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Fiat Lingua

Title: Patterns of Allophony


Author: William S. Annis
MS Date: 02-23-2015
FL Date: 04-01-2015
FL Number: FL-00002B-00
Citation: Annis, William S. 2015. "Patterns of Allophony."
FL-00002B-00, Fiat Lingua,
<http://fiatlingua.org>. Web. 01 Apr. 2015.
Copyright: 2015 William S. Annis. This work is licensed
under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Fiat Lingua is produced and maintained by the Language Creation Society (LCS). For more information
about the LCS, visit http://www.conlang.org/

Patterns of Allophony
William S. Annis
February 23, 2015
This is a small collection of common allophones taken from the PBase database1 , presented
as graphs. In making these graphs I have focused on selecting patterns that occur more than
once, or which are part of a larger pattern that occurs more than once. For example, in some
languages /l/ will present as [d] after nasals. In fewer languages both /r/ and /l/ will do this, so
I include them both. I have tried to leave out one-off exotica, but one or two might have slipped
through if they struck me as especially interesting.
I have omitted certain very common changes. For example, voicing assimilation of any kind
is left out for consonant clusters, and do I not include either nasal assimilation or word-final
devoicing. I have also left out all patterns of deletion, which are also largely predictable (as
codas, word-finally, etc.).
Reading the Graphs
Arrows indicate the direction of change. The environment in which the change occurs is indicated by the grey text to the left of the line. So, in the selection below, note that /t/ becomes []
before /p/, /t/, and /k/, but becomes the glottal stop [] word finally.

The environments are given in fairly standard notation: C is a consonant, V a vowel, N any nasal
consonant, # is a word boundary, and the underline represents the sound itself. Curly braces
enclose a set of phonemes. So, the notation _# marks a change that occurs at the end of a word,
_{w,j}V marks a change that occurs when the sound is followed by either /w/ or /j/ and then a
vowel, and #_{i,e} marks a change that happens at the start of a word and followed by either /i/
or /e/.
1

?iiT,ffT#b2X#`Q?MX+f[m2`v

_V
_V

_{b,m,r}

_jV,
_{m,n},
_a,
_C#

_{h, }u

_r,
_N,
C_C,
_C#,
_{w, k}

_#
_Xa

_i,
{h, }_

_{p,f,m}

{t,}_

{k, w}_{k, w},


_j,
_{e,o},
_#

_N

_#,
_{j,h,}, a_
_j

_{h,m,w},
_{,w},
{p,f,m,w}_{p,f,m,w},
_{p,f,m}

{t,z}_,
_w

_{k,g,r,w},
{k,g,r,w}_

V_V

_N

_{e,o}

_jV

_{w,j,h},
_{},
_#

_jV,
_{m,n},
_C#,
_a

_t{o,u}

{,}_

_{l,r},
_CC,
_C#

_{k,x,l,r},
_r{t,d,s}

_{t,s,n},
_CC,
_#

{,h}_,
_{,h}

C_C

_N

_{w,j}{i,u}

_CC,
_C#

_t{o,u}

{k, w}_{k, w},


_r,
_N,
{t,,j}_
C_C,
_CC,
_C#

_V _N

w_, _w,
_t{o,u}

a_

w_{b,g,m,,w},
{k,w}_{k,w},
w_C

_N

V_V

_N,
_#

p
_N,
_{p,t,k} N_,
V_V

_{p,t,k} _#

V_V

_{o,u}

_{u,o,},
V_V,
_#

_{o,u},
V_V

_{u,o,}

_{u,o,},
{o,u}_V

{i,e}_V

_#

V_V,
_{p,t,k}

_#

_#

_N,
N_,
V_V

{a,o}_,
_{i,e},
{a,}_{a,},
{i,e}_
_{a,}
q

V_V V_V

_#

_#

a_V

_#

_{i,e},
{i,e}_

_# _{i,e}

_#

_{u,o,},
{o,u}_V,
#_

_#,
#_,
_{i,u}

V_V,
_{p,t,k},
_{d,z,n,l,r,j}
{i,e}_V

_#

_C,
_#

_#

_{p,t,k}

_N

V_V,
_{w,j}
_N,
_#

_N,
N_,
V_V
d

V_V _{p,t,k}

_#

_t

_t,
_{i,u}

V_V,
N_,
_N
dz

_{i,j}

_{d,dz,g}

V_V

_{i,e}

V_V

V_V _{i,e}

_{i,j}

{i,e}_V

_t

_{i,j} _{i,e}

V_V

ts

_t

_{i,e}

_t,
_C

_N,
V_V,
_{b,d,g}

N_,
#_{o,u}

N_,
_{s,z,,}

V_V _{s,z,,}

_{o,u}

_{s,z}

ts

V_V

_s

_{p,t,k,},
_s,
_{i,u}, _{k,t,p},
{i,u}_
N_

_{o,u}

_{t,n}

_w

N_

_{i,e},
N_,
_k{i,j},
{p,t,k,w,}
_{t,d,,}

_{t,n}

_w

_{i,e},
i_V

_{s,z,,}

V_V,
_{o,u}

N_

m_,
_{s,z,,}

_{o,u}

V_a

_n,
n_

_m

_n

m
V_a

N_
pf

_{i,e},
_{t,d,,}

_{s,z,,}
d

_{u,o,}

_{i,e,j}

N_,
_{s,z,,}

_{i,e,}

_i

V_V _{w,j}V
b
_{c,,,j}

_{c,,,j},
n_
_{i,e}
b

_i

{b,d,v}_,
N_

_{w,j}V
g

N_,
_N

#_u

V_{o,u}

#_{,,a},
_{w,j}
_N

N_,
_{o,,u}
#_{i,e}

_V[+nasal]

{t,f,s}_

n_

w
_#,
_{i,e}

{i,u,a}_{i,u,a},
_#,
V_i

V_V

p_

{i,u,a}_{i,u,a},
_#

m_

V_V

_C,
_{w,j}

b_

_w

V_V

_{p,t,k,s,h,,w}

_{t,d,s,,z,,l,n}

_{k,k}

N_,

_{u,o,a},
_{w,j}

_{w,j}V

_{t,ts,s,r},#_{i,e,a},
_n

n_

#_{i,e,} _V[+nasal],
_{i,u}
_n

N_,