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If you can answer yes to any of these questions then this is the guide for you.....
ARE YOU .....
Committed to reducing your costs?
Keen to minimise your waste?
Interested in caring for the environment?
AND ARE YOU .....

Interested in how to implement


Cleaner Production?

go to chapter 2 & Appendix 1

Involved in metal fabrication?

go to chapters 3 & 4

Involved in metal cleaning?

go to chapters 3 & 5

Involved in metal finishing?

go to chapters 3,5 & 6 &


Appendix 3.

Interested in the environmental


impacts of chemicals?

go to Appendix 2

Interested in who to contact for


more information?

go to Appendix 4

Looking for local recyclers?

go to Appendix 5

Looking for information on


hazardous waste facilities?

go to Appendix 6

The Cleaner Production in the Metal Product Industry Project was initiated and managed by Opus International
Consultants Ltd. For more information about the Guide or cleaner production call the Cleaner Production
Specialist on 04-4717000.
Printed on 100% recycled paper.

Cleaner Production Guide for the


Metal Product Industry
September 1997
The Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Industry was produced with support of the following
project partners:

ECNZ
Auckland Regional Council
North Shore City Council
Wellington City Council
Christchurch City Council
Hamilton City Council
Watercare Services
New Zealand Manufacturers Association
Production of the guide was financially supported by the

Sustainable Management Fund (Ministry for the Environment)


The guide is available from:
Ministrys for the Environments homepage: http://www.mfe.govt.nz
and
Opus International Consultants Ltd
PO Box 12003 Wellington
Ph 04-471 7000
Fax 04-471 7770
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank all project partners for their support given during the project. In particular, we would like to thank
Countertec Services Ltd, Galvanising Services Ltd, GUD (NZ) Ltd, Pacific Wire Ltd, Street Furniture Ltd, Universal
Electroplaters Ltd, Rokos Quality Power Coatings Ltd and Barclay Engineering Ltd for trialing and implementing cleaner
production options and contributions towards the case studies. Thanks to Mercury Energy and ECNZ for assisting
businesses with implementing energy saving options. Special thanks to Ken Osborne from Metal Protection Ltd for his
expert advice in peer reviewing the Guide and to other New Zealand metal product businesses for comments received on the
draft Guide.
Opus International Consultants Limited has exercised due care in the preparation and presentation of this report. Opus
International Consultants Limited gives no warranty and has no liability to any party for the accuracy or completeness of
the information presented in this report or for the correctness of any interpretation of that information.
This work is copyright. No unauthorised copying, adaptation or issuing of this work to the public is permitted without the
prior consent of the Opus International Consultants except where its copying, adaptation or issuing to the public is
undertaken on a non-profit basis.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................................................3
1.1. ABOUT THE GUIDE ........................................................................................................................................................3
1.2. ABOUT THE PROJECT .....................................................................................................................................................3
1.3. USING THE GUIDE .........................................................................................................................................................4
1.4. THE METAL PRODUCT INDUSTRY ...................................................................................................................................5
2. CLEANER PRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................13
2.1. WHAT IS CLEANER PRODUCTION?...............................................................................................................................13
2.2. WHY CLEANER PRODUCTION? ....................................................................................................................................13
2.3. HOW DO YOU ACHIEVE CLEANER PRODUCTION?.........................................................................................................13
2.4. EXPLANATION OF THE KEY STEPS ................................................................................................................................16
3. CP FOR GENERAL OPERATIONS ........................................................................................................................25
3.1. GENERAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS FOR METAL PRODUCT BUSINESSES ............................................................................25
3.2. CP OPTIONS FOR GENERAL OPERATIONS ......................................................................................................................25
3.3. CP CASE STUDIES FOR GENERAL OPERATIONS .............................................................................................................45
4. CP FOR METAL FABRICATION PROCESSES ...................................................................................................49
4.1. METAL FABRICATION PROCESS DESCRIPTION ..............................................................................................................49
4.2. METAL FABRICATION PROCESS INPUTS AND OUTPUTS .................................................................................................49
4.3. CP OPTIONS FOR METAL FABRICATION PROCESSES......................................................................................................49
4.4. CP CASE STUDIES FOR METAL FABRICATION PROCESSES .............................................................................................52
5. CP FOR METAL CLEANING PROCESSES..........................................................................................................55
5.1. METAL CLEANING PROCESS DESCRIPTION ...................................................................................................................55
5.2. METAL CLEANING PROCESS INPUTS AND OUTPUTS ......................................................................................................56
5.3. CP OPTIONS FOR METAL CLEANING PROCESSES...........................................................................................................57
5.4. CP CASE STUDIES FOR METAL CLEANING PROCESSES ..................................................................................................62
6. CP FOR METAL FINISHING PROCESSES ..........................................................................................................69
6.1. METAL FINISHING PROCESS DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................................69
6.2. METAL FINISHING PROCESS INPUTS & OUTPUTS ..........................................................................................................70
6.3. CP OPTIONS FOR METAL CLEANING PROCESSES ...........................................................................................................70
6.4. CP CASE STUDIES FOR METAL FINISHING PROCESSES...................................................................................................75
7. LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND COUNCIL FUNCTIONS..................................................................................79
7.1. LEGAL REQUIREMENTS ...............................................................................................................................................79
7.2. RESPONSIBILITIES OF REGULATORY AUTHORITIES .......................................................................................................83
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 1: Worksheets
APPENDIX 2: Overview of techniques
APPENDIX 3: Summary of environmental and health impacts of chemicals
APPENDIX 4: Sources of further information
APPENDIX 5: Recyclers in New Zealand
APPENDIX 6: Hazardous waste recycling, treatment and disposal facilities

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

About the Guide

This is the Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry. The guide describes the preliminary
results of the Cleaner Production in the Metal Product Industry project.
The Guide is primarily intended to provide information to New Zealand metal product manufacturing
businesses on practical ways to reduce the environmental impact of their activities. The Guide presents a range
of options for metal product businesses to reduce material, energy and water consumption, and minimise
production of waste, and summarises environmental legislation which affects metal product businesses. The
guide can also be used by government departments, local authorities, environmental organisations and other
interested parties to inform and motivate metal product businesses about Cleaner Production (CP).
It is important to emphasise the status of the Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry. It is an
optional guide which can be used by metal product businesses interested in minimising waste, reducing
costs and caring for the environment. The guide provides interested businesses with a process for improving
environmental management while reducing costs. It uses checklists and case-studies to provide guidance and
stimulate ideas on reduction of environmental impacts. In many cases implementing the options presented in
the Guide will help businesses comply with legislation and regulations. However, there is no requirement
for businesses to investigate or implement the CP options presented in the Guide. It is the responsibility of
business managers to determine the relevance and benefits of the information presented.

1.2.

About the project

The Cleaner Production in the Metal Product Industry project ran over a 15-month period and was funded
largely from the Ministry for the Environment's Sustainable Management Fund with support from a number of
other project partners. The project was a partnership between Ministry for the Environment, ECNZ, Auckland
Regional Council, North Shore City Council, Wellington City Council, Christchurch City Council, Hamilton
City Council, WaterCare, and the New Zealand Manufacturers Federation. Six metal product businesses from
the Auckland Region participated in the project. These are Galvanising Services Ltd, GUD (NZ) Ltd, Colourtec
Services Ltd, Street Furniture Ltd, Universal Electroplaters Ltd, and Pacific Wire Ltd. Expert advice was
provided by staff from Opus International Consultants Ltd (Environmental Division), ECNZ, and Watercare
Services.
The project had six key stages as summarised in Table 1. A final copy of the Cleaner Production Guide for the
Metal Product Industry was sent by New Zealand Manufacturers Federation and Auckland Regional Council
to metal product manufacturing business throughout New Zealand in October 1997.

Table 1. Cleaner Production in the Metal Product Industry - key stages in the project.
STAGE
1
2
3
4
5

DESCRIPTION
Auditing of six metal product business
Identification and evaluation of CP options
Trial, implementation and monitoring of feasible options
Preparation of the draft CP Guide
Business workshops in Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington and
Christchurch on CP and the draft CP Guide.
Review of the Guide.
Circulation of the CP Guide to metal product businesses in New
Zealand

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

TIME FRAME
July 1996
August - December 1996
November 1996 - March 1997
March - April 1997
May - September 1997

October 1997

About the Guide

1.3.

Using the Guide

We have included on the back cover prompt questions to highlight key information and help you navigate
your way through this guide. The format of the Guide is as follows:

Chapter 1 describes the background of the project and provides general information on the metal
product industry.
Chapter 2 provides an introduction to CP, its benefits and how it can be implemented by metal product
businesses.
Chapter 3 provides CP information for general activities (which are common to all metal product
businesses).
Chapters 4 to 6 provide specific information on CP options relevant to metal shaping, metal cleaning
and metal finishing processes respectively. Each of these chapters describe the inputs and outputs
associated with the processes involved. A checklist is provided containing a selection of CP options that
could be implemented by businesses to reduce resource consumption (inputs) and waste generation
(outputs). The checklist provides a useful start point for businesses to identify potential options for
further investigation. They were compiled using options from various sources.1 The checklist is
followed by a number of case studies which describe CP options in more detail. The case studies
summarise CP options implemented by the six metal product businesses. They provide detailed
information on the methods used to implement CP and the costs and benefits associated with their
implementation.
Chapter 7 outlines the legislation and regulations which affect the metal product industry. When
implementing CP options it is important to ensure that all relevant legislation is complied with. In many
cases, however, non-compliance may provide the incentive to investigate and implement CP options. For
example, a chemical can be replaced with a less toxic chemical to comply with environmental or health
and safety regulations.

A selection of additional information which may be useful to businesses wanting to implement CP is


provided in the Appendices. These are:

Appendix 1 provides worksheets that can be used by businesses who want to establish CP.
Appendix 2 summarises the health and environmental impacts of common chemicals and metals used
by metal product businesses.
Appendix 3 summarises a number of new technologies that could be used for metal finishing processes.
Appendix 4 lists organisations that can be contacted for more environmental information, including
project partners, government organisations, local authorities, energy supply companies and who to
contact for new technologies applicable to the metal product industry.
Appendix 5 lists contact details for recyclers that are currently operating in New Zealand.
Appendix 6 provides a list of hazardous waste recycling, treatment and disposal facilities in New
Zealand.


Cluistra and Smink, 1991; Hofman and Koppert, 1991; de Hoo et al, 1991; Huisingh et al, 1991, Kothuis and van Berkel, 1992;
US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990 and 1992.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

About the Guide

1.4.

