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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РФ

ОМСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ИСКУССТВО

Методические рекомендации по развитию навыков устной речи (для студентов гуманитарных факультетов, изучающих английский язык)

Издание

Омск

ОмГУ

2003

Рекомендованы к изданию учёным советом факультета иностранных языков 03.06.2002 г., протокол № 9

Искусство: Методические рекомендации по развитию навыков устной речи (для студентов гуманитарных факультетов, изучающих английский язык) / Сост. С.В. Котлярова, Д.Ю. Малетина, Р.Р. Фаз- мутдинова Омск: Омск. гос. ун-т, 2003. – 36 с.

Содержит систему заданий по развитию навыков устной речи. Вклю- чены различные виды упражнений и словарный материал, позволяющие сту- дентам значительно расширить свой лексический запас. Для студентов факультета иностранных языков и отделения «Регионове- дения» исторического факультета.

© Омский госуниверситет, 2003

Оглавление

Предисловие

4

I. Warm-up

5

Functional vocabulary

6

II.

Vocabulary drill

9

III.

Texts for studying

10

Text 1. English painting

10

Text 2. Great graffiti!

15

Text 3. Describing creative work of an artist

16

IV.

Participation drill

17

V.

Listening

20

VI.

Topical vocabulary

21

VII. Project work

22

Appendix 1. Sidelight on usage

23

Appendix 2. Reference-list of artists, sculptors and architects whose names occur in the booklet

27

Appendix 3. A Russian-English vocabulary

28

Appendix 4. Text for studying

33

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Предисловие

Методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов фа- культета иностранных языков и отделения «Регионоведения» истори- ческого факультета на продвинутом этапе. Цель издания ввести в лексикон студентов наиболее частных слов и выражений по теме «Ис- кусство», обеспечить закрепление полученных знаний при помощи коммуникативных заданий. Учебно-методическое издание охватывает все аспекты обучения

устной речи: аудирование, монологическая и диалогическая речь име- ет следующую структуру:

– «речевая зарядка»;

функциональный словарь и активная лексика;

трансформационные и подстановочные упражнения;

тексты;

задания на неподготовленную речь;

аудирование;

творческие задания;

дополнительная лексика по темам (словари терминов и фами-

лий художников). Последовательность заданий в разделах (активи- рующие задания, введение новой и закрепление ранее пройденной лексики, тексты для чтения и обсуждения, темы для диалогов, дискус- сий и обсуждений) соответствует основным этапам занятия по разви- тию навыков устной речи и обеспечивают развитие коммуникативной компетенции обучаемых. Издание разработано таким образом, что может быть использо- вано на занятиях по практике устной речи выборочно либо, при боль- шом количестве учебных часов, в полном объёме. Наличие в учебной книге иллюстраций и текстового материала, ориентированного на интересы студентов, делает работу с ней привле- кательной для обучаемых. Студентам предоставляется возможность познакомиться как с классическим искусством прошлого, так и с со- временными тенденциями изобразительного искусства (граффити). Методические рекомендации представляют собой творчески пере- работанный, дополненный, систематизированный материал ряда отече- ственных и зарубежных изданий, аудиоматериалов и ресурсов Internet. Издание подготовлено с учётом требований современной мето- дики преподавания английского языка для студентов лингвистов и программы по практике устной речи.

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I. WARM-UP:

Answer the following questions. 1) Are you interested in art? 2) Do you like modern art? 3) What famous painters do you know? 4) Do you enjoy visiting art museums?

Study the following quotations. How do you understand them? 1) "A picture is a poem without words." (Horatio) 2) "Art is long and life is fleeting." (Longfellow) 3) "All art is but imitation of nature." (Seneka) 4) "Art for art’s sake." (Cousin) 5) "Pictures must not be too picturesque." (Emerson)

Learn the following.

a) Study the following words and put them into the appropriate col-

umns:

Things in the painter's studio

Exhibitions

Works of art

Colours

Brilliant, easel, subdued, flesh colour, graphic art, paint-box, warm, purple, pink, charcoal, oil, art exhibitions, canvas, red, nude model, drapery, blue, cool, special exhibitions, ivory, harsh, vivid, one-man exhibitions, stretcher, light, crimson, travelling exhibitions, painting, brush, crayon, sculp- ture, navy blue, applied art, permanent exhibitions, dark, intense, scarlet, pal- ette, strong, soft, orange, beige, delicate, dull grey, water-colour, yellow.

b) Study the following words.

Painting: painting, picture, canvas. The name of the artist can be used like a common noun to denote a work by him. A Picasso means a work by him.

Genres of painting. A landscape is a picture representing a tract of country with the various objects it contains. In the context of art landscape generally denotes a picture and not a view depicted there. When speaking of the view use scenery, countryside.

A seascape is painting or other artistic representation of the sea.

A portrait is a painting, picture or representation of the person, espe-

cially of a face generally drawn from life.

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Sitter, subject, model is a person who is having his portrait painted.

A still life is a painting of such unanimated subjects as fruit, flowers

and other decorative things.

A fresco is a picture on a wall or ceiling where a plast is still wet or

damp.

Genre painting is a painting which represents scenes from every day life in a more or less realistic way.

A scene is used in various expressions specifying the subject of the

picture: street scene; city scene; country scene; hunting scene; historical scene; battle scene.

Scene is often followed by "from

A piece is used as a general term meaning "work", "picture".

To depict, to portray, to render, to catch, to capture.

life".

FUNCTIONAL VOCABULARY

Agreement We see eye to eye to it. You couldn't have said it better. You took the words out of my mouth. Exactly so. Beyond all doubts. Surprise

Indeed? Oh, have you? Really? Fancy that! Do my eyes deceive me? Rejection That's just crazy, that's what I say. It's hell on earth. Humbug! It's awful (terrible, ugly, etc.)! Of course not.

Acceptance, appreciation

I like the texture (colour). Looks like that.

I've never seen anything like that. This is head and shoulders above the rest.

I give it four stars.

That's gorgeous (marvelous)!

It's a masterpiece! It gets two thumbs up.

Disagreement

Nonsense!

Horsefeathers. Nothing of the kind. Look me in the eye and repeat it. You must be kidding.

Soothing No harm meant. Now, steady on. Now, calm / cool down. I'm just kidding. Take it easy.

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Match the terms on the left with their definitions on the right.

8.

This self-portrait did not come to …… until after the artist's death.

1.

caricature

a) a picture made with a pencil

2.

cartoon

b) a drawing showing the parts of something to

3.

collage

explain how it works

4.

diagram

c) a drawing showing by a line the connection

5.

drawing

between two quantities

6.

fresco

d) a rough drawing without many details

7.

graph

e) a picture to go with the words of a book

8.

illustration

f) a picture in solid black

9.

mural

g) a picture painted in water colour on a surface of

10.

silhouette

fresh wet plaster

11.

sketch

h) woven cloth hanging on a wall, with pictures

12.

tapestry

woven from coloured wool or silk

i) a humorous drawing, often dealing with some-

thing of interest in the new in an amusing way

j) a representation of a person made so that that aspects of his or her appearance appear more noticeable than they really are

k) a picture made by an unusual combination of bits of paper, cloth, metal, etc. l) a picture painted directly onto the wall

Choose the right answer.

