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HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF THE PROPOSED

2.6 MLD (16 HR) WATER TREATMENT PLANT AT


PUNJAPURA, DISTRICT: DEWAS (MP)
Proposed Water Treatment Plant Units:
(1) Inlet Chamber
(2) Cascade Aerator
(3) Inlet Channel
(4) Flow Measuring Flume
(5) Flash Mixer
(6) Clariflocculator
(7) Coagulant Solution Tank, Feeding Equipment etc.
(8) Rapid Sand Gravity Filters
(9) Wash Water Tank
(10) Chlorination Arrangement
(11) Clear Water Storage Tank / Sump
(12) Sludge Collection Tank
(13) Sludge Drying Beds
Design Flow:
Design flow =
=
(Considering
(1)

2.6
x
1.05
x
24
/
4100 cum/d =
170.83 cum/hr =
2.847 cum/minute
=
5 % wastage in back washing and desludging and 16 hrs. pumping, Re

INLET CHAMBER

(a)

Diameter of Chamber

1.00 m

(as per prevailing practice)

(b )

R. L. of Ground Level

175.00 m

(As specified on site plan)

(c)

R. L. of Top of the Chamber

180.00 m

(d)

R. L. of Bottom of the Chamber

It shall be

0.2 m lower than the inv

(2) CASCADE AERATIOR


The Surface Area Required @ 0.030 m2/m3/hr = 170.83x0.03 = 5.12 m2
(As per CPHEEO manual, 7.2.3.3, page 192)
Diameter of the Bottom-most tray of the cascade is given by
(4)(D2-1.302) = 5.12, On Solving D = 2.86 Say 3.00 m

(This takes into account the outside diameter of the inlet chamber also. The outside diameter of the inlet chamber is a
Number of trays = 4
(As per CPHEEO manual, 7.2.3.3, page 192)
Rise of each step = 300 mm
Hence, providing 4 cascade trays with dimensions and levels as below:
Diameter R.L.
Lip of
aeration
fountain

1.30 m

180.00 m

1st Cascade
1.72 m
tray

179.75 m

2nd Cascade
2.15 m
tray

179.50 m

3rd Cascade
2.57 m
tray

179.25 m

4th Cascade
3.00 m
tray

179.00 m

Collection
channel (top 4.20 m
water level)

(3)

178.55 m

FLOW MEASURING FLUM AND INLET CHANNEL

4.10x1.5
= 6.15
mld =
0.0712
m3/s

(a)

Flow
measurin :
g capacity

(Consider
ing 50 %
overloadi
ng as per
NIT
condition
6.2.1,
page 73)

5.0 m

(b)

Length of
:
channel

(as per
prevailing
practice)

(c )

Width of
the
:
channel

0.60 m

(c )

Width of
the
:
channel

0.60 m

(d)

Liquid
depth at
:
d/s of the
weir

0.10 m

(0.0712)
(0.60x0.1
0)
= 1.19
m/s

(e)

Velocity
of flow @
:
ultimate
flow

(f)

Free
board

(g)

Width of
the
Rectangul
:
ar Weir
(Notch)
Plate

(which is
less than
maximum
permissib
le
velocity
of 2.0 m/s
, hence O.
K.)

0.3
m

0.60 m

(h)

Maximum
head over =
the notch

(0.0712/
(0.67x0.68(
(2x9.81)0.5)
0.604))0.67

= 0.12 m

(i)

(j)

Free fall :

Total
Depth of
:
the
channel

(k)

R. L. of
the
channel
top

(l)

R. L. of
the
channel
bottom

(m)

R.L. of
the notch :
lip

(4)

FLASH MIXER

0.10 m
0.10+0.12
+0.10+0.3
0 = 0.62
m
Say 0.65
m

179.10 m

179.100.65 =
178.45 m

178.45+0.
10+0.10 =
178.65 m

30 to 60 seconds
(a)

Detention
time

(as per NIT condition


6.3.1, page 73)

(b)

Diameter

1.20 m

(c )

Minimum
depth to
diameter
ratio

(as per CPHEEO manual,


7.4.2.2, page 206)

(d)

Liquid
depth

1.50 m

(e)

Free board :

0.60 m

(f)

Total depth :

2.10 m

(g)

Detention
time
actually
provided

1:01

(x(2)2x50)/
(4x0.0474
= 36 seconds
:

(more than 30 seconds,


hence OK)

Hence provide flash mixer of 1.2 m


diameter and 1.5 m liquid depth.