The metal product industry

1.4.1.

Industry description

The metal product industry includes businesses engaged in processes that fabricate, machine, treat, coat,
plate, paint and clean metal parts. In general, the metal product industry is divided into those businesses that
process materials owned by other parties on a contractual basis, and businesses that manufacture their own
products.
Figure 1 summarises the key steps involved in metal processing. The manufacture of most metal products
involves three main processes:
metal fabrication: metal shaping and machining (outlined in detail in chapter 4);
metal cleaning: preparation of metal surface for finishing (outlined in detail in chapter 5);
metal finishing: e.g. treatment, plating, galvanising, painting and lacquering (outlined in detail in chapter
6).

Supply of materials

Material storage

Metal shaping
METAL
PROCESSING
Metal cleaning

Metal finishing

Packaging

Storage

Transport and sale

Figure 1

Process scheme of a metal product businesses2


2

Note: not all metal product businesses undertake metal fabrication, cleaning and finishing.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

About the Guide

1.4.2.

Why the metal product industry?

The metal product industry was selected for this project because:
the industry generates a very complex array of waste, often hazardous waste;
the metal product industry is an example of an industry which is largely unaware of CP and its benefits.
With a few limited exceptions, the industry has made no effort to avoid or minimise the waste generated;
there are approximately 2,6003 businesses involved in processing and manufacturing metal products in
New Zealand (which equates to approximately 13% of all manufacturing businesses) (see Table 2). The
project therefore targets a good proportion of the manufacturing industry;
the majority of metal product businesses are small to medium in size, with 70% of New Zealand
businesses having less than five employees (see Table 2). Consequently, these businesses generally have
less resources available (in the form of time, expertise, or finance) to either investigate or implement CP. By
demonstrating the success of CP in a number of selected metal product businesses, there is considerable
potential to transfer the findings to the remainder of the industry nation-wide;
the industry exports products and increasingly has to meet more stringent overseas demands to produce
environmentally sustainable products;
European and US metal product businesses have gained extensive experience in the implementation of CP
options in the metal product industry. New Zealand businesses have the potential to benefit from this
experience through the transfer of findings to a New Zealand demonstration project and the production of
industry specific guidelines4.

Table 2 Size distribution of New Zealand manufacturing and metal product businesses
SIC (Standard

Description

Industrial Code)
2/3
381

1.4.3.

Size distribution of businesses

Total

0-5 employees

6-9

10-49

50-99

100+

Manufacturing
businesses

13,940 businesses

2,287

2,907

393

346

19,873

70.2%

11.5%

14.6%

2%

1.7%

100%

Fabricated metal
product businesses

1,799 businesses

340

398

39

23

2,599

69.2%

13.1%

15.3%

1.5%

0.9%

100%

Businesses participating in the project

Six metal product businesses were selected to participate in this project, including Colourtec Services Ltd,
Galvanising Services Ltd, GUD (NZ) Ltd, Pacific Wire Ltd, Street Furniture Ltd, and Universal
Electroplaters Ltd. The main criteria for selection was a demonstrated commitment and motivation by
business managers to reduce waste. It was also important that the businesses represented the key processes
of metal product businesses. The following section describes each participating business and lists the
options implemented and the specific reasons for participating in the CP project. The options implemented
by these businesses and the benefits they obtained are described in more detail in chapters 3 to 6.


3
4

February 1994 figures.


Punte, 1995.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

About the Guide

COLOURTEC SERVICES LTD


Craig Milburn, Colourtec Services Ltd, PO Box 22 670, Otahuhu, Auckland
Ph 09-2767253 Fax 09-2766397
Company profile
Colourtec Services Ltd is a privately owned powder coat and liquid paint application company. The
company is also involved in metal component manufacture and coating. The company is located in
Auckland and currently employs 30 staff who work in two shifts. Processes include metal fabrication,
cleaning/treatment, powder coating, spray painting and paint stripping.
Reason for participation
The company participated in the project because it was interested in improving its environmental
performance and reducing costs at the same time. It was particularly interested in the reduction of energy
and water consumption and in finding an alternative for methylene chloride used for paint stripping.
Summary
By replacing methylene chloride with heat treatment for paint stripping of products, the company has
eliminated the landfilling of the chemical and saves over $3,600 per year.
Type of projects implemented
Negotiation of tariffs for bulk power consumption, installation of counter current rinsing, paint stripping by
incineration rather than methylene chloride
GALVANISING SERVICES LTD
Mr A. Lonsdale Cooper, Galvanising Services Ltd, PO Box 13181, Onehunga, Auckland
Ph 09-6366003 Fax 09-6365967
Company profile
Galvanising Services galvanises steel products and nail components to provide an anti-corrosive layer. The
main processes are metal cleaning and hot dip galvanising. The business employs 20 staff.
Reason for participation
The company participated in the cleaner production project due to its social responsibility towards the
environment and also to comply with trade waste regulations.
Summary
Galvanising Services has virtually eliminated the liquid effluent discharged to trade waste by implementing
a Cleaner Production programme. The mechanical cleaning process has reduced acid consumption by 50%.
Annual savings from projects implemented to date are approximately $40,000 with a maximum payback
period of 1.5 years.
Type of projects implemented
Self-regulating flow valves, recycling and filtration of rinse water from cleaning baths, replacement of
caustic cleaning and acid pickling by mechanical rumbling, continuous preflux filtration, use of inhibitors,
fume suppressants and surface wetting agents, removal and recycling of zinc dross and dust, temperature
control and insulation of prefluxing bath, negotiating reduced power rates for bulk power consumption.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

About the Guide

GUD (NZ) LTD


Chris Wood, GUD (NZ) Ltd, PO BOX 19175, Avondale, Auckland
Ph 09-8287089 Fax 09-8282244
Company profile
GUD (NZ) Ltd manufactures and assembles air and car filters for cars, trucks, and heavy commercial,
industrial and construction equipment vehicles. Processes include sheet metal fabrication, metal cleaning,
metal coating (painting) and assembly. The company employs 93 staff.
Reason for participation
The company has established an ISO 9001 and the automotive specific QS 9000 quality management
system. As part of this, resource consumption and waste production have been addressed. GUD (NZ) Ltd
participated in the project because it wanted to further improve its environmental performance.
Summary
Many options implemented by GUD are simple no cost and low cost good housekeeping and management
options, while providing significant savings. Additional options are being investigated and trialed currently
and are likely to bring further savings.
Type of projects implemented
Waste monitoring, stock management by labelling of raw materials, central light and power switches,
replacement of fluorescent lights with metal halide lights, establishing an Energy Task Force, repair of
compressor leakages, pressing products from metal off-cuts, metal recycling, reuse of metal working fluid,
use of low energy filter paper, plastisol and polyurethane, use of air knives to dry products, powder coating.

PACIFIC WIRE LTD


Shiu Singh, Pacific Wire Ltd, PO Box 22198, Otahuhu, Auckland
Ph 09-2704249 Fax 09-276576
Company profile
Pacific Wire manufactures galvanised and bright wire for various applications such as fencing, nails, steel
mesh, armoured wire for cables. Processes include the mechanical drawing of wire from steel rods, wire
cleaning and galvanising. The company employs 80 staff.
Reason for participation
Waste reduction is part of an operational excellence (OPEX) programme. OPEX is Pacific Wires continual
improvement programme which has an objective of enhancing operational effectiveness through energy
savings and minimising waste to bring benefit to the company. Management are also committed to
producing products in an environmentally responsible way.
Summary
The total annual savings resulting from CP options implemented to date are estimated as well over $0.5
million per year with a payback period for each option implemented varying from immediate to less than
one year. The adjustment of the raking procedure alone saved the company several $100,000s per year and
increased product throughput.
Type of projects implemented
Cardboard and paper recycling, boiler shutdown during non-production hours, installation of a central power
switch and daylight sensors, reuse of steam condensate from cleaning baths, recovery of bath dragout,
regeneration of sulphuric acid, caustic soda regeneration, and raking adjustment to prevent lumps on wires.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

About the Guide

STREET FURNITURE NZ LTD


Ken Croskery, Street Furniture NZ Ltd, PO Box 354, Papakura, Auckland
Ph 09-2999060 Fax 09-2962190
Company profile
Street Furniture manufactures indoor and outdoor furniture and hospitality products, generally made from
mild steel which is either zinc electroplated, hot dip galvanised or powder coated. The fabrication of sheet
metal is undertaken by Street Furniture, but the product finishing is contracted out.
Reason for participation
The company is committed to manufacturing products with minimum environmental impact. Although the
company was unable to implement CP options, it wanted to be advised about options that could be
implemented in the new plant that is to be built.
Summary
The company is currently building a new factory. CP options will be implemented in the new plant.
Type of projects implemented
Reuse of waste paper

UNIVERSAL ELECTROPLATERS LTD


Brian Featherston, Universal Electroplaters Ltd, 8 Lovegrove Crescent, Otara, Auckland
Ph 09-2747496 Fax 09-2741621
Company profile
Universal Electroplaters is involved in the electroplating of plastic products for clients, such as shower
heads, hooks, and shoe tacks. Processes include metal cleaning and electroplating.
Reason for participation
The company participated in the project because it wanted to reduce costs and environmental impact. It was
particularly keen to reduce trade waste discharges and metal consumption.
Summary
The company is currently trialing and implementing CP options listed below. Their benefits have not yet
been quantified.
Type of projects implemented
Insulating covers on cleaning baths, installing flow valves in cleaning baths, foam depressant liquid for
cleaning baths to reduce evaporation, use of air knives rather than evaporators to dry products, ion exchange
to recover gold from electroplating baths.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

About the Guide

1.4.4.

