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Structure

material

Wood

Steel

Concrete

Masonry

Fabric
Material

Prof Schierle

Rupture Length
Rupture length is the maximum length a bar of
constant cross section can be suspended without
rupture under its weight in tension (compression
for concrete & masonry)
Rapture length defines the efficiency of material as
ratio strength / weight:
R=F/
where
R = rupture length
F = breaking strength
= specific gravity (self weight)

The graph is partly based on a study of the


Light weight Structures Institute Stuttgart University
Material

Prof Schierle

Energy use
For simple beam of

Aluminum
Concrete
Steel
Wood

[Aluminium]
[Bton]
[Acier]
[Bois]

Wood

demonstrates wood requires


much less energy !

Study of EPFL
(Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne)
Material

Prof Schierle

Wood

Types:
Balloon framing (rare)
Platform framing
Heavy timber framing
Advantages:
The only renewable material
Warm, natural appearance
Low energy required
Easy to work
Low cost
Challenges:
Combustible
Termite attacks
Decays in variable humidity
Limited height and floor area

Material

Prof Schierle

Platform framing

Platform framing is used for low-rise residential


structures, due to economy & flexibility. 2x4 studs
@ 16 reach from platform to platform. Double
top plates overlap at corners and splices. Plywood
sheathing, nailed to studs, resists lateral wind and
seismic loads. Joists, usually 2x12 @ 16 support
plywood floor and roof (platforms). Blocking
resists joist buckling and supports plywood panel
edges to transfer shear. Standard plywood and
gypsum board panels 48 (4) wide match 2, 3, or 4
joist/stud spaces of 24, 16 or 12, respectively.
A Joists, 2x12 or 2x10 @ 16", 24, or 12 o.c..
B Blocking
C Double top plates overlap at corners and splices
D Studs, 2x4, 2x6, or 3x4 @ 16 or 24 o. c.
E Bottom plates
F Double plates supporting joists
G Anchor bolt, 1/2 @ 4 o. c.
H Sole plate, min. 6" above soil
I Concrete foundation
Maximum height: 3 stories (4 with fire sprinklers)
Material

Prof Schierle

Wall erection
Plywood shear wall resists
lateral wind and seismic loads

Woodframe house

Material

Prof Schierle

Clifton Condos, Beverly Hills


Architect: Schierle

Material

Prof Schierle

Terrace Homes, Hermosa Beach


Architect: Schierle

Material

Prof Schierle

Terrace Homes
Hermosa Beach

Material

Prof Schierle

Heavy timber framing

Material

Prof Schierle

10

Timber house
Architect: Thomas Herzog
(rods resist lateral load)
Gamble house Pasadena
Architects: Green and Green

Material

Prof Schierle

- Strain +

11

Steel

Compression Tension

Types:
Heavy steel
Light gauge steel
Advantages:
Can be recycled
Ductile (absorbs seismic energy)
Lighter than concrete and masonry
(small seismic forces)
No limitation of height or floor area
Hysteresis loop
(test stress-strain curve)
E = Energy absorbed by
ductility

Material

Challenges:
Requires much energy to produce
Higher cost than other material
Requires fire proofing
Requires accurate workmanship
Limited availability in some countries

Prof Schierle

12

Heavy steel shapes


Profiles:
1. W-shape, light
2. W-shape, heavy
3. S-shape, Standard
4. W-shape, wide flange
5. C-shape, Channel
6. T-shape
Cut from S-shape
Cut from W-shape
7. Angle, unequal legs
Double angle
8. Angle, equal legs
Double angle
9. Pipe
Standard
Extra strong
Double extra strong
10. Structural Tubing
Square
Rectangular
Material

typical labels
(W14x22)
(W14x730)
(S12x50)
(W16x40)
(C10x30)
(ST6x25)
(WT8x20)
(L6x4x)
(DL6x4x)
(L4x4x)
(DL3x3x)
(P4)
(XP4)
(DXP4)
(ST6x6x)
(ST8x4x)

Prof Schierle

13

A
B
C
D
E
F

Floor / roof framing

Material

Concrete slab on steel deck


Steel Q-deck
Truss joist
Support bracket
Alternate prefab concrete slab
Wide-flange steel beam

