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Hydraulics

Trouble Shooting Guide

TS-Guide_R.doc

Table of Contents
Condensed Table....................................................................................... 1
Expanded Table
Valves ............................................................................................. 3
Cylinders ......................................................................................... 3
Boosters .......................................................................................... 4
Fluid Motors .................................................................................... 5
Vane Pumps.................................................................................... 6
Radial Piston Pumps ....................................................................... 9
Hydraulic Systems ........................................................................ 11

TS-Guide_R.doc

Condensed Table - Causes of Trouble and Their Effects in Hydraulic Installations


Source of Trouble,
Effects
Excessive Noises

1
Mechanical Drive
1. coupling wrongly
aligned
2. coupling loose
3. coupling defective
4. loose mounting n
pump and/or motor
defective
5. other transmission
elements loose
6. pump or motor
defective
7. wrong direction of
rotation
8. noise damping not
incorporated in design

2
Suction Line
Suction line
resistance
because:
1. tap or cock in the
suction line closed
2. suction filter
clogged or too
small
3. suction line
blocked or leaking
4. suction line has
wrong dimensions
(i.e.: ID) or has too
many bends
5. fluid level too low

Insufficient Power
and Torque at the
Power Take-offs
(pressure too low)

1. power transmission
defective V-belt or
toothed belt slipping
2. direction of rotation
wrong
3. motor defective
4. key sheared off at
pump or motor

As 2 A

Jerky Cylinder and


Motor Movements
(variations in
pressure and
delivery flow)

As 1 A 1 thru 7

As 2 A

Power Take-off
either does not turn
at all, or - too
Slowly (insufficient
or no delivery flow)

As 1 A 1 thru 7

As 2 A

Excessive
Operating
Temperature

Foaming of
Hydraulic Fluid

Cylinder Runs On

Line Shocks when


Switching Takes
Place

Pump Switches on
and off too Often

TS-Guide_R.doc

1. suction line leaks


2. fluid level too low
3. wrongly
designed reservoir

3
Pump
1. pump is turning
too fast
2. max pump
pressure exceeded
3. charge pump
defective
4. shaft seals or
seals on suction
side are defective
5. pump defective
6. pressure and
return lines
connected wrongly
7. control system
oscillating
8. As 1 A 8
1. internal leakage
due to wear
2. unsuitable type
3. pump defective
4. end-of-control
pressure set too
low, or control
element defective

4
Pressure Line
1. line
mountings
missing or loose
2. lines have
been wrongly
laid
3. ID too small
4. As 4 C

5
Return Line
As 4 A
5. return
terminates
above fluid
level
6. return filter
blocked

6
Pressure Valves
1. valve chatter due
to dirt on valve
seat, valve worn
2. insufficient
dampening
(unsuitable type)
3. flow noises when
operating
4. unsuitable
characteristic curve
5. wrong design

1. leakages
2. excessive line
resistance
3. pressure filter
blocked

1. excessive
line resistance
2. return filter
blocked

1. with variable
pumps, the control
system is defective
2. pump defective
3. system
conditions affecting
the pump control
system (DMV,
SRV)
4. unsuitable pilot
valve
1. internal leakage
due to wear
2. pump defective
3. inlet and return
lines connected
wrong

installation not
bleed
completely

As 5 B

1. operating
pressure set too
low
2. internal leakage
due to wear
3. dirty or damaged
valve seat
4. broken spring
5. unsuitable type
(setting range too
low)
As 6 A 1 & 2
3. excessive length
of undamped
remote control line
4. unsuitable
remote control
valve

As 4 B

As 5 B

1. reduction in
efficiency due to
wear
2. with variable
pumps, the control
system is defective
3. rotational speed
and/or delivery
excessive
1. shaft packings or
seals on the
suction side
defective
2. leakage - oil line
terminates above
fluid level