Other New Zealand businesses

A number of case studies undertaken by other metal businesses in New Zealand have also been included in
the guide. Accord Ltd, Methven Tapmakers Ltd, and Pacific Coilcoaters participated in a CP project of
Ministry for the Environment5. Barclay Engineering participated in a CP project undertaken by Opus
International Consultants in 19956. Metal Protection Ltd has implemented CP options with the assistance of
a current Opus staff member. Rokos Quality Powder Coatings Ltd attended the Hamilton workshop in May
1997 and implemented a CP option as a result. A description of the business is provided below along with a
list of the options implemented and the specific reasons for participating in the CP project. The options
implemented by these businesses and benefits they obtained are described in more detail in chapters 3 to 6.
ACCORD INDUSTRIES LTD
Rodger Batkin, Accord Industries, P0 Box 51-395, Pakuranga, Auckland
Ph 09 5768014 Fax: 09-5766019
Company profile
Manufactures metal components from brass, aluminium and steel for whiteware and similar products. The
company employs 100 staff.
Reason for CP projects
Recycling of scrap metal as it is recognised as a valuable and useable resource.
Summary
Scrap metal and other materials are recycled, reducing disposal costs.
Type of projects implemented
Material recycling, material substitution, waste reduction, reduction in the use of hazardous substances.
BARCLAY ENGINEERING LTD
Arthur Barclay, Barclay Engineering Ltd, PO Box 35019, Naenae, Wellington
Ph 04-5676500 Fax 04-5679345
Company profile
Barclay Engineering Limited manufactures plant of electrical and plumbing fasteners and fittings and
employs 40 staff. The company designs and manufactures a range of 2000 to 3000 products by metal
stamping and pressing. Products are manufactured from brass, copper, aluminium, steel and stainless steel.
Reason for CP projects
Barclay Engineering Ltd was interested in improving the environmental performance of the business, by
formally addressing CP opportunities.
Summary
As a result of a number of no and low costs CP options, Barclay Engineering saves over $10,000 per year.
Type of projects implemented
Water-based coolant, recycling of metalworking fluid through centrifugation, bath lids to control evaporation,
water-based cleaning of aluminium parts, recycling of 111-trichloroethylene, treatment of sludge with cement.


Ministry for the Environment, 1993 and 1994
Punte, 1996
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

10

About the Guide

METAL PROTECTION LTD


Ken Osborne, Metal Protection Ltd, PO Box 12381, Penrose, Auckland
Ph 09-6343600 Fax 09-6221129
Company profile
Metal Protection Ltd was founded in 1955 and specialises in bright zinc plating, gold passivating and related
finishes. The company has developed and trademarked a series of electroplating systems known as
ENVIROZINCTM, ENVIROGOLDTM and ENVIRODRABTM (a dual layer coating of tin and zinc with an
olive drab passivate and a special sealer, salt spray tested to 2000+ hours). The company employs 23 staff.
Reason for CP projects
Metal Protection Ltd has a philosophy of caring for the environment. CP techniques have been applied to
help comply with trade waste bylaws, and in the longer term, to obtain a reward from the efficiencies
gained. Their environmentally responsible practices will be used as a marketing strategy.
Summary
Process bath liquids containing chromium and cyanide are treated prior to disposal to comply with trade
waste regulations, saving $30,000 per year. Chrome and nickel plating baths are continuously recycled,
providing savings of $45,000 per year. Environmental savings are reduced chemical consumption, improved
wastewater and sludge quality.
Type of projects implemented
Dissolved air flotation wastewater treatment, cleaning bath recycling through atmospheric evaporation.

METHVEN TAPMAKERS LTD


Kevin Marks, Methven Tapmakers, P O Box 847, Dunedin
Ph 03-4551149 Fax: 03-4554748
Company profile
Manufactures tapware and employs 128 staff.
Reason for CP projects
Water discharges represented a major waste of resources. Discharge fees have also been introduced,
providing an incentive to reduce water usage.
Summary
The amount of water used in the plating shop has been reduced by about 42% by installing water meters and
training staff. Savings of more than $12,000 per year will be achieved, with a payback period of 17 days.
Type of projects implemented
Water conservation.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

11

About the Guide

PACIFIC COILCOATERS
Pacific Coilcoaters Ltd, Auckland
Company profile
Pacific Coilcoaters produces 30,000 tonnes of Color Cote flat painted steel roofing each year. Pacific
Coilcoaters is located in Penrose, Auckland, is a member of the Fletcher group and employs 62 staff.
Reason for CP projects
High water consumption and increasing water costs.
Summary
Through a waste minimisation programme costing approximately $300,000, Pacific Coilcoaters has
achieved annual after-tax savings worth more than $940,000. The main environmental benefits of the
programme are more efficient use of resources, greater energy efficiency and reduced waste disposal.
Type of projects implemented
Reduced handling of coils, reduction of steel corrosion, water-cooling tower to reuse water, oil skimming
from caustic baths and chemical recycling, new painting machine to reduce scrap.
ROKOS QUALITY POWDER COATINGS LTD
Ophir Bennet, Rokos Quality Powder Coatings Ltd, PO Box 5681, Hamilton
Ph 07-8472483 Fax: 07-8472472
Company profile
Rokos Quality Powder Coatings Ltd undertakes paint stripping and powdercoating of metal products. The
business employs 7 staff.
Reason for CP projects
High water consumption and increasing water costs.
Summary
Water consumption for rinsing objects has been reduced by 91%. Annual savings are between $7000-8000.
Type of projects implemented
Counter current rinsing.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

12

About the Guide

2.

2.1.

CLEANER PRODUCTION
What is Cleaner Production?

Cleaner Production (CP) seeks to minimise the quantity or toxicity of waste being produced by:
reducing the quantity of materials, energy and water used through:
- efficient management (e.g. good housekeeping and maintenance procedures);
- substituting materials and resources for less hazardous and less toxic alternatives;
- changing practices and equipment for more efficient alternatives;
reusing materials, energy, water;
recycling materials, energy, water;
recovery of useful materials from waste.
CP is all about addressing waste at its source rather than at the end of the process. With CP the definition of
waste is broader than usual, and includes all solid, liquid and gaseous forms of waste. Implementing CP within
any business enables all forms of waste to be minimised, improves efficiency and reduces costs.

2.2.

Why Cleaner Production?

Activities and processes which create adverse environmental effects are subject to pressures from consumers,
interest groups, trading partners, and the media. Added to this are the requirements of government, insurers and
lenders. These factors combine to make a compelling argument for responsible environmental management.
Metal product businesses, like many other businesses, are increasingly becoming aware of this.
The adoption of CP has the potential to bring the following benefits to metal product businesses:
reduced operational costs through reduced spending on resources (raw materials, energy, and water) and
reduced disposal costs (waste, wastewater);
reduced risk of liability under environmental legislation;
improved health and safety conditions for staff;
improved staff morale (international studies have shown that employees "feel good" working for companies
that are environmentally responsible);
improved public image nationally and internationally;
secure access to growing export markets which demand environmentally responsible products;
contribute to maintenance and improvement of New Zealand's environmental quality;
sustain and maintain New Zealand's environment.

2.3.

How do you achieve Cleaner Production?

Efficient and effective implementation of CP within a business results from the systematic identification,
evaluation and implementation of CP options following eight key steps as shown in Figure 1. A brief
explanation of each step is provided in section 2.3.1 along with comments about how these steps were applied
at metal product businesses that participated in the project. The Ministry for the Environment Cleaner
Production Guidelines provides a more detailed explanation of these steps for those interested.7


Ministry for the Environment, 1994.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

13

Cleaner Production

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

14

Cleaner Production

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

15

Cleaner Production

2.4.

Explanation of the key steps

Step 1. Plan and organise


The key element of successful CP programmes is planning and organisation. Key planning actions which
should be addressed at the beginning of any CP programme are listed below.
Key actions
Obtain management commitment.

Select an Environmental Champion and/or Working


Group and communicate to staff. It is also helpful to
form a small group to support the champion through
the project. In this project it was helpful to have an
independent expert to help the champion seek staff
support.
Agree general project objectives and time
frames.Your project objective should clearly
communicate your overall aim of the project.

Potential difficulties which may arise during your CP


project should be identified and addressed.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 1 applied to six metal product businesses


The managers of six metal product businesses in the
Auckland region agreed to participate in the CP
project and committed to implementing CP options
identified wherever appropriate within the business.
Each of the businesses identified an Environmental
Champion, who was appointed for the period of the
project to identify, trial and implement options and
motivate staff.

A possible project objective could be: To monitor


materials, energy and water and to reduce, reuse,
recycle and recover waste where possible. You may
also wish to identify more specific targets such as
reducing energy by 10%, waste by 20% etc. These can
be very helpful in motivating staff.
Difficulties observed during this project were limited
financial resources to implement CP options, high
workload for staff to look into environmental effects,
audit and trial and implementation of options must not
interfere with plant operation, options must not be
technically complex.
16

Cleaner Production

Step 2. Collect initial data


The second step requires a brief assessment of the current operation at the overall business level. Initial
information and data should be collected on material, water, energy consumption and waste generation, as
shown in the table below. Collecting this data enables identification of priority areas which require further
investigation.
Key actions
Determine quantities, distribution patterns (percentage
of total) and costs for different types of waste. Use
Worksheets 1 in Appendix 1.
Determine sources, uses, quantities and costs of water
and energy used. Use Worksheet 1 in Appendix 1.

Determine the main existing procedures which have


an influence on environmental management, e.g.:
waste collection procedures;
waste disposal methods (for main types of wastes);
purchase and supply practices;
environmental management responsibilities.
This enables identification of procedures which have
a positive and negative impact on environmental
effects.
Determine regulatory requirements that need to be
met (e.g. consents).

Determine what has already been implemented to


reduce environmental effects.

Identify the largest problems from an environmental,


cost, health or labour perspective. Use worksheets in
Appendix 1.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 2 applied to six metal product businesses


GUD NZ continuously monitors resource
consumption, waste generation, and product
rejections. If quantities deviate from the normal
pattern, staff is asked to determine the cause.
Total quantities and costs of water and energy were
identified. For most businesses, however, it was not
possible to breakdown this data on a department or
process basis.
Key procedures include:
general, hazardous (and in some cases recyclable)
waste is collected separately;
purchasing is managed centrally;
only few of the businesses have included
environmental responsibilities in a staff members
job description.