1. Mr Cheater made a living …… works by famous painters.

a) devising b) faking c) pretending d) shamming

2. A sculpture by Rodin fetched more than two million dollars at the ……

last month.

a) auction b) gallery c) museum d) sale

3. The …… of Rembrandt's paintings finishes next week.

a) demonstration b) exhibition c) show d) spectacle

4. They thought the painting was genuine but it turned out to be …….

a) a facsimile b) an imitation c) a replica d) a reproduction

5. There was no …… difference between the original and the copy.

a) discernible b) discoverable c) knowable d) understandable

6. Mr Adventurous has taken …… painting since he retired.

a) down b) in c) over d) up

7. A young art student acted as our …… when we visited the museum.

a) coach b) conductor c) guide d) lead

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a) light b) range c) sight d) view

9. Mr Vernix is the greatest …… expert on techniques of painting.

a) alive b) live c) living d) nowadays

10. Children and pensioners are admitted to the museum at …… prices.

a) decreased b) less c) reduced d) undercharged

11. On examination by experts, the picture turned out to be a …….

a) fabrication b) fake c) fraud d) sham

12. In the …… right-hand corner of the portrait there is a flower.

a) front b) high c) top d) up

13. He is sometimes considered to be an outstanding artist, but I consider

his work to be quite …….

a) common b) intermediate c) mediocre d) moderate

14. All visitors are requested to …… with the regulations.

a) agree b) assent c) comply d) consent

15. He made some …… sketches which would serve as guides when he

painted the actual landscape.

a) elementary b) introductory c) preliminary d) primary

16. Admission to the gallery is …… except on Saturdays and Sundays when a charge of one dollar is made.

a) allowed b) free c) nothing d) paid

17. The paintings are hung in heavy gold …….

a) easels b) frames c) fringes d) rims

18. This beautiful portrait is …… to Rubens.

a) assigned b) attached c) attributed d) prescribed

19. He earns his living by …… works of art.

a) recovering b) renewing c) restoring d) reviving

20. That landscape is somewhat …… of Rembrandt's early work.

a) memorable b) mindful c) reminiscent d) similar

21. The portrait you see here is a very good …… of my mother.

a) appearance b) likeness c) reproduction d) resemblance

22. I would love to go to the exhibition with you, but I'm afraid I can't ……

the time.

a) leave b) lose c) save d) spare

23. He said he had never …… across a painting which please him more.

a) come b) happened c) seen d) viewed

24. I made it quite clear that I had no …… of selling the portrait.

a) aim b) intention c) meaning d) purpose

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II. VOCABULARY DRILL.

a) Make up true sentences using the following:

 

portrait

landscape

1) My preference lies with the genre of…

battle piece

because…

still life

historical painting

2) I personally like…

oil paintings water-colour paintings pastel pictures drawings

because they are…

3) I prefer

landscapists

portraitists

animalists

batalists

to

seascape

still life

cubist

abstract

 

portray…

depict…

painters

as they

reveal…

 

interpret…

express…

4) I care much for…

knee-length

full-length

shoulder-length

half-length

portraits because…

5) "Marriage-a-la-Mode" (W. Hogarth) "The Shipwreck"

(W. Turner)

"Rain, Steam and Speed"

(W. Turner)

"The Morning Walk" (T. Gainsborough)

is admired for its… is criticised for its…

brilliant / low-keyed col- our-scheme colour-scheme where … predominates delicacy of tones subtle / gaudy colouring dull / oppressive / harsh colours

b) Give as many word combinations as possible with the following and translate them into Russian. 1) Supply attributes for the following nouns:

perspective, style, composition, plasticity, conception, surface, handling,

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treatment, painting, draftsmanship, portrait, brush-work, (brush) strokes, colour, shadows, scene, execution, chalk, arrangement. 2) Supply direct objects for the following verbs:

to build up, to balance, to render, to convey, to eclipse, to twist, to distort, to apprentice, to conceive, to execute, to handle, to treat, to suffuse, to fuse. 3) Supply prepositional objects for the following:

to paint in, to draw in, to be bathed in, to stand out against, to be charged with, to be suffused with, to loom over, to reduce. 4) Supply nouns to go with the following adjectives:

sculpturesque, architectural, linear, balanced, off-centred, plastic, cold, warm, transparent, fluid, flowing, nervous, spontaneous, harmonious, broad, authentic, graphic, crystal-clear, crisp, emotional, sturdy, crowded, stylised, austere, distorted, tightly-knit.

III. STUDY THE FOLLOWING TEXTS.

Text 1. ENGLISH PAINTING A) Painting in England in the 17th-19th centuries is represented by a number of great artists and during that period it was greatly influenced by foreign painters. The Flemish painter Van Dyck was really the father of English portrait school. Van Dyck created the impressive, formal type of portrait and such masters as Reynolds, Gainsborough, Lawrence and Rae- burn owed much to their study of his works. He created a genre of aristo- cratic and intellectual portrait, which influenced much the development of English painting. William Hogarth (1697–1764) is one of the greatest English paint- ers. In his pictures he reflected social life and in many of them the beauty of his painting was accompanied by satire. The "Marriage-a-la-Mode", "The Election Entertainment" were painted to show the life very satirically. In 1742 Hogarth painted "The Graham Children" where he brilliantly uses his delicate colours to show the charm of childhood. John Constable (1776–1837) was fond of the place where he was born and spent his childhood on the river Stour. He saw very beautiful woods, greens in nature and, being very talented, reflected nature's colours in his sketches which he then composed into pictures. He painted the land- scape without any changes and the trees or other objects were in his paint- ings very true to life. He is said to be the first landscape painter in England. William Turner (1775–1851) began his activity in art as a watercol- our master. Light and atmosphere were his characteristic feature. Turner is a

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super colourist. In 1805 he painted "The Shipwreck". He showed a terrible

disaster at sea. Green was a colour that Turner particularly disliked. In "Snow Storm" he reflected with the help of snow the idea of sur- vival and even in our days it looks very prophetic. It is considered one of his most original paintings. He studies colour very seriously and is said to anticipate the art of Impressionists and abstract painters of the 20th century. In his "Rain, Steam and Speed" (1844) he worked much on the colour interrelation. Thomas Gainsborough (1727–1788). A very lyrical painter who successfully connected man and nature. A very strong psychologist, he painted mostly women on the background of a scenery. He liked blue colours best of all. His portraits are optimistic and the light and shade of colour are in full harmony with the lines. B) Van Dyck created the type of portrait, which helped him to convey the sitter's individual psycho-logy. It can be well ob- served in his "Family Portrait" (picture 1). The sitter's individuality is vividly expressed in this portrait. One can easily follow the gentle and even character of the young woman and the outstanding search- ing, restless personality of her husband. The artist managed to create the impression of spiritual relationship in spite of the differ- ence of characters. The colour scheme of this canvas is very beautiful. The prevailing tones are red, golden and brown.

