

181.22

1.21

0.075

1.238

161.86

1.12

0.001142

0.001144

0.001

7.8

406.4

168

1.168

182.06

1.21

0.074

1.243

161.91

1.12

0.001125

0.001127

0.001

8.9

440.3

172

1.173

182.9

1.2

0.074

1.247

161.97

1.13

0.001108

0.00111

0.001

10.3

479.1

176

1.179

183.74

1.2

0.073

1.252

162.02

1.13

0.001092

0.001094

0.001

12.1

524.5

180

1.184

184.58

1.19

0.072

1.256

162.07

1.14

0.001076

0.001078

0.001

14.6

578.8

184

1.189

185.42

1.19

0.072

1.261

162.13

1.14

0.00106

0.001062

0.001

18.3

646.1

188

1.194

186.27

1.18

0.071

1.265

162.18

1.15

0.001045

0.001047

0.001

24.5

733.8

192

1.199

187.11

1.18

0.071

1.27

162.23

1.15

0.001029

0.001031

0.001

36.4

858.7

196

1.205

187.95

1.17

0.07

1.275

162.28

1.16

0.001015

0.001016

0.001

69.6

1074.4

200

1.21

188.79

1.17

0.069

1.279

162.34

1.16

0.001

0.001002

0.001

632.6

2133.1

204

1.215

189.63

1.16

0.069

1.284

162.39

1.17

0.000986

0.000988

0.001

-91.5

2500

Hydrology Report Bridge 4/1 WeligamaTelijjawilaB466 Road


Scour Calculation.
Provision in Essentials of Bridge Engineering (D . Johnson Victor)
Mean Depth of Scoure
Dsm = 1.34 (Db2/Ksf) 0.33
Db = Discharge in m3/s per m
Ksf= Silt Factor (Lacey Method) 1.2445 for 0.5mm Medium sand.
For Denipitiya Bridge
Total Discharge 220.075 m3/s
Width = 95m
Therefore Db = 2.33
Dsm= 2.18 m

Calculation of Scour For nose of piers


Maximum Scour depth From HWL = 2.0* Dsm
= 4.36 m
Maximum Scour depth from river bed = Dmax HWL
Calculated HWL=4.30m
Therefore minimum Depth required for foundation = 0.06m

Conclusions and Recommendations

3.1
1.

Conclusions
Calculated HFL is 1.205 as per the Backwater effect .

2.

The Soffit level of the proposed bridge is 2.267mMSL.

3.

Since the effect of backwater is critical in this sea area the free board is 1.062m.

4.

While considering the sea water levels it is revealed that the Proposed Bridge will not be submerged by rare
floods of high magnitude.

3.2

Recommendations
1.

The proposed soffit level 2.267.mMSL is recommended.