Galvanising Services and Universal Electroplaters


needed to improve wastewater quality to ensure future
consent requirements.
Colourtec Services could not find a appropriate
disposal method for methylene chloride, as landfilling
in the Auckland region is prohibited since July 1996.
None of the businesses had an environmental policy in
place. Energy audits had been undertaken previously
for GUD NZ. Pacific Wire had also participated in a
Ministry for the Environment CP case study.
The largest problems varied per business. For
example, GUD (NZ) faces high energy costs,
Colourtec Services has a high water consumption, and
Galvanising Services has a high water consumption,
wastewater discharges, and health and safety
problems resulting from emissions from the
hydrochloric acid bath.
17

Cleaner Production

Step 3. Selection of key areas and departments


On the basis of the data collected in step 2, an initial selection is made of key waste and/or processes which
yield greatest potential for further investigation in the short term.
Key actions
Select key wastes which offer the most significant
possibilities for CP. A key waste is a specified waste
stream or number of waste streams that are selected
for further investigation for CP opportunities. These
are often waste streams that cost a lot of money, either
in raw materials or disposal costs, have significant
volume or toxicity, or offer environmental
compliance.
Examples include electricity, gas, water use,
wastewater, emissions, general waste, hazardous
waste.
Select key processes for further CP investigation.
Because each business comprises of many complex
processes, it may not always be sensible to investigate
the entire business at once. It makes more sense to
start with one clearly defined area or process and
achieve success. Having achieved success and gained
the support of staff the programme can be expanded
to cover other processes.
Selecting the process will depend in part on the nature
of the options and support of staff. If general waste is
chosen, you may want to focus initially on offices
only, whereas if water is selected, an investigation of
a key process may be appropriate. Energy could be
investigated at a business level because of the general
nature of options. It can be helpful to select processes
where staff are supportive and avoid processes early
on where key staff do not support the project.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 3 applied to six metal product businesses


Galvanising Services selected water as a key waste
because no water saving or wastewater reduction
options had been implemented previously.
Street Furniture selected general waste as a key waste
because of the high costs associated with waste
disposal in combination with the potential for
recycling.
Some of the businesses used bills and council letters to
help identify key wastes.

GUD selected the oven and use of compressed air as


the key process because they were the highest single
users of energy.
Street Furniture selected the entire business for
identifying options to recycle waste because it is a
small business.
Galvanising Services selected the pre-treatment of the
nail galvanising plant because most of the
environmental impacts (water consumption, waste
water, hydrochloric acid emissions and disposal) were
located there.

18

Cleaner Production

Step 4. Assess activities to identify wastes generated at department level


This step involves a walkthrough of the selected processes to identify where wastes or selected wastes are
generated.
Key actions
Select staff to assist in the audit of key wastes or
processes. These could include members of the
Environmental Committee (formed in step 1) and
enthusiastic staff from the department or process
selected. It may be helpful to take a professional
person who is unfamiliar with business on your audit
to ask independent questions. Often these people can
help identify new options which you may not be able
to see.
Walk through the department at normal operating
time to identify all those situations where the key
waste (identified as a priority in step 3) is generated.
Record when, where and in what form the waste is
generated. Having identified where waste is generated
ask yourself why it is generated. Knowing why will
help you identify options to prevent or minimise
waste. Use Worksheet 2 in Appendix 1.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 4 applied to six metal product businesses


The Environmental Champion of the business was
accompanied by an external process engineer and an
external CP specialist.
GUD formed an Energy Task Group comprising of 5
people, including the Production Manager, Technical
Manager, and three production, technical and
maintenance staff.
Pacific Wire formed small teams of staff for each
process to discuss waste problems and find solutions.
An initial walk-through audit was completed for all
businesses and identified all forms of waste (energy,
water and solid waste). The audit also provided a
good opportunity to identify previously implemented
options.

19

Cleaner Production

Step 5. Identify CP options


Key actions
For each waste detected during the audit you should
identify possible CP options which would enable that
waste (or the effects of that waste) to be prevented or
minimised. Two effective methods that can be used to
identify CP options include:
using the CP checklist and case studies included in
this guide (see chapters 3-6) for ideas. Ask a staff
member from the appropriate processes or wastes
to complete the checklists, select priority options
and determine who should investigate high priority
options further. It is important to emphasise that
the checklists provide a selection of potential
options and should be considered as suggestions
only. Businesses should decide for themselves
which options are appropriate having completed
feasibility analysis relevant to their own situations.
a brainstorming session with other staff to identify
options in a group. Encourage your team to think
creatively about all possible solutions. Thinking
outside the square should be encouraged as
some solutions may require a radically different
way of doing things. Provide incentives for good
ideas and be careful not to discourage
contributions by dismissing or criticising ideas of
individuals in the team.
Use Worksheet 3 in Appendix 1.
It is often impractical to undertake a full feasibility
analysis for every option identified. Therefore a brief
evaluation of each option should be undertaken to
create a priority list of options which offer greatest
potential in the short term. These options will be
subjected to full feasibility analysis.
Your brief evaluation could cover:
impact on production process and product;
impact on the environment;
implementation costs (are they no or nominal cost
(<$300), low-cost (< $3,000) or high-cost
(>$3,000);
likely payback (will it reduce costs by a small or
significant amount.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 5 applied to six metal product businesses


CP options that had already been implemented and
potential new CP options were identified for all
businesses on basis of the walkthrough audit, the CP
checklists, and in some cases brainstorm sessions with
staff (e.g. Pacific Wire). A number of options were
identified by the audit team members during the
audits. In other businesses options were identified
following brainstorm sessions with staff or following
reference to the checklists in chapters 3-6.

This process was undertaken using the existing


knowledge of business staff and did not require
additional detailed research. The process enabled
priority options to be identified, some to be identified
as lower priority and some to appear impractical for
reasons such as space or managing workloads.

20

Cleaner Production

Step 6. Evaluate CP options


Key actions
Prior to implementing options it is critical that
potential CP options are evaluated to determine their
financial, technical and environmental feasibility. The
level of analysis required will vary depending on the
option - some will be quite simple and others more
complex but should generally cover the factors listed
below.
For the technical feasibility analysis consider:
impact on product quality;
required changes in process and equipment;
effect on other processes and activities
effect on number of personnel;
extra training required;
permits or consents required;
storage facilities;
laboratory checks required.
Use Worksheet 4 in Appendix 1.
For the environmental feasibility analysis, consider
for the current and the alternative option:
the quantities of resources consumed;
the amount and toxicity of waste produced.
Use Worksheet 5 in Appendix 1.
For the financial feasibility analysis consider:
investment:
- equipment;
- construction materials;
- installation;
- permits/consents;
ongoing costs;
- materials;
- training;
- maintenance;
- energy, water.
savings:
- materials;
- waste disposal or treatment;
- liability savings;
- energy, water;
- income from by-products (e.g. recycling);
- transport.
Use Worksheet 6 in Appendix 1.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 6 applied to six metal product businesses


High priority options were evaluated to determine
their technical, financial, environmental and health
feasibility. The case studies provided in chapters 3-6
include details identified during the feasibility
analysis.

Galvanising Services replaced acid pickling by


mechanical rumbling. This required a major technical
feasibility analysis because the entire cleaning system
had to be replaced. It was also critical to ensure that
the mechanical cleaning method would not adversely
affect the galvanising process or the product quality.

Colourtec Services had to determine that the adverse


environmental effects associated with the use and
disposal of methylene chloride were greater than
those of incineration (the alternative technique for
paint stripping).
All businesses completed a financial feasibility
analysis to determine payback periods and
investments. It was important to all businesses that
payback periods were reasonable (<2 years). The only
time payback periods were less important was when
compliance with legislation or regulations required
change.

21

Cleaner Production

Step 7. Prioritise CP options and plan for implementation


Key actions
Having completed feasibility analysis of selected CP
options you will have the information available to
identify and prioritise suitable options for
implementation.
You can prioritise your options for implementation on
the basis of:
least effort to implement;
greatest payback;
least investment;
greatest environmental savings;
no effect on product or production process;
improved health and safety;
achieving compliance;
any other factor which is important to your
business.
Use Worksheet 7 in Appendix 1.

Prior to implementation you should carefully plan


those actions needed to ensure successful
implementation of the option. Prior to implementation
consider the need to:
modify policies and procedures;
plan budgets (e.g. for equipment purchase, often a
year ahead);
train and educate staff;
provide staff with the time necessary to do the
work;
apply for any consents which may be required.
Use Worksheet 8 in Appendix 1.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 7 applied to six metal product businesses


Having completed the analysis businesses decided to
prioritise implementation of options for many different
reasons as shown below.
greatest payback / least effort: Pacific Wire saves
$100,000s per year by having adjusted the rake to
prevent lumps on wires. As no costs were involved
the pay-back period was immediate.
least investment: Universal Electroplaters only
required $50 to purchase bath covers, and did so
even though energy savings were just $200 per
year.
greatest environmental savings: Pacific Wire
reduced its caustic soda consumption with 20,000
L per year by recycling it onsite.
no effect on product or production process: GUD
is using air knives rather than compressed air to
dry products. As products dry faster, the product
quality is improved.
improved health and safety: Galvanising Services
uses fume suppressants for the hydrochloric acid
bath. This option actually increased costs slightly
but health and safety conditions for staff have
improved significantly.
achieving compliance: Colourtec Services meets
compliance requirements by stripping paint by
incineration rather than methylene chloride.
The six participating businesses set time and money
aside to enable trial and implementation of CP
options during the project.



Cleaner Production

Step 8. Implement CP options and measure and report success


This step requires implementation of feasible options, following necessary preparation efforts.
Key actions
Having implemented options ensure that efforts are
made to monitor any changes to operational costs and
service quality. This is necessary to identify whether
the desired results are being achieved. If they are not
being achieved you should undertake further analysis
to identify what changes are necessary to achieve
successful implementation. Your monitoring system
should report the following criteria in terms of your
production units. This will give you relevant trend
information:
quantities of materials, energy and water used;
waste quantities;
labour input;
changes to operational costs.
Communicate your successes to staff, clients,
suppliers, the general public, and other businesses. By
rewarding your staff for CP successes, you will
encourage their ongoing commitment and enthusiasm.
This will stimulate staff to generate new ideas for CP
and encourage other staff to participate.
Dont stop here! Go back to:
step 7: implement other feasible options identified
step 6: evaluate other options identified for
feasibility analysis;
step 4: assess other wastes generated and identify
potential options;
step 3: select an other key area and/or process.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Step 8 applied to six metal product businesses


See the case studies provided in chapter 3-6.

GUD (NZ) displays charts at a central location of


the plant showing the quantities of resources used,
products rejected and waste generated. The effect of
implemented options is clearly visible to staff.
Pacific Wire regularly reports environmental
achievements during staff meetings and reports.
Greatest ongoing effort is occurring where
businesses created formal groups with CP
responsibilities, such as the Energy Task Force at
GUD NZ and process teams at Pacific Wire.
Cleaner Production required continuous
improvement to take advantage of new technology,
address new costs and compliance requirements and
meet new customers needs.

23

Cleaner Production

2.4.1.