beautiful. The prevailing tones are red, golden and brown. During the 18th century the truly national

During the 18th century the truly national school of painting was created,

William Hogarth was the first great Eng- lish painter who raised British pictorial art to a high level of importance. Hogarth (1697-1764) wasn't a success as a portrait painter. But his pictures of social life, which he called "modern moral subjects", brought him fame and position. Among his favourite works are six pictures united under the title "Marriage a la Mode". This famous series is really a novel in paint tell- ing the story of the marriage of an earl's son and city merchant's daughter, a marriage made for reasons of vanity and money. Despite the satirical, often amusing details, the painter's purpose is serious. He expects his pictures to be read and they are perhaps full of allusions. At the same time Hogarth

Picture 1. Van Dyck. The Family Portrait

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remained an artist and passages especially in "Shortly after the Marriage" (picture 2) show how attractively he could paint. As a painter Hogarth was harmonious in his colouring, very capable and direct in his theme and com- position. He painted many pictures. He is well known as a humorist and satirist on canvas. In the second half of the 18th century narrative and satirical themes lost their leading role in the English art. The ruling classes tried to show in art a confirmation and glorification of their social position. The most popular form of painting became ceremonial portraits of rep- resentatives of the ruling class. Sir

Joshua Reynolds was the most out- standing portraitist of the period. In

December 1768 the Royal Acade- my was founded and Reynolds be-came its first president. He created a whole gallery of portraits of the most famous of his contemporaries. He usually painted his characters in heroic style and showed them as the best people of the nation. As a result his paintings are not free of a certain ide- alization of the characters. Reynolds was greatly influenced as a painter by the old masters. This influence can be seen in his "Cupid Untying the Zone of Venus". The picture is close to Titian's style in the use of colour but it is typical of the 18th century English school of its approach to subject-matter. He often included real personages in his mythological works (Venus – Lady Hamilton). Thomas Gainsborough, one of the greatest masters of the English school, was a portraitist and a landscape painter. His portraits are painted in clear tones. Blue and green are predominant colours. One of the most famous works is "The Morning Walk" (picture 3). Gainsborough is famous for his brilliant sense of composition, harmony and form. In the foreground of the picture you see a pretty slim young woman of about 25 and an elegant young man. The woman has a very fashionable long dress on, her face is attractive. She has dreamy blue eyes, and thick curly golden hair. As for the man, he is tall and handsome, the features of his face are pleasant and expressive. His eyes are dark, his look is proud, his mouth is rather large, his nose is straight, and he has a classical strong figure. I am sure that the young people are happy because they are young, they are in love, because the day is fine, and life is

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young, they are in love, because the day is fine, and life is 12 Picture 2.

Picture 2. William Hogarth. Shortly after the Marriage

beautiful. It is an idyllic scene in a roman- tic landscape. Thanks to the soft colour treatment the picture has a lyrical and po- etic atmosphere. His works contain much poetry and mu- sic. He is sometimes considered the fore- runner or the impressionists. Gains-boro- ugh was the antithesis of the businesslike Reynolds. He was very poetic by his na- ture, he abhorred rules and cares little about the old masters. By necessity a por- traitist he was by inclination a landscapist. John Constable, an English land- scape painter, painted many well-known works ("A Cottage in a Cornfield", "The Loch"). He is the first landscape painter

who considered that every painter should make his sketches direct from nature that is working in the open air. His technique and colouring are very close to the impressionists. Constable ig- nored the rules established by Reynolds. He insisted that art should be based on observation of nature and feeling. He was the herald of romanti- cism. But the realistic qualities of his art are sensed very strongly. A complete expression of romantic ideal can find itself in the pictures of Turner. Joseph Turner was an outstanding painter whose most favourite topic was to paint sea ("The Shipwreck"). He painted waves and storms, clouds and mists with a great skill. "The world has never seen anything like this picture," wrote a con- temporary critic when "Rain, Steam and Speed" was first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1844. "This is a dramatic painting, a canvas filled with restless energy. Only the cowman and the couple drifting on a boat in the middle of the river suggest any kind of stability and even that seems delib- erate, as if they already represent the way things were, helpless onlookers in this new age of speed. Turner uses thick dollops of pigment and subtle shades of white and yellow smeared this way and that across the canvas to create a powerful impression of that most familiar of English phenomena - the swift, swirling shower that douses the countryside even at the height of summer. He contrasts the traditional force of nature with the train, the new force created by man, moving doggedly and powerfully towards us, un- shaken by the elements. The colours here are dark and bold. Blood-red ashes spill from the boiler along with white and grey steam, a man-made

13

the boiler along with wh ite and grey steam, a man-made 13 Picture 3. Thomas Gainsborough.

Picture 3. Thomas Gainsborough. The Morning Walk

replica of the activity in the skies above." Although his talent was recognized immediately he deliberately turned his back to the glittering social world of London. Victorian England, which found it more important that a man be a gentleman in the first place and only in the second a genius, never forgave him.

Reading Comprehension.

1) The world bold means:

a) confident and brave;

b) without feeling of shame;

c) printed in thick type;

d) that can be clearly seen.

2) The word elements means:

a) groups of people within society,

b) four forces of nature,

c) characteristic parts of something,

d) strong emotions.

3) J. Constable's novelty is expressed by:

a) ignoring the rules of mature artists like Reynolds;

b) realistic qualities of his art and making sketches direct from nature;

c) by his being the herald of Romanticism.

4) True or false?

genuinely English without any foreign influence.

5) True or false?

6) Gainsborough is considered:

Since the very beginning English painting has been

Reynolds' characteristic style was a ceremonial portrait.

a) the father of English portrait school;

b) the forerunner of the impressionists;

c) the first president of the Royal Academy;

d) a humorist and satirist on canvas.

7) According to Van Dyck a portrait should help:

a) to show the confirmation and glorification of the ruling classes' social

position;

b) to use the discoveries and ideas of the old masters;

c) to learn the rules of art;

d) to understand the individual psychology.

8) Turner's contemporary critic finds his painting:

a) too picturesque;

b) of no value;

c) artificial;

d) dramatic.

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Text 2. GREAT GRAFFITI!

4.