(h)

R. L. of full
water level
:
in flash
mixer

178.30 m

(i)

R. L. of
flash mixer :
top

178.90 m

(j)

R. L. of
flash mixer :
bottom

178.301.50 = 176.80 m

Flow = 0.0474 cum/s


Velocity of flow = 1.2
m/s

(k)

Diameter of
outlet pipe
to
:
clarifloccul
ator

(0.9 m/s to 1.8 m/s is


permissible)
Diameter
=
((4)x(0.04741.2))0.5
= 0.22 m Say 250 mm

(5)

CLARIFLOCCULATOR
A circular radial flow clariflocculator with the central flocculator and the outer
annular clarifier shall be provided.

(a)

Central
Inlet
Shaft:
(i)
Diameter

0.60 m

(ii)
:
Discharge

0.0474
cum/s
0.0474((
4)x(0.6)2)
= 0.17 m/s

(iii) Flow
velocity

(iii) Flow
velocity

(iv)
Ope
nin
g
port
s in
the
inle
t

which is
less than
the max.
permissible
velocity of
0.6 m/s,
hence O.K.

Velocity of
flow
through the
ports = 0.2
m/s
Cross
sectional
area of
ports =
0.04740.2

shaft

:
= 0.237
sqm
Provide 4
Nos. ports
each of 225
mm width
and 300
mm height

(b)

Central
Flocculato
r:
30 minutes
(i)
Detention
time

(i)
Detention
time

(as per NIT


condition
6.4.3, page
74)
3.50 m

(ii) Liquid
:
depth

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual,
7.5.5, page
226)

(iii)
Volume of :
flocculator

2.847x30 =
85.41 cum

(iv)
Surface
:
area of
flocculator

85.413.50
= 24.40
sqm

(v)
Diameter of :
flocculator

(4x24.4)0
.5
= 5.57 say
5.60 m

(vi) Cross
sectional
area of

water
in the
flocculator

5.60x3.50 = 19.60 sqm

(vii) Providing 15 % of this area for paddles

(as per CPHEEO Manual, 7.4.3.2(2),


page 181), then
(viii) Area
:
of paddles

19.60x15100 = 2.94
sqm

Providing two paddle arms with six


paddles each, then

(c)

(ix) Area
of each
:
paddle

2.94(2x6) = 0.245 sqm

(x)
Height of :
each paddle

3.0 m

(xi) Width
of each
:
paddle

0.2453.0 = 0.082 m say


85 mm

Clarifier:
2.5 hours
(i)
Detention
time

(as per NIT condition


6.4.4, page 74)
3.50 m

(ii)
Liquid
depth

(as per CPHEEO Manual


7.5.5, page 227)

(iii)
Volume of :
clarifier

170.83x2.5 = 427.07 cum

(iv)
Surface
area of
clarifier

427.073.50 = 122.02
sqm

Dia
met
er
D :

((4)x(D)2
((4)x(5.60)2) = 122.02
D = 13.66 Say 13.70 m

clarifloccul
ator

Providing 1 in 12 bottom slope (as per


CPHEEO manual, 7.5.9 page 230)
and 0.3 m free board, then
(vi) Total
depth of

clarifloccul :
ator at side

3.50+0.30 = 3.80 m

(vii)
Tota
l
dept
h of :