The steps in practice

The methodology presented in 2.3.1 provides a useful process for implementing CP in your business. The steps
are relatively simple and can largely be undertaken by staff within your business. The steps do not need to be
adopted rigidly and can be modified to better suit your business. The key to successful implementation of CP is
taking a systematic approach, which moves at a pace appropriate to your business. A few successes achieved
early on will be met with more support than a larger number of unfinished or unsuccessful CP projects.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

24

Cleaner Production

CP FOR GENERAL OPERATIONS

3.

This chapter provides an explanation of the general processes and activities undertaken within all metal product
businesses. This chapter contains an overview of inputs and outputs (Figure 2), a checklist of general options
covering energy, water and materials and a selection of case studies highlighting the techniques used and
benefits gained following the implementation of general CP options.

3.1.

General inputs and outputs for metal product businesses

INPUTS
Energy (electricity, gas oil):
machines
lighting
fans
heating

OUTPUTS
Solid waste:
packaging waste (paper,
cardboard, plastic)
staff waste (e.g. food waste,
cups)

Water:
cooling
cleaning
drinking
toilets

Liquid waste:
wastewater from cleaning
lubrication and cutting oils
stormwater

METAL PRODUCT
BUSINESS

Emissions:
heat from machines
CO2 and NO2 from heating

Materials:
detergents for cleaning
office products (paper,
stationary)

Figure 2

3.2.

General inputs and outputs of metal product businesses.

CP options for general operations

The checklist overleaf summarises CP options that could be implemented by metal product businesses to
reduce resource consumption (inputs) and waste generation (outputs) associated with general metal product
general business activities and processes. The checklists provide a useful start point for businesses to
identify potential options for further investigation.
Four types of checklists have been provided in this section, including:
management initiatives;
waste;
water;
energy.
The format of the checklists is as follows:

CP options: this column describes the suggested CP options that could be appropriate to your business.
Cost: this column identifies the approximate implementation cost for each option. In the checklists
almost all options are identified with a no for nominal or no costs (ie. less than $300).
Implementation: the implementation columns should be used to identify the implementation status of
the options. Options which have not been implemented should be marked by the no column. Options

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

25

General Processes

that have been partly or fully implemented can be identified by ticking the appropriate column. The
N.A./Not feasible column can be used to mark options that are not relevant to your business. Options
identified in the no or partial columns can be considered for feasibility analysis.
Priority: this column should be used to identify the level of priority which the option has, where A
represents high priority, B medium priority and C the lowest priority.
Responsibility: this column should be used to record the name of the person or people responsible for
investigating the option further. You may also wish to use the column for including any other comments
you may have on the option.

A number of the options have been described in more detail in the case studies section of this guide (section
3.3).

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

26

General Processes

MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES
CP OPTIONS

IMPLEMENTATION

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which options are appropriate to
investigate and/or implement.

Fully

Partly

No

N.A./Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name of person)

Develop a general environmental policy including objectives and targets for improvement.
Appoint an "Environmental Champion" or incorporate environmental tasks in the job description of
an existing staff member who can motivate staff and co-ordinate action.
Establish an Environmental Committee to manage activities across the company.
Develop a waste minimisation plan with objectives and targets.
Develop a water conservation plan with objectives and targets.
Develop an energy conservation plan with objectives and targets.
Offer employee training:
install an environmental notice board to inform staff about environmental issues, motivate
support and increase awareness;
identify employee-specific environmental responsibilities;
include an environmental component in induction training;
hold regular environmental meetings with representative staff from the whole organisation.
Introduce regularly scheduled drills and safety meetings.
Document job responsibilities, operating procedures, etc.
Communicate your environmental policy and progress to staff.
Communicate your environmental policy and progress to your clients, contractors, suppliers or
community.
Place notices encouraging staff to minimise "waste" wherever appropriate (eg turning off lights and
taps, avoiding excessive photocopying etc).
Offer incentives to encourage and reward new and effective environmental ideas from employees.
Reward staff for environmental progress especially when they save money (e.g. savings from
recycling could be donated to a charity).
Make it easy for staff to recycle (e.g. place cardboard boxes at each desk for collection of scrap
paper and bins by photocopiers and printers.

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Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

27

General Processes

GENERAL WASTE
CP OPTIONS

COST

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide


which options are appropriate to implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Partly

No

N.A./Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

Segregation of waste for recycling


Cardboard (see case study Pacific Wire)

No

Paper (see case study Pacific Wire)

No

Plastic

No

Engine oil

No

Lubrication oil

No

Wood (eg pallets)

No

Car batteries

No

Organic waste

No

Steel drums

No

Monitoring and registration


Waste (see case study GUD NZ)

No

Emissions

No

Electricity

No

Gas

No

Raw materials

No

Material handling and storage


Lable materials (see case study GUD NZ)

No

Use a separate locked storage room

No

Place liquid tight trays underneath chemicals

No

Allow no storage outside storage room

No

Restrict access to storage room

No

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

28

General Processes

GENERAL WASTE
CP OPTIONS

COST

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide


which options are appropriate to implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Keep storage area clean

No

Allow no traffic through storage area

No

Use returnable packaging (see case study Accord Industries)

No

Reuse packaging materials (see case study Street Furniture)

No

Use coated positioners in forklift hoists to protect products


(see case study Pacific Coilcoaters)

Low

Use one format pallets

No

Partly

No

N.A./Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

Co-operate with local businesses, for example:

joint disposal of recycling of chemicals;

joint treatment of wastewaters;

combined (bulk) purchasing of materials to reduce waste


and costs (some solvents and chemicals are sold in
volumes that may exceed small users requirements);

exchange recyclable or reusable materials or chemicals


with other business rather than disposing of it.

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29

General Processes

WATER
WATER USE

General

CP OPTIONS

IMPLEMENTATION

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

Fully

Partly

No

N.A./Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

Monitor water consumption (see case study Methven Tapmakers)


Identify whether the size of water meters matches the waterflow
Install water meters on internal water pipes to measure consumption in key
activity areas
Regularly inspect for leaks and running water on:

taps, toilets, showers;

all visible pipe work;

all valves;

the plant room


Develop a system for staff to easily report leaks
Repair reported leaks promptly
Use tap water rather than distilled water wherever possible
Use cold water (rather than hot) wherever possible
Install a water cooling tower to recycle water (see case study Pacific
Coilcoaters)

Bathroom
facilities

Use a flush system on toilets that stops when the hand is removed from flush
Reduce toilet flush capacity by installing a "weight" in the cistern, except for
dual flush toilets
Install dual flush toilet cisterns and reduce lower flow to 6-7 L
Eliminate urinals in new buildings
Install timers or sensors on urinals to flush only after use
Install flow restrictors to shower fittings to reduce flow to 12 L/minute
Install electronic sensor taps which turn off after hands are taken away
Install elbow taps (e.g. wards, theatre, bathrooms toilets)
Install flow restrictors on taps (aerators) to reduce flow to 5-6 L/minute

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Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

30

General Processes

WATER
WATER USE

Cleaning

CP OPTIONS

IMPLEMENTATION

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

Fully

Partly

No

N.A./Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

Sweep where possible rather than hosing (e.g. pools, outside areas, theatre)
Clean with brushes, mops, sponges rather than with running water
Turn taps and hoses off after use
Use hoses with an easy shut off nozzle rather than walking to the tap to turn
off the hose
Use spray adjustable nozzles on hoses and taps
Use a proper ratio of water to cleaning agent
Preclean with a broom or vacuum cleaner

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31

General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully Partly No

N.A./not
feasible

PRIORITY
(A>B>C)

RESPONSIBILITY
(Name)

GENERAL
Energy use

Form an Energy Task Force to discuss energy saving options (See


case study GUD NZ)
BUILDING LOSSES
Infiltration
Ensure doors seal properly, especially external doors.
Inspect building fabric and seal any holes.
Ensure window seals are in good condition
Investigate modifying exterior entries to reduce wind loss when external
doors are opened i.e. wind screens, planting, wing walls.
Note: It is important that adequate ventilation is maintained. ensure that
ventilation levels are maintained within design limits for the specific
function of the area.
Heat loss
Determine if it is practical to physically separate heated/non-heated
areas.
Investigate the installation of fast closing doors on loading areas, and
the use of plastic strip doors where access is limited.
Investigate whether air locks can be used between exterior doors and
main entry areas to reduce heat loss (care should be taken not to affect
access/egress from the building).
Re-evaluate space needs and do not heat buildings or sections of
buildings that are not frequently used or are in poor repair.
Building
Insulate ceiling/roof spaces, especially on older buildings. Spaces above
insulation
and around hot water cylinders and heaters/radiators require particular
attention.
Inspect existing ceiling/roof insulation and repair any areas that have
been water damaged or altered.
Inspect building structure and determine the extent and severity of any
cold bridging across insulation, rectify if financially viable.
Provide wall/ceiling/floor insulation between areas that are
heated/cooled and areas that have no heating or cooling provided.
ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
Transformer
Match transformer size to actual requirements to reduce standing losses
operation
and connection charges.
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32

General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
Energy use
Investigate the viability of installing limited submain check metering to
patterns
determine where electrical energy is being used.
Arrange for supply authority to provide energy data on a regular basis,
especially if the main meter/s are not accessible.
Analyse consumption data to determine night use/ weekend use patterns
and to determine the likely areas of electrical energy wastage. (Energy
consumption outside shifts can be reduced without effecting operations)
Use the Electricity Supply Companys meters or alternatively, hire
equipment on a regular basis to audit electrical consumption (Check the
total load at any instant with the load of the equipment that should be
running. This will illustrate the potential for reduction).
Investigate the adoption of the Monitoring & Targeting approach of
reducing energy consumption (good results have been achieved
overseas)
Tariff charges
Investigate whether the installation of power factor correction equipment
will reduce system losses and demand charges.
Investigate the use of shifting suitable loads to night time use to make
better use of night use energy rates and reduce required system capacity
(maximum demand charges).
Assess available electricity purchase tariffs annually
Consider the possibility of using co-generation where constant heat load
Co-generation
is required especially in new construction projects and if boilers are
(combined heat
being replaced.
and power)
ELECTRICAL PLANT & EQUIPMENT
Motors
Carry out performance tests on larger motors - it is common for fan
motors and pump motors to be oversized and therefore operating well
away from their optimum efficiency point.
Investigate the replacement of high use existing motors with "high
efficiency" motors when:
- motors are oversized
- motors are large, well loaded and operating for long periods
- motors are being replaced following breakdown or damage.
Where motors are oversized and/or the load on the motor varies, fit
variable speed controllers or soft start controllers with energy reduction
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully Partly No