1. ID too small,
causing frictional
resistance
2. pressure filter
blocked

As 4 E

1. return
terminates
above fluid
level
2. vortex effect
due to wrongly
laid lines
1. elasticity of
hoses excessive
2. lines not bled
As 4 A
5. the line
system storage
volume is
excessive

1. pump defective
2. in the case of
accumulator
installation, the
pump is too small

Printed 5/9/02

As 6 B
with sequential
control:
6. sequence valve
setting is too high,
or valve is
defective
1. constant delivery
flow is too high
2. unsuitable valve
type (ID too small)
3. pressure setting
too high
4. response time
too long

lines loose

1. switches too
quickly
2. restrictors or
orifices damaged
Sequence valve or
shut off valve has
wrong setting

Condensed Table - Causes of Trouble and Their Effects in Hydraulic Installations (continued)
Source of Trouble,
Effects

7
Flow Control
Valves
1. valve
oscillates and
excites the other
control elements
to oscillation
2. flow noises
3. as 3 A 7

Excessive Noises

Insufficient Power
and Torque at the
Power Take-offs
(pressure too low)

1. pressure
losses
excessive
2. false setting
3. valve
defective
4. unsuitable
type

Jerky Cylinder and


Motor Movements
(variations in
pressure and
delivery flow)

1. valve dirty
2. As 7 A 1

Power Take-off
either does not
turn at all, or - too
Slowly (insufficient
or no delivery flow)

Excessive
Operating
Temperature

1. through flow
set too low
2. unsuitable
type(setting
range too low)
3. valve blocked
(dirt)
1. through flow
set too low
(excessive
pump delivery
through
pressure relief
valve)
2. valve
defective

Foaming of
Hydraulic Fluid
Cylinder Runs On

Line Shocks when


Switching Takes
Place

Pump Switches on
and off too Often

TS-Guide_R.doc

8
Directional Control
Valves
1. valve chatters, due
to defective solenoid,
or the voltage is too
low
2. valve defective due
to dirt or wear
3. through flow
excessive
4. pilot pressure
variations
5. on valves
w/adjustable damping,
the adjustment has
not been carried out
6. check the electrical
controls
1. wrong switched
position (e.g.
pressureless
circulation does not
switch off)
2. solenoid defective
3. internal leakage
due to wear
4. excessive flow
speeds
5. spool jams
As 8 A

9
Fluid

10
Drive (cylinder,
motor, etc.)
1. wear of running
surfaces
2. as 3 A 7

11
Others

1. viscosity too low,


excessive leakages
2. viscosity too
high, excessive
flow resistance
3. fluid foams

1. internal leakages
(e.g. cylinder
packing is worn)
2. refer to 10 A
3. excessive
internal friction (low
efficiency)

1. in the case of pressure controls,


there is a defect in the open-loop (or
closed-loop) control circuit)
2. display instruments defective

1. hydraulic fluid
dirty
2. hydraulic fluid
foams

1. Stick-slip effect
due to the friction
of the cylinder
packings being too
high.
2. operating below
lower limit of motor
speed
As 10 B
4. power take-off
blocked (.g. piston
seizure)

insufficient load counter-balance (e.g.


lowering control valve)

1. cavitation
problems because:
a) fluid level too
low
b) viscosity too
high (temperature
too low)
2. fluid
contaminated and
dirty, leading to
damage and
blockage of
equipment
3. fluid foams

As 8 B
5. spool sticking
6. manually operated
valves (cocks) not in
through flow position

As 9 B

1. leakage losses too


high
2. pressure circulation
fails to switch on
3. spool sticking

As 9 B

1. losses in
efficiency due to
wear
2. internal friction
too high (poor level
of efficiency)
3. internal leakage
losses