3.80+0.50 = 4.30 m

clarifloccul
ator at
centre

(viii)
Surface
loading

4100122.02 = 33.6
cum/sqm/day

which is within the typical range of 30


to 40 cum/sqm/day
(as per NIT condition 6.4.4, page 74)

Out
let
wei
r
(lau :
nde

4100(x13.7) = 95
cum/m/day

loading
which is less than the normally
permissible value of 300 cum/m/day
(as per CPHEEO Manual, 7.5.8, page
230).
Note: Orifices of 50 mm dia. @ 150
mm c/c shall be provided all along the
periphery of the outlet weir.
Vel
ocit
y
thro
ugh
bottom
opening of :

((0.0474)((
x5.60x0.4)(8x0.2x0.4))

= 0.008 m/s

flocculator
partition
wall

which is less than the permissible


velocity of 0.3 m/s, hence OK

(d)

Peripheral Collecting Channel:

Let velocity of flow in the channel be


0.6 m/s (as per prevailing practice).
Half portion of the channel for
collecting settled water shall collect half the
quantity. Therefore,
Flo
w in
half
port :
ion

0.0474/2 = 0.0237 cum/s

channel

Are
a
(we
tted
cros

0.02370.6 = 0.0395 sqm

sectional
area) of
channel

Wid
th
of
coll :
ecti

0.45 m (assumed)

channel
Dep
th
of
wat
er
in :
channel at
d/s end

0.03950.45 = 0.09 m

(v) Clear
fall in the :
channel

(vi) Total
depth of
channel

0.15 m
(as per prevailing
practice)
0.09+0.15 = 0.24 m

Say 0.30 m at
downstream end

S=
(0.013xV)2
(R)1.33

where, S =
slope of the
channel bed

V=
velocity of
flow in
channel
R=
hydraulic
radius
(vii) Slope
of the
:
channel bed

=
(0.45x0.09)
(0.45+(2x
0.09))
=
0.064 m


S=
(0.0
13x
0.6)
2
(0
.064
)1.33
=
0.00234
Say 1 in
400

(e)

Mechanical Scraper:
A mechanical sludge scraper driven by electric motor and suspended from 1.2 m wide foot bridge
(as per CPHEEO Manual, 7.5.9, page 230).

(f)

Sludge Drainage:

Sludge shall be finally collected in the centrally located pit of 0.3 m depth and
2.0 m diameter (as per prevailing practice). It shall be carried by 150 mm dia.
cast iron pipe under hydrostatic pressure to sludge collection tank.
(as per CPHEEO manual, 7.5.9, page 230).
(g)

Reduced Levels:
R.L
. of
top
of
clarifloccul
ator walls

178.30 m

(ii)
R.L
. of
full
wat
er :
leve
l in
clarifloccul
ator

178.30-0.30
= 178.00 m

(iii)
R.L
. of
clar
iflo
ccul :
ator
bottom
at sides

178.00-3.50
= 174.50 m

(iv)
R.L
. of
clar
iflo
ccul
:
ator

174.50-0.50
= 174.00 m

bottom
at the
centre
(v)
R.L
. of
bott
om
of :
slud
ge
collection
pit

174.00-0.30
= 173.70 m

R.
L.
of
top
of
the
ope
:
nin

177.70 m

in the
central inlet
shaft
(vii)
R.L
. of
bott
om
of :
cent
ral
inlet

173.70
0.45 =
173.25 m

shaft
(viii
)
R.L
. of
inve
rt of
slud :
ge

173.70
0.15 =
173.55 m

drainage
pipe
(ix)
R.L
. of
wat
er
leve :
l in
collecting
channel

178.00
0.15 =
177.85 m

(x)
R.L
. of
coll
ecti
ng :
cha
nnel

178.00.30
= 177.70 m

bed at
D/S end
(6) ALUM SOLUTION PREPARATION TANK
100 mg/l
(a)

Maximum
:
alum dose

(as per
normal
practice)
10%

(b)