If you could choose, what pictures would you like to see painted in your

Do you know what graffiti is? This text will help you to enlarge your knowledge about it. An intruder who got into the house of Mr Frank Bowers in Harrogate while he was away for six days drank two bottles of his whisky but left al- most every room glowing with murals, the like of which Mr Bowers had never seen. The unknown artist, or artists, painted large abstracts in the dining room and the main bedroom, Disney cartoon characters and a cartoon of Superman going "Zap!" in one of the children's bedrooms. Downstairs, the intruder left three abstract paintings on a board signed BRAAQ'74, a bust adorned with one of Mr Bowers's hats and his sunglasses, and a few sketches for sculptures. There were other paintings of a less mentionable nature as well. When Mr Bowers, a 36-year old business consultant, left with his four children for Stoke-on-Trent a week ago, the walls inside their home in Yew Tree Lane were graced by nothing more exciting than magnolia paint. Far from being outraged by what he found on his return, Mr Bowers was delighted. He may not know much about art, but he knows what he likes, and he certainly likes what the intruder has left him. Mr Bowers cannot paint himself, and knows no one else who does – "except an auntie who does sunflowers and things in Stoke-on-Trent" – and can think of no rela- tive or friend who would have wanted to surprise him on his return. Nor can he find any clue to the intruder, in spite of having played amateur detective by searching the dustbin. But such worries were driven from his head when he saw the mural in the dining room and heard the excited squeals and laughter of the children as they ran from room to room, discovering fresh delights in each. Some of the murals he will have to have painted over "be- cause of the neighbours" but most of them are there to stay. He is not reporting the intrusion to the police because he reckons that he has gained from it rather than lost. One of the abstracts left downstairs he considers to be "stunningly beautiful" and another over the bed-head "an absolute knockout". Use the information from the text to do the following tasks:

1. If you had come back from a holiday and found your house had been

treated in this way, what would your reaction have been and why?

2. Make up an imaginary conversation between Mr Frank Bowers, his aunt

in Stoke-on-Trent and the unknown artist.

3. Transfer this story to any other period you like and imagine (say) a house

visited in this way by Michelangelo, Cézanne or any other famous artist.

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house? (Add sculptures etc., if you wish.)

5. Do you think graffiti is a form of art?

Text 3. DESCRIBING CREATIVE WORK OF AN ARTIST The following is an imaginary obituary of an artist, sculptor and presi- dent of an eminent society of artists. Hubert Thake, whose sudden death in a car crash was briefly re- ported yesterday, was widely known as a portrait painter and as the sculp- tor of many memorial and decorative works. As a president of the General

Arts Association he had one of the longest terms of office in recent times (1959-1973) and his work in gaining recognition for the association was one of his great contributions to art in Britain. He was aged 82. His portrait commissions were executed with a competency to which the skill acquired from a thorough training and extensive professional prac- tice both contributed. It is likely, however, that the work is best known to the public (his "Political Portraits") has somewhat obscured his more per- sonal artistic qualities. One could perhaps compare him to a composer whose bent is for chamber music but who is continually commissioned to write the theme music for films. This is far from saying that his portrait work was unsuccessful, par- ticularly the sculpture groups carried out in collaboration with Jason Snurd for the forecourt of the new Worridge Town Hall, but other work could be considered more typical of the artist's personal aspirations. An example is the water-colour "Evening", exhibited for the first time in 1948 and now in a private collection, which with its delicacy of line and attention to detail gives a clearer impression of the artist's real identity. However it was perhaps Mr Thake's versatility which was his most striking quality. In this age of specialists it was quire remarkable to find a man who could turn his hand to almost any form of painting or sculpture with considerable success. Not only did he paint in oils and water-colour, but he was also an expert on printing and design work. His sculptures ranged from delicate statuettes lovingly finished to large-scale reliefs for the front of public buildings. He always stated it as a principle that no artist should be totally one-sided. Use the information from the text to do the following tasks:

1. In his career, Hubert Thake probably met many young would-be artist

whose work he did not admire. Make an imaginary dialogue between Hubert Thake and a student he is trying to discourage from taking up art

16

as a career. (Use any italicised phrases from the passage which you find useful.)

2. What might Hubert Thake have especially admired in the work of an-

other artist?

3. Write a similar obituary for a famous artist such a Gauguin.

IV. PARTICIPATION DRILL.

1. Translate the following sentences into English, the text by heart.

1. Гейнсборо, с его способностью проникновения в образ, умел не

только внести даже в традиционный парадный портрет глубокую пси- хологическую характеристику, но и передать настроение человека.

2. Гейнсборо писал мелкими мазками, нередко свободно вкрапливая

один цвет в другой, и поэтому его картины очень точно отражают быстро меняющийся облик природы. Это новаторство в области жи-

вописной техники во многом предвосхитило будущие достижения импрессионистов.

3. Великолепный акварелист, придававший особое значение свету, воз-

духу и в этом во многом предвосхитивший импрессионистов, Уильям Тернер был прежде всего романтиком. Его привлекали необычные и

фантастические сюжеты дикие скалы, развалины, грозы и прежде все- го море. Его "Мол в Кале" ("The Calais Pier") (1803) – типичный ро- мантический морской пейзаж.

4. В 1838 году Тернер написал знаменитую картину "Последний рейс

Отважного”", в которой сказались результаты его колористических исканий. Прозрачный чистый воздух, многоцветная гамма солнечного заката, штилевое море все это передает настроение спокойствия и некоторой грусти. Вся картина кажется пропитанной золотистым све-

том заходящего солнца.

5. Пейзажи Констебля чаще всего спокойные, гармоничные картины

природы, залитые солнцем. Но в изображении природы художник по- шел своим подлинно новаторским путем. Главное содержание этого новаторства заключается в отказе от какой-либо идеализации приро- ды. Констебль писал этюды с натуры.

2. Describe different pictures. Use the following words and word combi-

nations:

1) to evoke, intense, to capture the sitter's vitality, to paint from life, pene- trating studies of a character, special insight into the psychology, immedi-

acy, spontaneity;

17

2) conception, brilliant, to portray

and atmosphere, to anticipate, investigation of colour, range of colours, col- oured patches; 3) vivid, life-like, supreme mastery of technique, to achieve lightness of tone, high artistic quality, to be impressed by, to retain freshness, to be fas- cinated by the subject; 4) pure, vivid, to break with the tradition, to place the figure against the landscape background, to look natural, intensity, to emphasize; 5) appeal, brilliance, primary colours, to convey, to produce impression, to acquire, to affect, to glorify, to render; 6) to render, soft, delicate colours, elegant gesture, spiritual face, a brilliant colourist, the impression of, airiness and lightness;

7) to radiate, spirituality, to combine form and colour harmonious unity, ro- mantic, poetic in tone and atmosphere, to ignore the rules, the purest lyricist; 8) emotion, natural and characteristic pose, sharp psychological expressive- ness, feeling of air, to convey, finished technique, to produce impression, to penetrate.

with moving sincerity, poetic in tone

3. Discuss a portrait painting according to the following plan.

1) THE GENERAL EFFECT. (The title and the name of the artist. The pe- riod or trend represented. Does it appear natural and spontaneous or con- trived and artificial). 2) THE CONTENTS OF THE PICTURE. (Place, time and setting. The ac- cessories, the dress and environment. Any attempt to render the emotions of the model. What does the artist accentuate in his subject?). 3) THE COMPOSITION AND COLOURING. (How is the sitter repre- sented? Against what background? Any prevailing format? Is the picture bold or rigid? Do the hands (head, body) look natural and informal? How do the eyes gaze? Does the painter concentrate on the analysis of details? What tints predominate in the colour scheme? Do the colours blend imper- ceptible? Are the brushstrokes left visible?). 4) INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION. (Does it exemplify a high degree of artistic skill? What feelings or ideas does it evoke in the viewer?).