1. conditions for starting not fulfilled


(pump control system defective)
2. electrical in-line open circuit (plug in
connections)
3. signaling elements (e.g. pressure
switch wrongly set or defective, limit
switch not contacted
1. cooling performance of the assembly
(or installation) insufficient in relation to
the installed power or the operating
time.
2. pressureless circulation not provided
(or does not switch on) during long
working breaks (with pump still running)
3. insufficient hydraulic fluid in the
installation
4. coolant valve fails to switch
5. thermostat set too high
6. coolant not switched on or no coolant
available, an defective
7. coolant temperature too high
8. surrounding temperature too high
9. deposits in radiator
10. insufficient heat dissipation due to
noise reduction measures

Unsuitable make
1. switching time set
too low
2. defective solenoid
cause leakage in
valve
3. valve dirty
1. switching time set
too fast
2. unsuitable type
(opening crosssection changes too
quickly)

Foaming of the
hydraulic fluid

1. internal leakages
2. faulty bleeding

1. pilot controlled check valve fails to


close immediately because:
a) seat is dirty or damaged
b) technical switching fault
2. limit switch fails to switch

1. excessive forces
and masses
2. no damping

in accumulator installations, throttles


have not been fitted in front of the
switching valves

in installations w/accumulators,
1. the gas precharge too low
2. bladder (diaphragm) defective
3. pressure switch set incorrectly

Printed 5-9-02

VALVES

Expanded Table

TROUBLE

VALVE
SPOOL
RESPONSE
SLUGGISH

VALVE
SPOOL
FAILS TO
MOVE

VALVE
PRODUCES
UNDESIRED
RESPONSE

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Dirt in system

1.

Drain and flush system. Disassemble and clean, if necessary.

2.

Restricted drain

2.

Small fittings or pipe.

3.

Pilot pressure low

3.

Check pilot pressure system.

4.

Malfunctions of solenoids

4.

Check for proper source voltage and frequency. Remove


solenoid and check fields.

5.

Distortion of valve body

5.

Align body and piping to remove strains.

1.

Dirt in system

1.

Disassemble, clean, and flush.

2.

Blocked drain

2.

Inspect for plugs or foreign matter.

3.

Pilot pressure off

3.

Check source of pilot pressure.

4.

Solenoids inoperative

4.

Check electrical source and solenoid fields.

5.

Distortion

5.

Align body and piping to remove strains.

6.

Improper re-assembly after


overhaul

6.

Use parts drawing to check proper assembly.

1.

Improper installation
connections

1.

Check installation drawings.

2.

Improper assembly of valves

2.

Check parts and drawings.

3.

Spool installed backwards

3.

Reverse spool end for end.

CYLINDERS
TROUBLE

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Valves sticking or binding

1.

Check for dirt or gummy deposit. Check for contamination of


oil. Check for air in system. Check for worn parts. Excessive
wear may be due to oil contamination.

2.

Cylinder sticking or binding

2.

Check for dirt, gummy deposits or air leaks as above. Check


for misalignment, worn parts or defective packing.

3.

Sluggish operation during


warm-up period

3.

Viscosity of oil too high or pour point too high at starting


temperature. Change to oil with lower viscosity or better
viscosity index and lower pour point. An immersion heater
placed in the oil may help under severe cold conditions.

4.

Pilot control pressure too low

4.

Control line may be too small, or metering choke valve not


working properly.

5.

Internal leakage in cylinder

5.

Repair or replace worn parts and loose packing. Check oil to


see that viscosity is not too low. Check for excessive
contamination or wear.

6.

Air in system

6.

Bleed air and check for leaks. Check to see that oil intake is
well below surface of oil in reservoir. Check pump packing and
line connections on intake side by pouring hydraulic oil over
suspected leak. If noise stops, the leak has been located.
Tighten joints or change packing or gaskets where necessary.

ERRATIC
ACTION

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

BOOSTERS

Expanded Table

TROUBLE

BOOSTER
NOT
OPERATING

BOOSTER NOT
DEVELOPING
SUFFICIENT
PRESSURE

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Sequence valve set too high

1.