Prof Schierle

14

Steel joints
1

Material

Pin joint, transfers only beam shear to column

Classic moment joint, transfers shear and bending moment

Dog-bone moment joint, reduces stress for seismic safety

Joist to beam joint with top flange cut back

Beam to beam joint with both flanges cut back

Column

Beam

Connector angles, welded in shop, bolted in field

Machine bolts, usually installed in field to connect beam

Welded connection of beam flanges to column

Stiffener plates resist bending stress from beam flanges

Secondary beam / joist supported by primary beam / girder

Prof Schierle

15

Steel moment frames


Beam / column moment joint
provides lateral resistance

Material

Prof Schierle

16

Truss floors

Joist and beam roof

Material

Prof Schierle

17

Expressed steel
Hillside house
Architect: Helmut Schulitz
Braced frame

Imos factory
Architect: Richard Rogers
Cable stayed roof

Material

Prof Schierle

18

Light-gauge
(cold-rolled)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Material

Channel stud
C-stud
I-stud
C-joist
I-joist

steel

(2 6)
(2 6)
(3 5/8 8)
(6 12)
(6 12)

Prof Schierle

19

Light-gauge steel

Material

Prof Schierle

20

Concrete
Types:
Site cast
Precast
Prestressed
Advantages:
Widely available
Can be recycled
Many finishes
Takes any form
Fire resistant
Durable
Challenges:
Heavy weight
(large seismic forces)
Requires rebars
to resist tension
Possible cracks
without prestress

Material

Prof Schierle

21

Concrete properties:
strong in compression
weak in tension
steel re-bars resist tension

Material

Prof Schierle

22

Site cast concrete


facilitates free forms but
formwork may be costly

Material

Prof Schierle

23

Precast Concrete
Advantages:
repetitive use of formwork
factory quality control
Challenges:
element joints
transportation cost

Material

Prof Schierle

24

Precast Concrete

Material

Prof Schierle

Material

Advantages:
Widely available
Can be recycled
Earthy appearance
Fire rated
Durable

Challenges:
Heavy weight
(large seismic forces)
Requires rebars to
resist seismic forces
Limited height

Roman aqueduct Pont du Gard France

Historic stone masonry:


Roman aqueduct Segovia, Spain

Masonry
Types:
Brick masonry
Concrete masonry
Stone masonry

25

Prof Schierle

26

Brick Masonry

CMU (Concrete Masonry Units)

Material

Prof Schierle

27

Modular coordination
Based on unit size
A Inside dimensions: # of units + 1 joint
3 units+4 joints

B Outside dimensions: # of units 1 joint


5 units+4 joints

C System dimensions: # of units

4 units+4 joints

Material

Prof Schierle

28

Concrete masonry
CMU: Concrete Masonry Units

Minimum reinforcement
Rebars around openings
In severe seismic areas:
Horizontal & vertical rebars @ 4 feet
In moderate seismic areas:
Horizontal rebars @ 10 feet
Vertical rebars @ 4 feet

Material

Prof Schierle

29

Brick masonry
Minimum reinforcement
Rerbars around openings
In severe seismic areas:
Horizontal & vertical rebars @ 4 feet
In moderate seismic areas:
Horizontal rebars @ 10 feet
Vertical rebars @ 4 feet

Material

Prof Schierle

30

10

CMU wall with rebars

Material

Grouting
(bonds rebars with masonry)

Prof Schierle

31

Architect: Arthur Erickson; Engineer: Horst Berger

San Diego Convention Center (anticlastic)

Fabric
Types:
Anticlastic (saddle shape)
Air supported
Air inflated

Material

Advantages:
Light-weight
(less seismic load)
Translucent
(daylight saves energy)
Challenges:
Fire rating
(Teflon coated fiber glass is
fire rated; polyester is not)
Durability (about 30 years)

Prof Schierle

32

Air supported
Inside air pressure
greater than outside

Require revolving doors


to keep air pressure

Air inflated
Air pressure between
double membrane or tubes

Material

Prof Schierle

33

11

Anticlastic Membranes
Stadium roof Oldenburg, Germany
Engineer: Schlaich / Bergermann

Material

Prof Schierle

Stuttgart

34

Stadium roofs
Engineer: Schlaich / Bergermann

Kuala Lumpur

Material

35

Architect: Schierle
Engineer: ASI

Prof Schierle

Sea World Vallejo

Swiss Expo 64

Architect: Saugey / Schierle


Engineer: Froadveaux / Weber

Material

Prof Schierle

36

12

Structure
material

Wood

Steel

Concrete

Masonry

Use intrinsic beauty


Material

Fabric
Prof Schierle

37

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