Solution
strength

(as per NIT


condition
6.14.3,
page 82)
8 hours

(c)

Capacity of
:
tanks

(as per NIT


condition
6.14.3,
page 82)
Two

(d)

(e)

Nos. of
tanks

Liquid
volume of :
each tank

(as per NIT


condition
6.14.3,
page 82)

(100x4.10x
8/24)x(100/
(10x1000))

(e)

(f)

Liquid
volume of :
each tank

Liquid
depth of
each tank

Providing
square tank,
then
(g)

:
length and
width of
tank

= 1.37 cum

0.90 m

(1.37/0.90)0
.5
= 1.23
Say 1.25 m

0.3
m
(h)

Free board :

(as per NIT


condition
6.14.3,
page 82)

(i)

Total depth
of each
:
tank

0.90+0.30
= 1.20 m

(7)

RAPID SAND FILTER

(a)

Filter
Beds:
80 lpm/sqm of filter area
(i)
Filtration
rate

(ii)
Number of :
filter beds

(as per NIT condition


6.5.1, page 77)

2 nos.

(iii) Total
area of
:
filters
(iv) Area
of each
:
filter

(4100x1000)(80x60x24)
= 35.59 sqm

35.592 = 17.80 sqm

Taking length to width ratio of filter


bed as 1.25
(as per CPHEEO Manual 7.6.3.5,
page 211), then

(v) Width
of each
:
filter bed

(17.81.25)
0.5
= 3.77
Say 3.80 m

(vi)
Length of
:
each filter
bed

17.8/3.80 =
4.68 Say
4.70 m
0.75
m

(vii)
Depth of
sand bed

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.7, page
245)

0.5
m

(viii)
Depth of :
gravel layer

(ix)
Depth of
:
water over
sand

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.10, page
249)

1.3
m

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.7, page
245)

0.5
m
(x) Free
:
board

(b)

(x) Free
:
board

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.7, page
245)

(xi) Total
depth of
:
each filter

0.75+0.5+1
.3+0.5 =
3.05 m

Under Drain System:


The under drain system shall comprise of perforated pipe laterals and the centrally located manifol
(i)
Are
a of
orifi
ces
in
eac
h

0.3
%
of
filte
r
bed
area

filter
:

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.9,
page 247)
=
(0.3100)x
3.80x4.70 =
0.054 sqm

2 times area
of orifices

(ii) Area of
:
laterals

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.9,

(ii) Area of
:
laterals

page 247
for 12 mm
dia.
Orifices)
= 2x0.054
= 0.11 sqm
2 times area
of laterals

(iii) Area
of manifold :
channel

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.9, page
247)

= 2x0.11 =
0.22 sqm

(iv) Size
of manifold :
channel

0.60 m
width x
0.40 m
depth

Adopting
lateral of 63
mm OD,
HDPE
Area of
cross
section of
one lateral
=
(4)x(0.0
5)2 = 0.002
sqm

number
of laterals

=
0.110.002
= 55

Number of
laterals on
each side of
manifold =
552 = 28

(v) Design
:
of laterals

spacing
of laterals
= 470028
= 168 mm
c/c
Ratio of
length to
diameter of
lateral
=
3700(2x5
0) = 37

Which is
less than
the
maximum
permissible
value of 60
(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.9,
page 247),
hence O.K.

Adopting
12 mm dia.
Orifices
Area of one
orifice
=
(4)x(0.0
12)2 =
0.000113
sqm

Total
number of
orifices for
each filter
bed =
0.0540.00
0113 = 478
nos.

Number of
orifices on
each lateral
(vi)
Design of
orifices

= 47856 =
9 say 10
nos.
Spacing
of orifices
= 190010
= 190 mm
c/c

which is
less than
maximum
permissible
value of
200 mm for
12 mm dia.
orifices

(as per
CPHEEO
Manual
7.6.3.9,

page 247) ,
hence O.K.