4. What does it mean?

1) It's hard to overestimate the role of art in one's life. 2) Art forms our outlook and enriches our inner world. 3) Art has a great educational significance.

18

4) Art brings people up – makes them more humane and kind. 5) Art holds up people's spirits in the tragic moments of their lives. 6) The language of art is universal.

5. Let's have a talk about art.

1) Do you believe what art critics say? 2) What makes good art? Do you think art can be great if it is not linked with the people's lives, their interests and ideals? Give your reasons. 3) How does art help us understand the outside world? 4) What purpose does true art serve? 5) What life would be without art? Why is art important? 6) Share your opinions:

a) Real art appeals to the heart and mind of man, to his feelings and ide- als and it proclaims life. Art is life, pretence of art is death.

b) True art elevates the mind and the soul of the people.

7) What is art?

6. Here are two extreme viewpoints on modern art.

A: "Modern art is mostly decadent rubbish. Painters produce ridiculous daubs that a child could do in five minutes, and they are sold for thousands of pounds because the painter is fashionable. Everybody says that artists like Klee or Jackson Pollock are good, because everybody is afraid that if they admit their real feelings they will be thought stupid." B: "Modern artists have different aims from older artists. A modern painter does not want to do the work of a photographer; he or she want to commu- nicate their own personal experience of the world, their deepest feelings about life, death and the human soul. A great artist can use the symbols of painting to express things which cannot be said in words."

Discuss the following points using the information given above, showing both sides of a problem even when you agree firmly with one side. Try to back up your general statements with anecdotes and stories which illustrate the points you are trying to make. Use the expressions from the functional vocabulary in your answers.

1. The purpose of art is to represent the world. The purpose of art is to express the artist's feelings. The purpose of art is to improve our lives. Art has no purpose. Different artists have different purposes.

19

2. Paintings should be in private houses, not in museums.

3. Artists should be subsided by the state.

4. Only a painter has a right to criticise paintings.

5. Artists like Rembrandt and Botticelli had far more skill than any modern

painter.

6. We cannot possibly judge the value of modern art – only posterity will be

able to do that.

7. The best painting has religious or social significance – art for art's sake is

sterile and pointless.

8. Picasso is a fraud.

9. Modern art is decadent because life is decadent.

10."I don't know much about art but I know what I like."

11. The meaning of "harmony" has been lost today.

12. Painting comes naturally. If a man has to "learn" it he is no true artist.

V. LISTENING. (True To Life. Interm., Unit 20)

1. Julia Quenzler is a court artist: in other words, she draws pictures of

people in the court (including the accused) during trials. Listen to the re- cording about her and answer these questions.

a) In what order did these things happen?

– she started working for the BBC

– she started her own gallery

– she worked for NBC

– she drew people in a nightclub

b) What is the main difference between the work of a court artist in the

United States and a court artist in Britain?

c) In the text, what is the significance of these times?

– 15 minutes

– one and a half hours

– 15 seconds

2. Choose one or two statements from this list that you agree with or dis-

agree with strongly. Discuss in groups.

a) Artists should not be allowed to draw pictures in court.

b) Drawings of people on trial should be shown on television.

c) Trials should be televised.

d) Important private art collections must be opened to the public for part

of the year.

e) Art galleries should not be financed with tax-payers' money.

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f) The sale of paintings of national importance to overseas buyers must

be approved by the government.

g) A painting was recently sold for $26 million. It is better to spend

money on art than on arms.

VI. TOPICAL VOCABULARY.

PAINTERS AND THEIR CRAFT. A fashionable /self-taught/ nature artist; a portrait /landscape painter; to paint from nature /memory

/imagination; to paint mythological /historical subjects; to specialize in por- traiture /still life; to portray people /emotions with moving sincer-

; to

render /to interpret the personality; to reveal the person's nature; to capture

the sitter's vitality /transient expression; to develop one's own style of paint- ing; to conform to the taste of the period; to break with the tradition; to be advance of one's time; to expose the dark sides of life; to become famous overnight; to die forgotten and penniless. PAINTINGS. GENRES. An oil painting; a canvas; a water-colour/a pastel picture; a sketch; a study; a family group; a ceremonial /an intimate portrait; a self-portrait; a shoulder-length /half-length /knee-length/full- length portrait; a landscape; a seascape; a genre /historical painting; a still life; a battle piece; a flower piece; a masterpiece. COMPOSITION AND DRAWING. In the foreground /background; in the top /bottom /left-hand corner; to arrange symmetrically, asymmetrically /in a pyramid /in a vertical format; divide the picture space-diagonally; to define the nearer figures more sharply; to emphasize contours purposely; to be scarcely discernible; to convey a sense of space; to place the figures against the landscape background; to merge into a single entity; to blend with the landscape; to indicate the sitter's profession; to be represented standing /sitting /talking; to be posed /silhouetted against an open sky /a classic pillar /the snow; to accentuate something. COLOURING. LIGHT AND SHADE EFFECTS. Subtle /gaudy col- ouring; to combine form and colour into harmonious unity; brilliant /low-

predominates; muted in

keyed colour scheme; the colour scheme where

ity/restraint; to depict a person /a scene of common life /the mood of

colour; the colours may be cool and restful /hot and agitated /soft and deli- cate /dull /oppressive /harsh; the delicacy of tones may be lost in a repro- duction. IMPRESSION. JUDGEMENT. The picture may be moving /lyrical /romantic /original /poetic in tone and atmosphere; an exquisite piece of

painting; an unsurpassed masterpiece; distinguished by a marvellous sense

21

of colour and composition; the picture may be dull /crude /chaotic /a col- ourless dab of paint; obscure; unintelligible; gaudy; depressing; disappoint- ing; cheap; vulgar.