Back off pressure adjusting screw of sequence


valve until booster starts to operate.

2.

Valve closed between pump and


booster

2.

Carefully check piping and valving.

3.

Valve closed between booster exhaust


and reservoir

3.

Remove all valving from this line unless the


function and operation of such valving is
thoroughly understood.

4.

Pump not delivering oil or developing


insufficient pressure

4.

See pump trouble chart.

5.

Orifice at ends of control spool plugged


with foreign matter

5.

Remove pipe plugs on both ends of booster body


and clean orifice with air or wire.

6.

Pilot ram or pilot piston are tight or


sticking

6.

Remove plugs outside pilot pistons on each end of


booster. Check tightness of rams and pistons with
3/16 cap screw. Look for dirt or chips. Dress
with crocus cloth if necessary.

7.

Main operating ram jammed

7.

Remove one or both heads as necessary for


inspection. Renew main piston if badly scored by
foreign matter. Whenever the heads are removed
from the booster, the head gaskets and the high
pressure seal between the head and the booster
body must be replaced with new ones.

8.

Check valves jammed

8.

Inspect the four check valve assemblies for


damage. When reassembling, do not force spring
seat into place too hard.

1.

Booster not operating

1.

See section entitled Booster Not Operating.

2.

Excessive leakage of high pressure

2.

See section entitled Booster Operating Rapidly


and Continuously.

3.

Pump pressure not adjusted properly

3.

Booster pressure will be in proportion to pump


pressure according to ratio stamped on booster.
Adjust pump to desired pressure.

4.

Back pressure in booster exhaust line

4.

Inspect exhaust line for restriction. Should be 1


standard pipe area to reservoir. Remove any
valves in this line unless function is thoroughly
understood.

5.

Spring loaded resistance valve between


pump and booster

5.

Pressure drop between pump and booster will


affect apparent booster ration. A small hole drilled
in disc of resistance valve, if used, will allow
proper pressure ratio at end of cylinder stroke.

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

BOOSTERS (cont.)
TROUBLE

BOOSTER
OPERATING
RAPIDLY AND
CONTINUOUSLY
WITHOUT
BUILDING UP
PRESSURE

Expanded Table
CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Incorrect valving in circuit

1.

See circuit drawing for typical booster circuit.


Sequence and check valves or adequate
substitutes are usually essential in most booster
circuits.

2.

Sequence valve incorrectly adjusted

2.

Tighten pressure adjusting screw sufficiently to


prevent booster from operating. With correct
pump pressure adjustment, and with operating
cylinder at end of stroke, back off adjusting screw
until booster operates.

3.

Excessive leakage of high pressure in


valves between booster and cylinder or
in cylinder packing

3.

Locate point of leakage by isolating high pressure


in separate pieces of equipment.

4.

Excessive leakage of high pressure


within booster

4.

Isolate booster to verify source of trouble. Tighten


head bolts. Lap or replace four high pressure
check valves as needed. If trouble continues,
remove heads and inspect ram for scoring.
Replace ram and O ring assemblies with new
parts if needed. Replace rings on small ram.
Excessive force may cause spring seat to buckle,
jamming check valve.

FLUID MOTORS
TROUBLE

MOTOR
TURNING IN WRONG
DIRECTION

MOTOR NOT
TURNING OVER OR
NOT DEVELOPING
PROPER SPEED OR
TORQUE

EXTERNAL OIL
LEAKAGE FROM
MOTOR
TS-Guide_R.doc

CAUSE

REMEDY

1. Incorrect piping between


control valve and motor

1. Check circuit to determine correct piping.

1. System overload relief valve


adjustment not set high
enough

1. Check system pressure and reset relief


valve.

2. Relief valve sticking open

2. Remove dirt under pressure adjustment ball


or piston.

3. Free recirculation of oil to


reservoir being allowed
through system

3. Directional control valve may be in open


center neutral or other return line
unintentionally open. Repair or replace
valve.