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
features. These motors are best incorporated into the control strategy for
the system.
Electric heating
Scrutinise areas where supplementary electric heating is used (ie
portable fan heaters). Repair or extend main heating system or provide
controllable electric heating.
Photocopying
Use photocopying machines with a "sleep" or "greensave" feature and
machines
turn off all photocopiers out of general hours. Where intermittent out-ofhours use is likely, install timer controls to prevent machines being left
on after use.
Printers
Use printers with "sleep" or "greensave" feature.
Computers
Turn off personal computers at the end of each day or when not in use
for long periods of the day. Purchase computers with a "sleep" facility.
Lifts
Investigate energy use and power factor of lift installations using energy
monitoring equipment.
Replace older motor-generator sets with modern variable speed motor
sets, where financially viable or in need of replacement.
Modify lift operating patterns to suit actual occupancy patterns, allowing
lift motors to have longer "rest times" during periods of low use or
reducing the number of lifts available during periods of less use.
COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS
Compressed air
Seal all leaks on the system. (it is best to find leaks outside operating
hours when all plant is off. Remember that the amplitude of the noise
made by the leak indicates the size of the leak) (See case study GUD
NZ)
Operate the compressor at the lowest pressure possible for needs (a
compressor operating at 100 psi uses 12% more electricity than one
operating at 80 psi.
Lower distribution pressures result in lower leakage rates, therefore
where it is not immediately practical to seal all leaks reducing the system
pressure will reduce the operating cost.
Distribution pipework should be sized to minimise the pressure drop
along the system (there is a compromise between pipework size and
running costs)

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
IMPLEMENTATION
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
Fully Partly No
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
A 500 l/s 7 Bar, 50 mm distribution system with a 2.6 Bar pressure
drop constitutes a 18 kW electrical load, in comparison a 100 mm
distribution system carrying the same flow of air would constitute a 0.1
Bar pressure drop and 0.4 kW electrical load (at 10 per kWh this
equates to $15,000 additional operating cost for the same system per
annum)
Air should be only treated to obtain the required standard. (Filters and
driers constitute pressure drops which increase the operating cost. It is
sometimes possible to distribute as low quality compressed air and clean
up at the point of use)
Where possible shut off sections of the distribution network when not
required (at weekends etc).
Where a demand for control air exists (20 psi) outside standard working
hours, determine whether it is more cost effective to have an additional
low pressure air compressor to provide this demand and allow the main
air compressor to be shut off.
Ensure that compressed air is required for the operation (often electrical
motors can be used instead, at less than one tenth of the operating cost of
compressed air)
Ensure that there are adequate drain points in the system and these are
opened automatically or a manual systematic system is introduced. Air
receivers require draining regularly, a receiver full of water will cause
the compressor to cycle between load and no-load more frequently than
necessary (running off-load still uses electricity) and could result in
cycling problems or overheating of the electrical starters.
Site the air inlet for the compressor in a cool position, every 4 Celsius
results in a 1% increase in electricity costs.
LIGHTING
General
Management

N.A./not
feasible

PRIORITY
(A>B>C)

RESPONSIBILITY
(Name)

Incorporate a "lights off" check into off shift security inspections.


Carry out energy awareness campaigns (especially related to lighting
use) on a regular basis.
Check average lighting levels against codes/special requirements and
remove fittings or de-lamp fittings where levels are higher than required.

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY

Controls

CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
Where de-lamping has been carried out, ensure redundant ballasts are
disconnected.
Examine relocating light switching panels location to more convenient
positions.
Investigate the installation of occupancy sensing to lighting for store
rooms, basements etc where there are multiple entrances and variable
occupancy rates. Note: Lighting control and available savings vary greatly

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully Partly No

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depending upon the number and type of fittings, installation of lighting control
should be assessed on a case by case basis depending upon the amount of
lighting present and the required electrical modifications.

Lamps and
Luminaires

Install a central light and power switch (See case study GUD NZ)
Investigate the installation of daylight sensing controls to rooms and
areas with good daylight and adjustable lighting levels.
Investigate the installation of combined occupancy sensing and daylight
sensing controls to office areas.
Control exterior lighting by time switch and daylight sensor . If a manual
setting is provided, an indicator should be provided in a central location
that exterior lights are on.
Investigate the replacement of light switches with timers or occupancy
sensors in ancillary rooms i.e. stores, toilets, locker rooms. Rooms with
several lights and one switch are well suited to this.
Replace older style resistive dimming controls with electronic
dimming/control units and matching light fittings.
In larger areas with general area switching, investigate the possible
savings from installing specialist lighting controls to provide reduced
voltage operation (energy saving for minimal reduction in output).
Replace incandescent lamps with miniature fluorescent lamps in areas
where lighting is on regularly e.g. corridor night lighting, office area,
and/or lamp replacement is difficult.
Replace incandescent lamps in exterior fittings with miniature
fluorescent lamps or replace entire exterior fitting with new fittings using
high pressure sodium or metal halide lamps.
Replace old style 38 mm fluorescent tubes with 26 mm tri-phosphor or
new generation tri-phosphor lamps. (Ensure correct colour rendering
types are used in special care areas).

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
Replace older fluorescent fittings, especially those with darkened or
yellowed diffusers, with new fittings with more efficient diffusers, low
loss or electronic ballasts and 26 mm lamps. Fittings installed before
1975 may contain PCBs in which case replacement or refurbishment is
required anyway.
Investigate high efficiency lighting such as SONs or metal halide lights
in large areas to replace fluorescent tubes. (See case study GUD NZ.)
AIR HANDLING PLANT
System Design
Where possible use natural ventilation as opposed to mechanical
ventilation. Roof vents with pneumatic or electric dampers can be used
to encourage natural ventilation in the summer.
Scrutinise existing operating times and requirements in detail, often
systems are on because they always have been and no-one knows where
the switch is!
Determine the extent of the Local Exhaust Ventilation systems and
modify systems to only extract air where required. High evaporation
levels above heated baths can result in significant energy and water
consumption.
Balance ventilation systems and control extract volumes to those
required. It is more efficient to limit flows through speed control and
balancing than to install more dampers in the system.
Use timers and demand control to prevent plant running when not
required. Occupancy Detection can be employed in toilet and store
areas (it is important that the Health & Safety of the room occupants is
not compromised).
Use Heat Exchange Technology to transfer energy from heated exhaust
air to inlet air. (Avoid re-ingestion of exhaust air into inlet grilles)
Maintenance
Carry out filter maintenance correctly and keep records. If manometers
are not fitted, install them.
Clean diffusers, return grilles and extract grilles regularly. Note areas
where dirt or loose material builds up.

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
BOILER OPERATION
General
Carry out effective chemical dosing to ensure the boiler is prevented
from corrosion damage
Store fuel appropriately (Store wood in dry place if wood boilers are
used).
Maintain pumps and valves in good repair.
Turn boilers off during non-production hours (See case study Pacific
Wire).
When large boilers are being replaced and there is a constant heat
requirement throughout the year, investigate co-generation of heat and
electricity.
Boiler load
Ensure that boilers are sequenced correctly, making sure that the boilers
factors
operate at the maximum possible loading - i.e. one at high load rather
than two at moderate load.
Research and remove peaks in heat demand that require additional
boilers on at low load. This may require time-clock start-up of building
heating times or process start times to be adjusted.
Stabilise the heating system so that it is not necessary to leave boilers
operating off load as a backup.
Hot water boilers Match forced draught fan operation to boiler operation to reduce
cooldown. On large boilers install automatic dampers to reduce/prevent
airflow through the boiler when not on load.
Modify the system so that where boilers are used in modular operation
they can all operate at their most efficient levels. (Note that separate
flues may be required).
Investigate the operation of pumps and ensure that pumps are controlled
as effectively as the boiler.
Provide outside air compensation/start-stop optimisation where
applicable.
Steam boilers
Determine the correct steam pressure consistent with the end use
requirements and the control limitations of the boiler.
Improve boiler tuning:
- make regular checks of the flue gases and adjust the boiler accordingly
- purchase suitable boiler tuning test gear for staff to use
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
Improve blow down operation/ procedures:
- determine appropriate blow down procedures for the boiler(s)
- monitor that blowdown occurs at the required intervals
- ensure that the correct volume of water is blown down, if this is manual
it may be necessary to inspect blowdown times.
- check and maintain the blow down system regularly
Regularly inspect and maintain the boiler cladding
Boiler feed water Cover and insulate the feed water tank
Where the heat requirement of the system is close to the maximum
output from a single boiler, maintain highest possible temperature in the
feed water tank in order to maximise the boiler rating (this could prevent
the second boiler being required).
Determine the appropriate chemical dosing system for the feed water
and the operation of the boiler
Where possible maximise use of waste heat for pre-heating feedwater
from:
- contaminated condensate
- hot discharges to waste
- boiler blowdown
- flash steam
Check and maintain the feed water dosing system regularly
HEAT DISTRIBUTION
General
Insulate and regularly maintain insulation on all pipes,(hot water, steam
and condensate) flanges, valves etc.
Remove or blank off all redundant piping and dead legs
Check and maintain regularly all joints, glands, valves etc for leaks
Hot Water
Check performance of pipework between boiler and circuit (look for a
Reticulation
temperature drop).
Ensure water pumping rate is correct throughout the heating system.
Ensure thermostats are accurate.
Eliminate leaks.
Check for incorrect connections, e.g. flow to return at building entries.
Modify circuiting to provide smaller zones, and modify controls to
provide temperature control better suited to spaces.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
Steam
Determine whether the steam mains are:
reticulation
- properly sized
- efficiently laid out
- adequately drained
- fully insulated
- adequately air vented and modify where required
Determine all end users and their specific steam requirements
Carry out periodic inspections to determine the amount of steam used by
each end user, especially during evening periods.
Investigate the reuse of condensate from treatment bath heating coils. It
is now possible to design systems which can detect contamination of the
condensate, therefore allowing condensate to be returned and disposing
of contaminated condensate. This can considerably reduce the tank
heating cost.
Investigate provision of local steam or steam alternative to sites that do
not require continuous steam and do not have a condensate return to
main boilers.
Ensure that the condensate return system is appropriate for the system
when operating correctly and that no condensate receivers are
overflowing.
Install separators where required to improve steam quality.
Implement a maintenance system where traps, stainers, check valves etc
are regularly checked and maintained.
Determine whether reducing valves:
- are correctly installed in adequately sized pipework with
- have a separator/ drain point upstream
- remote sensing point for pressure reducing valves at a point free from
turbulence from fittings
Determine whether each steam trap is:
- the correct trap for each application
- correctly installed
- protected by a strainer upstream
- fitted with a check valve downstream when required
Determine whether by-passes are:
- fitted around steam traps only when essential
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
- correctly used when installed
Regularly inspect underground ducts to ensure that they are not full of
water, a hot pipe in a pool of water is as effective as a Calorifier in
using heat.
Monitor condensate return volumes and temperatures, unusually high or
low values of each indicate potential problems and heat wastage.
DOMESTIC HOT WATER
Electrically
Ensure thermostat settings are not above the value required to meet
heated cylinders
Building Code requirements.
Provide additional insulation (thermal blankets) for older cylinders or
replace.
Add additional storage to allow cylinders to be turned off during peak
electricity use periods, if capacity is sufficient cylinders could be heated
with night-rate electricity.
Install time switch or similar control to prevent cylinders cycling when
not in use for longer periods (e.g. at night or in weekends).
Calorifiers
Eliminate leaks.
Insulate storage vessel and fitting.
Where building used have changed, re-evaluate DHW needs and
compare needs to storage provided. Evaluate use of calorifier against use
of decentralised boiler with storage or even smaller local gas/electric
cylinders.
Where calorifiers are no longer in use, ensure hot water supply is
isolated at the supply end (dry store).
Examine for silt build-up and clean-out periodically as required. (i.e. 5
years)
Investigate heat recovery (chillers, exhaust air) for cold feed.
Fittings
Insulate hot water pipework.
Fit controlled flow taps (eg timed flow, restricted flow, spray pattern
nozzle) in place of standard taps, care should be taken to prevent the
growth of Legionella bacteria.
Reduce storage temperatures where possible.
Eliminate drips or leaks from taps and pipework.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
HEAT LOADS
Radiators/Heater
s