Additional vocabulary for describing pictures. Air, appeal, arrangement, brilliance, light and shade, primary colours, riot of colours, to convey, craftsmanship, delineation, effect (atmosphere ef- fects, colour effects), to execute, exquisite, to producer impression, intensity, highlights, complete command of colours, diffused light, relations of tone and colour, to render, to represent, statement of form and colour, subject, subject matter, semi-tones, to treat, out of value, to fade, design, poetic in tone and atmosphere, abundance, accuracy, to acquire, to affect, affirmation, anima- tion, apotheosis, life-asserting art, to attain, austere, combination of colours, facial expression, to glorify, infinite, personification, to render, pure /vivid /brilliant /intense /soft /delicate colours, to evoke, conception, to radiate, spirituality, range of colours, to command attention, to penetrate, finished technique, expressiveness, emotional impact, harmony of colours, individual traits, skill, message, to radiate, immediacy, luminous, secondary colour, at one stroke, subdued colours, to be silhouetted against, to catch /to capture /to seize, splashes of colour, fluid /fluent, to anticipate, crystal-clear.

VII. PROJECT WORK.

Work out the presentation of an art gallery using the following Internet resources.

1. http://adam.ac.uk/index.html (ADAM, the Art, Design, Architecture &

Media Information Gateway, is a searchable catalogue of Internet resources that have been carefully selected and catalogued by professional librarians for the benefit of the UK Higher Education community. To search, use such keywords as: art galleries United Kingdom.)

2. http://bubl.ac.uk/link/a/artmuseums.htm (the index for art links)

3. http://www.artefact.co.uk ("Galleries" – the UK's largest circulating

monthly Art Listings magazine, describing current exhibitions and stock of

over 500 commercial and public art galleries, galleries for hire and art ser- vices.

4. GALLERIES ONLINE:

http://nmaa-ryder.si.edu/t2go (the Smithsonian American Art Museum)

http://www.oddyart.com (Highgate Fine Art) http://www.gardenofeden.co.uk (The Garden of Eden Art Gallery) http://advancedgraphics.co.uk (Advanced Graphics London)

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http://www.acag.co.uk (Ainscough Contemporary Art)

http://www.albemarlegallery.co.uk (Albemare Gallery) http://www.bsgart.com (Berkeley Square Gallery) http://www.nevillgallery.com (Nevill Gallery) http://www.stives.dircon.co.uk (New Millennium Gallery) http://www.historicalportraits.com (Historical Portraits) http://www.piccadillygall.demon.co.uk (Piccadilly Gallery) http://www.scolarfineart.com (Scolar Fine Art) http://www.stentongallery.com (Stenton Gallery) http://www.diorama-arts.org.uk (Diorama Arts) http://www.apollogallery.ie (Apollo Gallery)

5. ONLINE GALLERIES (Internet only galleries)

http://www.artconnection.com/ (Art Connection – fine art & sculpture) http://www.artlondon.com (ArtLondon.com – London’s international fine art portal) http://www.hollyblue.com (Holly Blue On Line Gallery – art & photogra- phy)

APPENDIX 1.

SIDELIGHT ON USAGE

ART, SKILL, CRAFT The earliest and still common implications of art are those which are now associated specifically with skill: technical knowledge, and proficiency or expertness in its exercise or practical application. Art and craft were once synonyms but now tend to become contrasted terms; both words still imply ingenuity and subtlety in workmanship, craft tending to be applied to a lower kind of skill or inventive power revealing itself in the mastery of ma- terials or technique and in effects that can be analysed and imitated, and art to a higher creative power capable of expressing a personal vision and of achieving results which defy analysis and imitation, thus, an artist may demonstrate his craft in painting sunlight but he manifests his art in painting a scene that conveys his feelings to the spectator.

ARTIST see PAINTER BACK, FRONT A basement-back is a basement facing the yard; in the same way a top-floor back is a room on the top floor looking out on to the yard; a one (two, three)-pair back is a room on the first (second, third) floor overlook- ing the yard and a two-pair front is a room on the second floor with all the

23

windows giving upon the street. The word pair in the combination a pair of stairs (steps) means "a flight". A three-pair front and the like may also de- note occupants of these rooms.

BUILD, ERECT, CONSTRUCT Build signifies the making of a house. Erect means "to set up straight". Construct signifies to build by piling stones one on top of another, etc. The word build by distinction expresses the purpose of the action; erect indicates the mode of the action; construct indicates contrivance in the action. What is built is employed for the purpose of receiving, retaining, or confining; what is erected is placed in an elevated situation; what is constructed is put together with ingenuity. All that is built may be said to be erected or constructed, but all that is erected or constructed is not said to be built; likewise what is erected is mostly constructed, though not vice versa. We build from necessity; we erect for ornament; we construct for utility and convenience. Houses are built, monuments erected, machines are constructed.

BUILDING, EDIFICE, STRUCTURE Building is the common and in most cases the adequate term. Edifice usually applies to large and elegant buildings only. Structure retains more frequently than the others the sense of something constructed, often in a particular way; as a tumble-down structure; a modern steel structure. Like edifice, structure is often used of buildings of some size and magnificence. Edifice, for building, in its concrete sense (generally with reference to a large building), belongs to that class of words to which M. E. U. has given the happy term "genteelisms". A genteelism Fowler defines as the substitu- tion, for the ordinary natural word that would first suggest itself to the mind, of a synonym thought to be less familiar, less vulgar, less improper. In a figurative sense edifice can be an effective word.

COLOUR, HUE, SHADE, TINT, TINGE Colour is the ordinary term and in careful use, the only generic term of this group. Hue in poetry or elevated prose, is often synonymous with colour. More specifically, hue suggests some modification of colour. Shade is often used in the sense of one of the gradations of a colour, especially as its hue is affected by its brilliance, as to seek a darker shade of blue (i.e. a blue that is lower in brilliance because nearer to dark grey or black); a brighter shade of green (i.e. one higher in brilliance and saturation) is desir- able; various shades of grey. Tint is also used as meaning a gradation of

M. E. U. – Modern English Usage by W. H. Fowler.

24

colour in respect to brilliance, but it always suggests hue, and is commonly

used in reference to light colours (or colours of high brilliance) that seem to be given by a light or delicate touching; thus, what are often called "pastel colours", or less properly, "pastel shades", are in precise use, tints. The term

is not infrequently used in contrast to shade, especially when the latter word

connotes comparative darkness or dullness (or low brilliance). Tinge im-

plies more of interfusion or stain than tint.

CONSTRUCT see BUILD COPY see REPRODUCTION CRAFT see ART DISPLAY see SHOW EDIFICE see BUILDING ERECT see BUILD EXHIBIT see SHOW FLOOR, STOREY The numbering of floors and storeys is peculiar, the second floor, e.g., being the third storey. The ground floor and the ground storey are the same, but the first floor and first storey are different, first storey being an- other name for ground storey, but the first floor being above it. In houses other than the one-storied there are:

(1) sometimes cellars (underground, and not used for habitation); (2) some- times a basement (partly or all underground, and used for habitation); (3) the first or ground storey, or ground floor; (4) sometimes a mezzanine or entresol (low, and not reckoned in numbering); (5) sometimes other storeys or floors numbered onwards from the preceding; (7) sometimes garrets or attics or lofts (with part of the upper room-space cut off by the roof). The words garret and attic mean the same thing, but the former is usually chosen when poverty, squalor etc., are to be suggested. Loft gener- ally means "an attic open to the rafters" and a space not occupied by human beings, but used for storing things.