4. Driven mechanism binding


because of misalignment

4. Remove motor and check torque


requirement of driven shaft.

5. Pump not delivering sufficient


pressure or volume

5. Check pump delivery and pressure.

6. Motor yoke not set at proper


angle (on adjustable motors)

6. Adjust pump yoke angle by means of hand


wheel.

1. Gaskets leaking (may be due


to reservoir drain not being
connected if this is required).

1. Replace (if drain line required, it must be


piped directly to reservoir).

Printed 5-9-02

VANE PUMPS
TROUBLE

EXCESSIVE
PUMP
NOISE

Expanded Table
CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Wrong direction of pump


rotation

1.

Observe arrow on pump case. Direction of rotation must


correspond.

2.

Low oil level

2.

Fill reservoir so that surface of oil is well above end of suction line
during all of work cycle.

3.

Wrong type of oil

3.

Use a good, clean hydraulic oil having the viscosity in accordance


with recommendations.

4.

Pump running too fast

4.

Reduce speed. Speeds above rating are harmful and cause early
failure of pumps. Refer to pump ratings.

5.

Coupling misalignment

5.

Re-align pump and motor accurately. Align to within 0.005 total


indicator reading.

6.

Reservoir not vented

6.

Vent reservoir through air filter to allow breathing action for


fluctuating oil level.

7.

Air leak in suction line. Air


leak in case drain line. Air
leak around shaft packing

7.

Pour hydraulic oil on joints and around shaft while listening for
change in sound of operation. Tighten as required.

8.

Restricted flow through


suction piping

8.

Check suction piping and fittings to make sure full size is used
throughout. Make sure suction line is not plugged with rags or
other foreign material. Avoid excessively long suction lines.

9.

Air bound pump

9.

Air is locked in pumping chamber and has no way to escape. Stop


pump immediately. Before restarting, partially open pressure line
or install special bypass line back to tank so that air can pass out of
the pump.

10. Slip line (case drain) does


not terminate below oil
level

10. Extend slip line piping so that it terminates below the oil surface
when oil is at its lowest level during any one machine cycle.

11. Worn pressure ring

11. Replace. This condition caused by hot, thin, dirty oil or no oil at all.
An air bound condition (#9 above) will also contribute to the worn
pressure ring.

12. Restricted filter or strainer

12. Clean filter or strainer. Calculate required size and add 100% to
allow for partial blocking by dirt.

13. Air bubbles in intake line

13. Provide reservoir with baffles. All return lines to reservoir must be
below oil surface, and on opposite side of the baffle from intake
lines.

14. Sticking vane

14. Remove cover assembly and check rotor and vanes for presence
of metal chips or sticky oil. Some pump models have chamfered
edges on the vanes. See pump drawings for proper installation.

15. Two pumps to common


manifold

15. A check valve must be placed in the discharge line of the pump
which has the lowest pressure to prevent back flow and surging.
This check valve must also be present if an accumulator is in the
discharge line.

16. Reservoir air vent plugged

16. Air must be allowed to circulate in the reservoir. Clean and/or


replace breather.

17. Worn or broken parts

17. Replace.

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

VANE PUMPS (cont.)


TROUBLE

SYSTEM
EXCESSIVELY
HOT

PUMP NOT
DELIVERING
PRESSURE

Expanded Table

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Pump operated at higher


pressures than required

1.

Reduce pump pressure to minimum required for installation.

2.

Pump discharging through relief


valve

2.

Remove relief valve. Relief valves are not required with


pumps having spring or hydraulic pressure compensating
governor (relief valves create additional heat).

3.

Pump not unloaded during idle


periods of machine operating
cycle

3.

Use open center valve, or two-stage pressure compensating


governor, when applicable.

4.

Insufficient cooling facilities

4.

Install oil cooler. Increase reservoir capacity.

5.

Excessive pump slippage

5.