(c)

Filter Back-wash System:


The filter back-wash system shall comprise of air-water wash system.
5 minutes
(i)
Duration of :
air wash

(as per NIT


condition
6.5.9, page
78)

45 m/hr @
0.35
kg/sqcm
pressure
(ii) Air
flow rate

(as per NIT


condition
6.5.9, page
78)

Tota
l
qua
ntit
y of :

45x3.80x4.
70

= 804
cum/hr @
0.35
kg/sqcm

required for
one
bed/min.

Hence, provide an air blower of 804 cum/hr capacity @ 0.35 kg/sqcm pressure.

30 m/hr
(iv) Wash
water
:
supply rate
(v)
Ma
xim
um
Dur
atio :
n of
wat
er
was
hCap
acit
y of
was
h
wat
tank

(as per NIT condition


6.5.9, page 78)

10 minutes

(as per NIT condition


6.5.9, page 78)

30x10x3.80x4.70/60 =
89.3 m3

Say 90000 litre


(as per NIT condition 6.6,
page 78)

The bottom of wash water tank shall be


minimum 6.0 m above the lip of
wash water troughs.

(vii)
Des
ign
of
was
h
wat
er

troughs

Adopting
three
number of
troughs for
each filter
running
parallel to
the width of
the filter
bed.

Quantity of
water
required
per bed per
second =
(30x3.80x4.
70)(60x60
)
= 0.15
cum/s
Wash water
flow per
trough

= 0.153 =
0.05 cum/s
Bottom
slope of
trough = 1
in 50 =
0.02
Width of
each trough
= 250 mm

If y (in
metres) is
depth of
water in
trough, then
(B)1.67((B+
2y)0.67) =

(0.013xq)(
(y)1.67x(s)0.5)
where, B =
Width of
trough in
metres
=
0.25 m

q=
Discharge
through
trough
in cum/s
=
0.05 cum/s

(0.25)1.67((
0.25+2y)0.67
)=

(0.013x0.05
)((y)1.67x(0
.02)0.5)

On solving,
y = 0.13 m
= 130 mm
Free Board
= 100 mm

Hence,
provide
total depth
of 230 mm
at upstream
end and
that of 300
mm at
downstrea
m end.

Height of
the lip of
the trough
above the
unexpanded
sand bed

= (Depth of
sand bed x
0.5) +
Depth of

trough +
Thickness
of trough

=
(0.75x0.5)
+ 0.30 +
0.08
= 0.75 m
(viii) A 600 mm wide gullet
@ 1 in 100 bottom slope
shall be provided along
length of the bed.

(d)

Conduit
Diameters:

(i) Settled
water inlet :
pipe

Flow =
0.0474/2 =
0.024 m3/s
Velocity of
flow = 0.90
m/s
Diameter
=
((4)x(0.0
240.90))0.5
= 0.18 m
Say 200
mm

(ii)
Filtered
:
water outlet
pipe

same as
settled
water inlet
= 200 mm

Out
let
pipe
fro
m
was
tank

Discharge
=
(30x3.80x4.
70)(60x60
)

water

=
0.15 cum/s

Flow
velocity =
3.6 m/s
:

(as per
prevailing
practice)
Diameter
=
((4)x(0.1
53.6))0.5
= 0.23 m
Say 250
mm

Spe
nt
was
h
wat
er
outl
(drain)

Discharge
= 0.15
cum/s

pipe
Flow
velocity =
2.4 m/s
(as per
prevailing
practice)

Diameter
:

=
((4)x(0.1
52.4))0.5
= 0.28 m
Say 400
mm

This spent
wash water
outlet
(drain) pipe
shall be of
RCC NP2
class pipe.