Treatment tank
heating

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully Partly No

N.A./not
feasible

PRIORITY
(A>B>C)

RESPONSIBILITY
(Name)

Bleed and balance system thoroughly at the start of each heating season.
Fit balancing valves if necessary.
Ensure that fan coil heaters are isolated from heat and electricity outside
the heating season.
It is advisable to shut off fan coil units over doors when doors are left
open for significant lengths of time. (It is quite simple to incorporate
door open switches to shut off heaters when large doors are open).
Adjust temperature of heating system to maintain required temperature
in each area (it is usually preferable to ensure that workers are
comfortable than allowing them to adjust the heating system
themselves).
Install tamperproof (institutional) thermostatic radiator valves where
circuits are suitable.
Check radiator surface temperatures to ensure they are within safety
guidelines.
Investigate installing aluminium reflecting material between radiators
and walls.
Inspect building fabric and seal any leaks in the vicinity of radiators or
heaters.
Ensure radiators are not covered by furniture or stored items.
Where building layouts and end users have changed, ensure radiator
positions, capacities and piping suit new layout. Generally it is advisable
that room heaters should not be sited close to badly sealed or open doors
or windows.
Remove or reduce extent of heating in areas with minimal occupation, it
is often best to install demand switches on the heating in these areas. A
timer can be incorporated to limit heating in these areas to 4 hours for
instance.
Use croffles where possible to minimise the evaporative loss from
Treatment Tanks (Croffles can reduce heat consumption by over 50%
when compared to bare tanks)
Ensure the air extract rate above tanks is the minimal required rate, (high
extract rates can result in high heat loads).

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GENERAL ENERGY
CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
Ensure that steam coils and thermostats/trap systems are operating
correctly.
Minimise the use of hot water weir tanks to the very minimum. Examine
whether it is possible to use the waste heat to heat the make-up water.
Turn off the weir tanks when they are not required.
Other steam uses Remove moisture from the steam before the end user connection.
Preheat using waste heat where practicable.
Adequately insulate exposed hot surfaces and pipework hangers.
Reduce idle time when the plant is at operating temperature.
Determine whether plant temperatures are:
- adequately controlled
- higher than necessary.
Implement system to regularly check, maintain and calibrate control
valves.
Minimise steam pressure when liquids are heated by direct steam
injection
Minimise draughts where they are allowed to chill heated surfaces/
spaces.
Efficient use of heated air:
- recirculate heated air as much as possible
- avoid infiltration of cold air.
PLANT AND GENERAL EQUIPMENT
General
Carry out cost benefit analysis and determine the optimum time and
market conditions to replace older equipment. Select replacement
equipment on basis of: capital investment, operating labour, reliability,
maintenance costs and running costs.
Maintenance
Have a planned preventative maintenance strategy in place for plant
system
items and systems and monitor progress to plan.
Carry out regular testing, tuning, inspection and maintenance on major
plant.
Use specialist external suppliers on maintenance contract basis for
planned maintenance and servicing of specialist plant i.e. autoclaves,
chillers, lifts, boilers etc.
Collect or obtain as-built records and operating manuals for plant and
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
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General Processes

GENERAL ENERGY

Alarm systems

Building
management
system

CP OPTIONS
These are suggested options only. Business managers should decide
which options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
systems e.g. plant location, pipework routes, plant output data, design
figures, optimum operating conditions, control philosophy.
Where appropriate connect alarms and warning signals to a central
system or ensure all alarm points are visited everyday.
Rationalise and repair the alarm monitoring system so that warning
signals and alarms that are regularly left on or ignored due to their trivial
nature or poor reliability, operate effectively. Meaningless alarms should
be removed as all alarms and warnings should be treated as valid and
should require action to be taken.
Where insufficient control exists or is outdated investigate the
installation of a building management system to time schedule plant and
report alarms and conditions to a central point. Such a system can
replace existing controls and is often cost effective where controls are
requiring regular maintenance or replacement parts cannot be obtained
or when systems and controls are being upgraded anyway.
Building management systems can be used to record and report energy
use data and control plant using complex control strategies designed for
the specific application.

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General Processes

3.3.

CP case studies for general operations

This section provides case studies for general options implemented by the metal product businesses to
minimise solid waste and energy consumption.
GUD NZ LTD: Waste monitoring
Details
Waste is continuously monitored by staff and line supervisors to identify types, quantities
and causes of waste generated. Monitoring results are entered in a computer and are
processed by division managers, the engineering manager and the production manager. A
copy of the monitoring results is circulated to all managers of the plant and is displayed in
the factory to encourage staff to identify causes and solutions.
Economics
Labour costs, but these are paid back immediately as a result of waste reductions.
Benefits
Measuring is knowing.Reduced waste. Staff involvement and motivation.
GUD NZ LTD: Stock management by labelling raw materials
Details
Metal rolls that are supplied to GUD are labelled with different colours for each month to
ensure that oldest stock is used first.
Economics
No costs.
Benefits
Reduced wastage of expired raw materials.
PACIFIC COILCOATERS LTD: Reduced handling of coils
Details
Steel coils used to produce roofing material were being damaged by fork hoists during
handling. By reducing the number of times the coils were moved and installing urethanecoated fork positioners on the hoists, Pacific Coilcoaters immediately decreased steel
wastage by 66 per cent.
Economics
Costs were associated with urethane coated fork positioners. Annual savings are
approximately $350,000. The payback period was 3 months.
Benefits
Reduced steel waste and costs. Reduced labour costs due to less handling. Improved
product quality.
STREET FURNITURE LTD: Waste paper reuse
Details
Waste paper is shredded and used as a filling material for packages. Quantities and
savings still need to be determined.
Economics
Labour costs for shredding of paper. Reduced waste disposal costs.
Benefits
Reduced paper waste.Reduced disposal costs. Reduced purchase costs for packaging
material. Improved product protection during transport.
PACIFIC WIRE LTD: Cardboard and paper recycling
Details
Since September 1996 Pacific Wire has segregated cardboard and paper for recycling.
Approximately 85 kg of loose office waste paper is collected per month or 1 tonne per
year. Approximately 25 kg of cardboard is collected per month or 300 kg per year.
Economics
Cardboard collection costs $5/month bin rental and $7.50 per bin pickup = $150/year.
Paper collection costs are $2.50/week per bin for 8 bins and no costs for pickup =
$960/year. Bin purchase will eliminate rental costs and is being investigated.
Savings include reduced disposal costs of $90 per year ($69/tonne) and reduced pickup
costs of $600 per year ($50 per monthly pickup).
Annual costs for recycling are therefore $270, but will quickly become savings when bins
are purchased.
Benefits
Reduced paper and cardboard waste of 1.3 tonne per year.

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General Processes

ACCORD INDUSTRIES LTD: Packaging returned to suppliers or sold


Details
Packaging such as drums, pallets and boxes are returned to the supplier or sold to others.
Accord Industries operation demonstrates that building relationships with suppliers of
materials ensures resources are not discarded needlessly.
Economics
No costs involved.
Benefits
Fewer resources are being wasted. Reduced disposal costs.
METHVEN TAPMAKERS LTD: Water conservation
Details
Water is used in large amounts in the preparation and electroplating stages of the
operation. Rinse tanks previously had separate water inlets and discharge sources, so
there was a lot of wasted water. The number of inlets has been reduced to three and water
meters have been placed on all inlets. Tanks have been interlinked so that water can be
reused in subsequent tanks if it is not contaminated.
Staff have been taught about the value of water. Valves are now turned off when water is
not needed.
Future projects are proposed to further reduce the amount of waster used by the business.
These include filtering discharge water, installing automated pH dosing systems to treat
discharges, and reusing all water in the scrubber system of the foundry.
Economics
Installation of the water meters and the linking of tanks cost about $560. There was no
loss in production as this was done during a routine shut down period. The system is only
in the second month of operation when this case study was written and figures are
therefore only approximate. Water supply charges have decreased from $75 to $41 per
day, a saving of $34 per day. This equates to approximately $12,000 per year. Savings in
discharge costs have not yet been determined. The payback period of the projects will be
about 17 days if current savings are achieved.
Benefits
Water consumption decreased by about 42% from 203 m3 to 117 m3 in an equivalent four
week period. A resource previously being wasted is being reused. Saving on supply and
discharge costs are also reduced.
PACIFIC COILCOATERS LTD: Water cooling tower to reuse water
Details
Water is used at a rate of 11 litres per second to cool the steel after the painted surfaces
have been cured in the ovens. Before Pacific Coilcoaterss CP programme was
established, all this water was treated as waste after use and discarded into the sewers.
Pacific Coilcoaters has now obtained approval to install a water-cooling tower, allowing
the water to be reused. This will significantly reduce the companys water supply and
trade waste discharge bills.
Economics
Costs for the water-cooling tower are estimated at $100,000.
Savings through reduced water consumption and trade waste discharge are an estimated
$70,000. The payback period is 17 months.
Benefits
Reduced water consumption and costs.
Reduced trade waste discharge and costs.
GUD NZ LTD: Energy Task Force & repair of compressor leaks
Details
An Energy Task Force was formed comprising the Managing Director, Engineering
Manager, Production Manager, Engineering Supervisor and other key managers in the
plant. The group meets once a month to discuss energy management. Specific projects
have included investigation of compressors, lighting, heating and curing ovens. A good
housekeeping option implemented was the immediate repair of compressor leakages.
Economics
Labour time involved. Other costs are negligible.
Already $7,000 per year are saved through immediate repair of compressor leakages.
Benefits
Reduced energy consumption and costs.