FRONT see BACK HUE see COLOUR PAINTER, ARTIST A painter is (a) one who puts-paint on walls, ships, sides, etc.; (b) one who paints pictures. A painter of pictures would not usually speak of him- self or another of his craft as an artist, thereby implicitly claiming a mo- nopoly for his profession of a word that includes also writers, musicians,

sculptors, etc. Artist used for one who practices the profession of painting is

a genteelism. A painter of pictures may not be an artist. On the other hand

25

one might praise a talented artist for using paint with "the touch of an art- ist". Nevertheless if a child asked Who (or what) was Rembrandt? the an- swer should be A painter, and not An artist.

PAINTING, PICTURE As nouns, painting describes rather the action or operation, and pic- ture the result. When we speak of a good painting, we think, particularly of its execution as to drapery, disposition of colours, and the like; but when we speak of a fine picture, we refer immediately to the object represented, and the impression which it is capable of producing on the beholder; paintings are confined either to oil-paintings or paintings in colours; but every draw- ing, whether in pencil, in crayon, or in India ink, may produce a picture; and we have likewise pictures in embroidery, pictures in tapestry, and pic- tures in mosaic.

PICTURE see PAINTING REPRODUCTION, COPY, TRANSCRIPT Reproduction may imply identity in material or substance, in size, and in quality, or it may imply differences, provided that the imitation gives a fairly true likeness of the original. A copy is a reproduction of something else often without the exact correspondence which belongs to a duplicate. Transcript applies only to a copy made directly from an original.

SHADE see COLOUR SHOW, EXHIBIT, DISPLAY One shows anything which one enables another or others to see or to look at, as by putting it forward into view intentionally or inadvertly or by taking another where he may see it. One exhibits anything which one puts forward prominently or openly, either with the express intention or with the result of attracting others' attention or inspection, as, to exhibit the museum's collection of Whistler engravings. One displays anything that one spreads out before the view of others or puts it in a position where it can be seen to advantage or with great clear- ness; as, in the exhibition of pictures was criticised because the best paint- ings were not properly displayed.

SKILL see ART STOREY see FLOOR STRUCTURE see BUILDING TINGE see COLOUR TINT see COLOUR TRANSCRIPT see REPRODUCTION

26

APPENDIX 2.

REFERENCE-LIST OF ARTISTS, SCULPTORS AND ARCHITECTS WHOSE NAMES OCCUR IN THE BOOKLET

(the) BASSANI – a family of Italian painters: Jacopo Bassano [bƏ'sα:nou] (1510–1592) and his four sons BERNINI [bƏ'ni:ni] (1598–1680), an Italian sculptor, architect and painter BURNE-JONES [bз:n'dʒounz] (1833–1898), an English painter and de- signer CARAVAGGIO [kærƏ'vα:dʒou] (1573–1610), an Italian painter CEZANNE [sei'zæn] (1839–1906), a French painter COLLOT [kƏ'lo:] (1748–1821), a French sculptress CONSTABLE ['konstƏbl] (1776–1837), an English landscape-painter COROT [ko:'rou] (1796–1875), a French painter DEGAS [dƏ'gα:] (1834–1917), a French painter DELACROIX [dƏlα:kr'wα:] (1798–1863), a French painter DONATO [do'nα:tou] see DONATELLO DONATELLO [donƏ'telou] (1386? –1468), an Italian sculptor DOUW [dou] (1613–1675), a Dutch portrait-painter DÜRER ['dju:ƏrƏ] (1471–1528), a German painter and engraver EL GRECO [el'greikou] (1541–1614), a Spanish painter GAINSBOROUGH ['geinzb(Ə)rƏ] (1727–1788), an English painter GHIRLANDAJO [girlα:n'dα:jo] (1449–1494), an Italian painter GIOTTQ ['dʒotou] (1266? 1276–1337), an Italian painter GOYA ['gojα:] (1746–1828), a Spanish painter and engraver GREUZE [grз:z] (1725–1805), a French painter GUTTUSO [gu'tu:zou] (b. 1912), an Italian painter KENT [kent] (b. 1882), an American painter LEAL [leal] (1629–1690), a Spanish painter LEMERCIER [lз:mƏ'sjз: ] (1585–1654), a French architect LEONARDO DA VINCI [li: Ə'nα:dou dα:'vinti] (1452–1519), an Italian painter MANET [mα:'ne] (1832–1883), a French painter MICHELANGELO [maikƏl'ændʒilou] (1475–1564), an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet MILLET [mi'lei] (1814–1875), a French painter MONET [mo:'nei] (1840–1926), a French painter

27

MURILLO [mju(Ə)'rilou] (1617–1682), a Spanish painter PHIDIAS ['fidiæs] (5th cent. В. С.), a Greek sculptor PISSARRO [pi'særou], [pisæ'rou] (1830–1903), a French painter POTTER ['рotƏ] (1625–1654), a Dutch painter RAPHAEL ['ræfe(i)l] (1483–1520), an Italian painter REMBRANDT ['rеmbrænt] (1606–1669), a Dutch painter REPIN ['repin] (1844–1930), a Russian painter REYNOLDS ['renldz] (1841–1919), an English painter ROERICH ['rʒ:rik] (1874–1947), a Russian painter RUBENS ['ru:binz] (1577–1640), an Flemish painter SARGENT ['sα:dʒint] (1856–1925), an American painter SCOTT, GILBERT ['skot 'gilbƏt] (1811–18Z8), an English architect SHAW, NORMAN ['o: 'no:mƏn] (1831–19-12), an English architect TITIAN ['tiiƏn] (1477–1576), an Italian painter TURNER ['tʒ:nƏ] (1775–1881), an English landscape-painter VAN DER HELST [vændƏr'helst] (1613–1676), a Dutch portrait-painter VAN GOGH [vα:n 'go:g] (1853–1890), a Dutch painter VASARI [væ'zæri] (1511–1571), an Italian painter and art-historian VELASQUEZ [vi'læskwiz] (1599–1660), a Spanish painter WHISTLER ['wislƏ] (1834–1903), an American painter ZURBARAN [zз:bƏ'ræn] (1598–1662), a Spanish painter

APPENDIX 3.