(e)

Head Loss
Calculatio
ns for
Checking
Wash
Water
Tank
Height

Hei
ght
of
was
h
wat
er
tank
bott :
om
abo

6.00 m
(minimum)

6.00 m
(minimum)

the
wash water
trough lip
Hei
ght
of
was
h
wat
er
trou
gh :
lip
abo
ve
filter
under
drainage
Hei
ght
of
was
h
wat
er
tank
bott :
om
abo

0.5+0.75+0
.75

= 2.0 m

6.00+2.0

the
filter under
drainage

= 8.0 m

(iv)
Equivalent
length of :
wash water
inlet pipe

40 m
(assumed)

(v)
Diameter of
:
wash water
inlet pipe

250 mm

(vi) Flow
through
:
wash water
inlet pipe
Fric
tion
al
hea
d
loss
in
the
was
h
wat :
er
pipe
per metre
length

0.15 cum/s

0.04 m/m
length

(from
CPHEEO
Manual
appendix
6.3, page
601)

Tota
l
frict
iona
l
hea
d
loss :
in
the

40x0.04 =
1.60 m

water
inlet pipe
Net
hea
d
avai
labl
e at
filte
r
und
:
er
drai
nag

8.001.60
= 6.40 m

8.001.60
= 6.40 m

during
back
washing
which is more than the minimum permissible head of 5.0 m. (as per CPHEEO Manual 7.6.3.12, page 250)

(e)

Reduced
Levels:(i)
R.L.
of
full
wate
r
:
level
in

177.40 m

bed
(ii) R.L. of
top of filter :
bed
R.L.
of
top
of
unex :
pand
sand bed

177.40+0.5 =
177.90 m

177.401.3 =
176.10 m

(iv) R.L. of
bottom of
:
sand bed

176.100.75
= 175.35 m

(v) R.L. of
bottom of
:
filter bed

175.350.5 =
174.85 m

(vi) R.L. of
top of wash
water
:
troughs
and gullet

176.10+0.75
= 176.85 m

R.L.
of
botto
m of
wash :
wate
r
tank

(8)

174.85+8.00
= 182.85 m
(minimum)

CHLORINATION ARRANGEMENT
5 mg/l

(a)

Chlorine
dose
:
(maximu
m)

(as per NIT


condition
6.15, page
82)

5x4.1

(b)

Amount
of
chlorine :
required
per day

= 20.5
kg/day

(20.5x2)
24 = 1.7
kg/hr

(c)

Capacity
of
chlorinato
r
:
including
100 %
stand-by

hence,
provide
chlorinato
r of

1.7 kg/hr
capacity.

(9) UNDERGROUND CLEAR WATER SUMP


435 kl
(a)

Capacity :

(as per NIT


condition
1.31, page
71)

(b)

R.L. of
full water :
level

175.50 m

(10) SLUDGE COLLECTION TANK

(a)

Capacity
@2%
sludge
volume &
1 day
detention
:
time

4100x(2/1
00) = 82
kl

(as per
prevailing
practice)

(b)

R.L. of
full water :
level

175.00 m

(11) SLUDGE DRYING BEDS

Total
surface area
@2%
sludge
volume, 5
%
suspended
solids, 0.3 :
m depth of
sludge & 7
days cycle

(4100x(2/1
00)x(5/100)
x7)/0.3

(as per
prevailing
practice)

= 96 m2

(b)

Number of
sludge
:
drying beds

Four

(c)

Surface
area of each
=
sludge
drying bed

96/4 = 24
m2

(a)

Hence, four nos. sludge drying beds,


each of 6.0 m x 4.0 m shall be
provided.
(d)

R.L. of full
:
sludge level

176.00 m

LANT AT

16

=
4.1 mld
um/minute
=
0.0475 cum/s
nd 16 hrs. pumping, Ref. : NIT condition & CPHEEO Manual Type Design)

as per prevailing practice)

As specified on site plan)

.2 m lower than the invert R. L. of inlet pipe (Tentatively 174.00 m)

r of the inlet chamber is assumed as 1.30 m.)

m 1.2 m wide foot bridge shall be provided. The tip velocity of the scraper shall be 0.3 m/min.

e centrally located manifold channel.