Tighten bolts on cover. Add shims between cover and cover


plate except on Model K pumps. Remove shims to tighten
Model K pumps.

6.

Pump drain line too close to


pump suction line returning
heated oil back into the pump

6.

Separate the drain and suctions lines by a baffle in the


reservoir. Place the drain line in a location where it must
travel the farthest distance practical before the oil re-enters
the pump.

7.

Excessive system leakage


through cylinders or valves

7.

Check progressively through the system for excessive


leakage.

8.

High ambient or radiant


temperature

8.

Relocate power unit, or baffle against radiant heat.

9.

Low oil in reservoir

9.

Bring level of oil up to recommended point.

10. Excessive friction

10. Internal parts may be too tight. Reshim.

11. Reservoir too small

11. Increase size or install auxiliary cooling equipment.

12. Restricted or undersize valves


on hydraulic lines

12. Clean valves and piping. Use adequate pipe sizes.

1.

Pump not delivering oil

1.

See trouble section headed Pump Not Delivering Oil.

2.

Pressure adjusting screw not


set high enough

2.

Set adjusting screw to obtain desired operating pressure.

3.

Pressure being relieved through


relief valve

3.

Remove relief valve. Relief valve is not required with pumps


having spring or hydraulic pressure compensating governor
feature (relief valves create additional heat).

4.

Oil bypassing to reservoir

4.

Test circuit pressure progressively. Watch for open-center


valves or other valves open to reservoir.

5.

Pressure ring sticking

5.

See No. 14 under Pump Not Delivering Oil.

6.

Governor piston sticking

6.

Inspect governor for dirt or excessive scoring.

7.

Defective pressure gauge,


gauge line is shut off

7.

Install pressure gauge known to be accurate in a line open


to pump pressure.

8.

Vane or vanes stuck in rotor


slots

8.

Inspect for wedged chips or sticky oil.

9.

Pump running too slowly

9.

Check minimum speed recommendations.

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

VANE PUMPS (cont.)


TROUBLE

PUMP NOT
DELIVERING
OIL

LEAKAGE
AT
OIL SEAL

Expanded Table

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Adjusting screw for pressure


adjustment too loose

1.

Tighten adjusting screw three to five turns after spring tension is


felt.

2.

Wrong direction of pump


rotation

2.

Observe arrow on pump case or nameplate. Direction of rotation


must correspond.

3.

Oil level low in reservoir

3.

Maintain oil level in reservoir well above bottom of suction line at


all times.

4.

Pump running too slowly

4.

Increase speed. Check minimum speed recommendations to be


sure of proper priming.

5.

Air leak in suction line

5.

Tighten joints and apply good pipe compound, non-soluble in oil.

6.

Oil viscosity too heavy for


proper priming

6.

Thinner oil should be used, per recommendations for given


temperatures and service.

7.

Maximum volume control


turned in too far

7.

Turn counterclockwise on Volume Control adjusting screw to


increase delivery.

8.

Bleed-off in other portion of


circuit

8.

Check for open center valves or other controls connected with a


tank port.

9.

Suction line or suction filter


plugged

9.

Filters must be cleaned of lint or dirt soon after the unit is first
started. Periodic checks should be made as a preventive
maintenance precaution.

10. Pump cover too loose

10. Tighten bolts on pump cover. Add shims between cover and
cover plates except on Model K pumps. Remove shims to
tighten Model K pumps.

11. Broken pump shaft or rotor

11. Replace broken parts. Check for signs of excessive shock, dirt,
foreign material, or other probable causes of failure.

12. Sheared key at rotor or


coupling

12. Check and replace where required.

13. Pump shaft turning too slowly

13. Check minimum speed recommendations.

14. Pressure ring sticking

14. Loosen bolts on cover to prove theory, or remove governor


assembly and volume control assembly and manually check to
see if ring is tight. If pump has no volume control assembly, the
thrust block may be removed to expose the ring for checking. If
ring proves to be tight, reduce number of shims between cover
and cover plate except on Model K pump. Add shims to loosen
Model K pump.