 

A RUSSIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

акварель

water-colour

архитектор

architect

архитектура

architecture

архитектурный

architectural

барельеф

bas-relief, low relief

блекнуть

fade

бюст

bust

вернисаж

varnishing-day

вид

view

витраж

stained glass

воздвигать

erect, set up

выполнять

execute

выполнение

execution

28

высекать из камня вырезать (из дерева или кости) выставка выставлять выставочные залы галерея гобелен гравюра гравер гравировать гравюра на дереве линолеуме (линогравюра)

офорт эстамп графика гуашь жанр живопись живописный законченность (о произведении искусства) здание знаток зодчий изделия из глины хрусталя фарфора фаянса изображение (действие) (образ)

изображать изысканный искусство исполнять см. выполнять карикатура политическая картина картон (этюд для фрески) керамика

cut, carve carve exhibition, show, display exhibit, show, display exhibition rooms gallery tapestry engraving engraver engrave woodcut

linocut etching print graphic art, black-and-white art gouache genre painting picturesque

finish building, structure connoisseur architect earthenware, stoneware crystalware chinaware delftware representation portrayal, picture, image portray, present, give exquisite art

caricature cartoon picture, painting, piece cartoon ceramics, pottery

29

кисть кладка (каменная или кирпичная) коллекция скульптура из мрамора колорит композиция копия краска масляная линия литография мазня мазок малевать манекен художника маринист мастер (великий художник) (ремесленник) мастерство (искусство) мастерство исполнения мастерская масштаб (размер) миниатюра модель (макет) моделировать (лепить) мольберт набросок делать наброски направление (тенденция) натура (в живописи и скульптуре) натурщик, натурщица натюрморт обнаженный обнаженное тело обнаженная модель освещение см. свет открытие памятника отливать в форму оттенок оттенки

brush masonry collection marbles colouring, colour-scheme composition, design сору; reproduction colour, paint oil(s) line lithograph daub, daubing stroke, touch, dash, dab daub lay-figure painter of sea-scares master craftsman craftsmanship, workmanship, skill execution studio, atelier scale miniature model model, mould easel roughing in, sketch rough in, sketch trend life model, sitter still life (arrangement) nude the nude the altogether

unveiling mould shade, hue, tint colour effects

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офорт палитра (для смешивания красок) (колорит художника)

панно пастель пейзаж городской морской передавать (выражать) писать красками план картины:

на переднем плане на втором плане на заднем плане пленер подрамник поза позировать

полотно (картина) портрет портретная живопись проект проектировать проектировщик произведение искусства путеводитель по музею ракурс резец (долото скульптора) резчик (по дереву) рельеф ремесло репродукция реставрировать реставратор рисовать рисовать портрет рисунок; рисование свет светотень

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etching palette colour-scheme panel pastel landscape, scene, scenery; view city-scape, townscape seascape, water piece, marine convey, render, treat paint

in the foreground in the middle ground in the background plain air stretcher attitude, pose sit for one's portrait, sit to (for) an artist, pose canvas portrait; likeness portraiture design design designer work of art, production guide (book) foreshortening burin; chisel carver relief craft reproduction restore, reconstruct restorer draw portray drawing light light and shade, chiaroscuro

сеанс скульптор скульптура слепок гипсовый станок (скульптора) статуэтка статуя стиль (в искусстве) строение строить строитель строительство стройка место стройки сюжет тема содержание тень трактовка украшение (убранство) фон форма фреска холст художник художник-декоратор художественный цвет шедевр штрих экскурсия в музей экскурсовод экспонат экспонировать см. выставлять экспонироваться эскиз эскизный эстамп этюд этюдник

sitting sculptor sculpture; statuary cast modelling stand statuette, figurine statue, figure style building, construction, structure build, construct, erect builder; constructor building, construction construction (construction-)site subject subject, theme subject matter shade, shadow treatment, statement decoration background form; shape mural, fresco canvas artist, painter designer artistic colour, tint, hue masterpiece touch, stroke, dash visit guide exhibit

be on display (on show) sketch sketchy print study paint-box

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APPENDIX 4. Study the following text.

The Nature of Art

A postage stamp, the overture to the Magic Flute, a suburban villa,

Guerlain's 1 latest perfume, Leonardo's "Last Supper", an innings 2 by Don Bradman 3 , Shakespeare's "Hamlet", a performance of "Sylphides" 4 , St Paul's Cathedral, a Walt Disney cartoon – all these are (or can be) works of art. There are other things that are not works of art. Niagara Falls is not a work of art, nor is the afterglow of the snows of Monte Rosa 5 , nor the sound of breakers against a cliff, nor the dance executed by washing hanging on a clothes line in a stiff breeze, nor the scent 6 of a pine wood on a summer day.

These two classes of phenomena are different in kind. The first are man-made and man-designed. They had to be conceived 7 in the mind of a man (or group of men) and then made communicable 8 to other men by the skill of the designer, working in some medium that could be perceived 9 by the senses of other men – the eye, the ear, the nose, the palate. The other set of phenomena – Niagara Falls, the sound of breakers and so on – are not man-made or man-designed.

They may be equally beautiful or equally pleasurable. They may even be the result of a design by God or the Laws of Nature or what you will, but they were not imagined first and then made manifest through the medium of visible materials, visible movements, audible sounds, perceptible smells.

If the story of art is to be told it is necessary to know what art is, and

if I define it briefly as a human conception made manifest 10 by the use of a

medium; and if I define good art as a noble (or arresting, or interesting, or valuable) conception made manifest by the skilful use of a medium, I can then have done with definitions.

(From European Painting and Sculpture by Eric Newton 11 , Penguin 1951.)

Notes:

1 Guerlain – name of a French firm which produces perfume.

2 Innings – the time during which a cricket player is batting.

3 Don Bradman – former captain of the Australian national cricket team.

4 Les Sylphides [sil'fid] – ballet to the music of Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849).

5 Monte Rosa – highest mountain in Switzerland (4 638 m).

6 Scent – pleasant smell.

7 To be conceived – to be formed in the mind.

8 Communicable – that can be communicated, made understood.

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9 To perceive (adj. perceptible) – to become aware of (trough the senses).

10 To make manifest – to show.

11 Eric Newton (1893-1965) – was a distinguished English art critic and a regular contributor to The Guardian and The New York Times.

Answer the following questions using the information from the text.

1. What do the things listed in the first paragraph have in common?

2. What do all the items in the second paragraph have in common?

3. What similarities are there between the two types of phenomena concern-

ing their effect upon us?

4. What are the various stages in the process of creating a work of art?

5. What makes a work of art "good art", according to Eric Newton?

Discuss the following points.

1. Discuss whether a particular postage stamp is a) a work of art, b) good

art, by applying Eric Newton's definitions.

2. If Niagara Falls is not a work of art, what about a) a photograph of Niag-

ara Falls, b) a painting of Niagara Falls and c) a painting of some imaginary waterfall?

3. Make a list of Eric Newton's criteria for classifying something as (good)

art. Then arrange them in a list of priorities to clarify what you expect of a

work of art. You may strike off any of Newton's criteria and/or add new ones. Give reasons for your choice – and concrete examples.

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