1.

Abrasives on pump shaft

1.

Protect shaft from abrasive dust and foreign material.

2.

Packing damaged at
installation. Scratched or
damaged shaft seal

2.

Replace oil seal assembly. Packing should be eased on shaft


carefully avoiding cuts from passing over key way.

3.

Coupling misalignment

3.

Re-align pump and motor shafts. Align to within 0.005 total


indicator reading.

4.

Pressure in pump case

4.

Inspect case drain line for restriction. Should be full pipe size
direct to reservoir.

5.

Oil too hot

5.

See trouble section headed System Excessively Hot.

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

VANE PUMPS (cont.)


TROUBLE

LACK OF
VOLUME

BEARING
FAILURE

OVERLOADING
MOTOR

Expanded Table

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Dirt or chips under vanes holding


pressure ring on center

1.

Pump should be dismantled and inspected for dirt or


chips.

2.

Governor piston stuck

2.

Check governor piston for freeness of movement.

3.

Pressure ring sticking

3.

See No. 14 under Pump Not Delivering Oil.

1.

Chips or other foreign matter in


bearings

1.

Make sure clean oil is used. Essential for efficient


operation and long life of bearings.

2.

Coupling misalignment

2.

Re-align pump and motor shafts. Align to within 0.005


total indicator reading.

3.

Excessive or shock loads

3.

Reduce operating pressure. Observe maximum rating of


operating pressure.

4.

System excessively hot

4.

See trouble section headed System Excessively Hot


(heat breaks down lubricating qualities of hydraulic oil).

5.

Overhung load

5.

Typically, pumps are not designed to handle any


overhung load or side thrust on the drive shaft. Make
provision for outboard bearings to alleviate this condition.

6.

Electric motor shaft end play or


driving or hammering coupling on
or off pump shaft

6.

Typically, pumps are not designed to handle end thrusts


against the drive shaft. Eliminate all end play on electric
motors. Couplings should be a slip fit onto the pump
shaft.

7.

Incorrect fluid

7.

See oil recommendations.

1.

Motor not properly sized for


pressure and volume
requirements

1.

Contact your AFS representative for recommendations.

2.

Pump delivering full volume


through relief valve

2.

Remove relief valve. Relief valve is not required with


pumps having spring or hydraulic pressure compensating
governor feature (relief valves create additional heat).

3.

Excessive internal slippage in


pump

3.

Tighten bolts on pump cover. Add shims between cover


and cover plates except on Model K pumps. Remove
shims to tighten Model K pumps.

4.

Starting pump with full pressure


and volume

4.

Use motor with higher starting torque or start pump with


valve closed so no oil will flow.

5.

Motor overload protection


undersized

5.

Install larger capacity unit and bigger heaters.

6.

Low voltage

6.

Install larger wire leads.

7.

Motor wired for wrong voltage

7.

Check motor leads for proper voltage connections.

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

RADIAL PISTON PUMPS


TROUBLE

EXCESSIVE
PUMP
NOISE

SYSTEM
EXCESSIVELY
HOT

LEAKAGE
AT OIL
SEAL

Expanded Table

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Air leak in suction line. Air


leak around shaft seal

1.

Pour hydraulic oil on joints and around shaft seal while


watching pressure gauge and listening to sound of pump.
Steadying of pressure gauge indicates leakage. Replace
seal or tighten joints in suction line.

2.

Low oil level in reservoir

2.

Fill reservoir so that surface of oil is well above end of suction


line during all of machine cycle.

3.

Air bubbles in intake line

3.

Provide reservoir with baffles. All return lines must be below


oil surface and away from intake line.

4.

Restricted filter

4.

Clean filter. Calculate required size and add 100% for partial
blocking by dirt.

5.

Restricted flow through


suction line

5.

Check suction piping and fittings to make sure full size is


used throughout. Make sure suction line is not plugged with
rags or other foreign material.

6.

Reservoir not vented

6.

Vent reservoir through air filter.

7.

Coupling misalignment

7.

Motor and coupling must be aligned to within 0.005 total


indicator reading.

8.

Wrong type oil

8.

Use good, clean hydraulic oil having a viscosity of 60-300


SUS at running temperature.

9.

Piston hanging up

9.

Loosen piston cap while pump is running, allowing oil to free


piston. Tighten again after piston is moving freely.

10. Running in wrong direction

10. If self-primer is used, rotation must be correct as indicated by


arrow.

1.

Pump not unloaded during


idle periods of machine
operating cycle

1.

Install unloading device in high pressure line. Unload pump


whenever possible.

2.

Insufficient cooling facilities

2.

Install heat exchanger of proper size to control temperature of


the oil.

3.

Pressure set too high

3.

Use only pressure required to provide satisfactory operation


of machine.

4.

Excessive system leakage


through cylinders or valves

4.

Check progressively through the system for excessive


leakage.

5.

High ambient or radiant


temperatures

5.

Relocate power unit, or baffle against radiant heat.

1.

Abrasive on pump shaft

1.

Protect shaft from abrasive dust and foreign material.

2.

Packing damaged in
installation

2.

Replace oil seal.

3.

Excessive inlet pressure

3.

High pressure seal modification must be used.

4.

Improper fluid

4.

Special seals are needed for synthetic fluids.

5.

Oil too hot

5.

Seal breaks up at high temperatures. Reduce temperature.

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

10

RADIAL PISTON PUMPS (cont.)


TROUBLE

Expanded Table

CAUSE
1.

Coupling misalignment

1.

Re-align pump and motor.

2.

Chips or other foreign


material in bearing

2.

Make sure clean oil is used. Essential to efficient operation


and long life of bearings.

3.

Incorrect fluid

3.

See oil recommendations.

4.

Electric motor end play

4.

Do not allow motor shaft to butt up against pump shaft. Allow


clearance in coupling.

5.

Pump running too fast

5.

1,800 rpm is maximum allowable speed.

1.

Air leak in suction line

1.

Check and tighten all connections in inlet piping.

2.

Pump not free of air

2.

Back out cylinder sleeves until oil flows freely and pump is
free of air.

3.

Hollow piston sticking in


cylinder sleeve

3.

Check gauge for erratic flutter and listen for noise in pump.

BEARING
FAILURE

PUMP NOT
DELIVERING
OIL

PUMP NOT
DELIVERING
PRESSURE

REMEDY

4.

Insufficient supply of oil in


pump

4.

Check volume of oil that will free flow through inlet line at
pump.

5.

Sheared key at coupling

5.

Check and replace if required.

1.

Pump not delivering oil

1.

See section on Pump Not Delivering Oil.

2.

Relief valve set too low

2.

Relief valve regulates the maximum pressure the pump will


put out.

3.

Relief valve not functioning


properly

3.

Seat may be worn or springs may be broken

4.

Oil bypassing

4.

Test circuit progressively. Watch for open-center valves or


other valves open to reservoir.

5.

Excessive system leakage


through cylinders and valves

5.

Check progressively through system for excessive leakage.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
TROUBLE

EXCESSIVE
WEAR

CAUSE

REMEDY

1.

Abrasive matter in the hydraulic oil being


circulated through the pump

1.

Install adequate filter or replace oil more often.

2.

Viscosity of oil too low at working conditions

2.

Check component minimum viscosity


recommendations.

3.

Sustained high pressure above maximum


pump rating or higher than system
requirements

3.

Reduce pump pressure to minimum required for


installation.

4.

Drive misalignment

4.

Check and correct.

5.

Air recirculation causing chatter in system

5.

Remove air from system.

TS-Guide_R.doc

Printed 5-9-02

11