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GUD NZ LTD: Central light and power switches


Details
A central light switch and a central power switch is used to ensure all power is turned off
at night and in weekends.
Economics
Switches were installed when the plant was built.
Benefits
Reduced energy consumption for machines and lights, improved safety to plant equipment
and machinery.
GUD NZ LTD: Replacement fluorescent lights with metal halide lights
Details
Approximately 70 fluorescent lights (77 W) have been replaced with 10 metal halide lamps
(427 W). The remaining lights were fitted with a reflector to improve lighting efficiency.
Economics
Investment costs $1,400:
Costs of 10 metal halide lamps: $140 X 10 = $1,400 (excluding fittings and
installation);
Nominal labour costs as lamps were installed by GUD staff.
Energy savings 21%:
Hourly energy consumption/hour of 10 metal halide lamps: 0.427 kWh X 10 = 4.27
kWh;
Hourly energy consumption of 70 fluorescent lamps: 0.077 kWh X 70 = 5.39 kWh.
Savings on lamp purchase costs 28% (does not include reduced replacement costs):
Lifetime of metal halide lamps: 11,000 hours, costs of 10 lamps = $1,400 ($140
each);
Lifetime of fluorescent lamps: 8,000 hours, costs of 70 fluorescent lamps = $1,400
($20 each).
Benefits
Improved lighting, energy savings, longer life of lamps and lower capital costs for
replacement.
PACIFIC COILCOATERS LTD: Reduction of steel corrosion
Details
Pacific Coilcoaters faced a problem of corrosion caused by condensation on the cold steel
in winter. To overcome this, heat from the ovens, which had previously been wasted, was
pumped back into the factory to keep the steel and the rest of the factory warm. Installing
the heat exchanger and overhead ducting has resulted in 70 per cent less steel corrosion.
Economics
Costs were $280,000 for the purchase and installation of the heat exchanger and overhead
ducting. Annual savings are $240,000. The payback period was 14 months.
Benefits
Reduced steel corrosion. Improved product quality. Reduced steel costs.
GALVANISING SERVICES LTD: negotiating reduced power rates for bulk power consumption
Details
Galvanising Services replaced the power meters from two separate production units by one
power meter. This enabled the business to negotiate lower power tariffs due to bulk
consumption. The business also took advantage of discount rates for nights and weekends.
Economics
The total investment for upgrading the power distribution system was $3,400. Savings from
reduced energy consumption are $4,320 per year. They payback period is approximately 10
months.
Benefits
Reduced energy costs. Improved power distribution system.
PACIFIC WIRE LTD: Boiler shutdown during non-production hours
Details
The production hours at Pacific Wire are 120 hours/week or 5 continuous days.
Previously the boiler operated for 142 hours/week. The boiler is now shut down during
weekends and now operates 128 hours/week (the 8 hour additional hours are required to
start up the boiler before production begins on Monday mornings). As a result, gas for
heat the water, electricity for the water circulation pump, and chemicals used to reduce
water hardness have been reduced.
Economics
Gas savings are $ 4800 per year. The payback period is immediate.
Benefits
Reduced gas, electricity and chemical consumption and costs.
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General Processes

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CP FOR METAL FABRICATION PROCESSES

4.

4.1.

Metal fabrication process description

Metal fabrication processes involve changing the form of raw materials to make intermediate or final product
shapes. Fabrication operations include primary and secondary fabrication. Primary fabrication involves shaping
the metal from its raw form into a sheet, bar, plate or some other preliminary form, e.g. casting, drawing and
extruding activities. Secondary shaping involves taking the preliminary form and further altering its shape to an
intermediate or final version of the product. Secondary shaping uses machining operations to stamp, turn, drill,
mill, ream, broach, grind, polish and plane.

4.2.

Metal fabrication process inputs and outputs

The major inputs and outputs of metal fabrication processes are illustrated in Figure 3.
INPUTS

OUTPUTS

Metals:
aluminium
mild steel
stainless steel
brass
copper

Solid waste:
metal scrap and fines

METAL FABRICATION

Liquid waste:
cutting oil /lubricant
coolant
Emissions
heat
oil vapours

Cutting oil /lubricant


Coolant

Figure 3 Inputs and outputs of metal shaping.

4.3.

CP options for metal fabrication processes

The checklist overleaf summarises CP options that could be implemented by metal fabrication businesses to
reduce resource consumption (inputs) and waste generation (outputs). The checklist provides a useful start
point for businesses to identify potential options for further investigation.
The format of the checklists is as follows:

CP options: this column describes the suggested CP options that could be appropriate to your business.
Cost: this column identifies the approximate implementation cost for each option. In the checklists
almost all options are identified with a no for nominal or no costs (ie. less than $300), ), low for
costs between $300 and $3000 and high for cost higher than $3000.
Implementation: the implementation columns should be used to identify the implementation status of
the options. Options which have not been implemented should be marked by the no column. Options
that have been partly or fully implemented can be identified by ticking the appropriate column. The
N.A./Not feasible column can be used to mark options that are not relevant to your business. Options
identified in the no or partial columns can be considered for feasibility analysis.

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Metal Fabrication

Priority: this column should be used to identify the level of priority which the option has, where A
represents high priority, B medium priority and C the lowest priority.
Responsibility: this column should be used to record the name of the person or people responsible for
investigating the option further. You may also wish to use the column for including any other comments
you may have on the option.

Some of the options are described in more detail in the case studies provided in section 4.4.

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Metal Fabrication

METAL FABRICATION
CP OPTIONS

COST

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTED
Fully

Partly

No

N.A./Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

Metal reuse and recycling


Recycle scrap metal (see case study Accord Industries and GUD NZ)

No

Recycle metal fines (see case study Barclay Engineering)

No

Press products from metal off-cuts (see case study GUD NZ)

No

Management of metalworking fluid by


Assign fluid control responsibility

No

Provide training for production personnel

No

Install splash boards or dripping trays for collection of fluid for reuse
(see case study GUD NZ)

No

Regularly maintain machines

No

Thoroughly clean fluid reservoirs during replacement

No

Clean equipment only when necessary

No

Use demineralised water for water-based working fluids

Low

Prevent oil leakages

No

Aerate the working fluid

No

Identify effective replacement criteria ensuring fluid is only replaced


when necessary

No

Maintain and recycle working fluid by


Filtration

Low

Oil-skimming

Low

Centrifugation (see case study Accord Industries and Barclay


Engineering)

Low

Internal reuse for other purposes

No

Using a water-based working fluid (see case study Barclay Engineering)

Low

Dry machining

Low

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Metal Fabrication

4.4.

CP case studies for metal fabrication processes

This section provides summary case studies on a number of the CP options implemented by businesses that
undertake metal fabrication.
GUD NZ LTD: Pressing products from metal off-cuts
Details
Tin plate circles of approximately 20 cm in diameter are pressed from larger plates. The
circles are a waste product and used to be disposed of as metal scrap. GUD is now using
the circles to manufacture other product components.
Economics
No costs involved. Savings are approximately $600 in reduced metal consumption.
Benefits
Reduced tin costs and waste.
GUD NZ LTD: Metal recycling
Details
A total of 25 tonnes of tin plate and mild steel are collected for recycling per year.
Economics
The total revenue from scrap metal is $20,000 per year. This does not include reduced
disposal costs.
Benefits
Income from scrap metal. Reduced waste and costs.
ACCORD INDUSTRIES LTD: Metal recycling
Details
Surplus metals are cleaned and returned to the supplier so they can be remelted.
Economics
The business is able in many cases to receive an income from the materials.
Benefits
By recycling metals, valuable resources are not being wasted.
BARCLAY ENGINEERING LTD: Water-based coolant
Details
A working fluid is required for cooling and lubrication. A water-based metal working fluid
rather than an oil-based fluid is used for the machining of brass, copper and aluminium. This
green coolant consists of 60-80 parts water (acting coolant) and 1 part oil (acting lubricant).
Oil consumption is reduced with 1,400 L per year (1,600 oil based coolant used previously
compared to 200 L green coolant base oil now). Chemical consumption in subsequent metal
cleaning steps is also reduced but could not be quantified. Note that water-based fluid is
only used for metals that are machined on capsums. The machining of steel, stainless steel
and aluminium takes place automatically and requires straight cutting oil.
Economics
Savings are $ 1,793 ($2,080/1,600 L oil based coolant - $287/200 L green coolant).
No costs involved.
Benefits
Reduced coolant consumption.
Reduced chemical consumption in cleaning phase.
GUD NZ LTD: Reuse of metal working fluid
Details
Cutting oil is used to reduce the friction between the cutting tool and base metal that is
cut. The oil also contains rust inhibitors. GUD uses a water-based cutting oil which is
collected in drip trays located under the power presses. This enables the cutting oil to be
continuously recycled.
Economics
Nominal costs for purchase of drip trays. Savings have not been determined.
Benefits
Reduced cutting oil waste.
Reduced costs of cutting oil.
ACCORD INDUSTRIES LTD: Oil recycling
Details
Oil is used throughout the brass and aluminium processes is recovered by centrifuge and
reused indefinitely. Oil from steel scrap is collected as it drains off the completed
product, stored in a closed bin, and taken by the supplier at no charge.
Economics
Savings on the purchase of oil is estimated at 25%.
Benefits
Reduced cutting oil waste.
Reduced costs of cutting oil.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
52
Metal Fabrication
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

BARCLAY ENGINEERING LTD: Recycling of metalworking fluid through centrifugation


Details
Cutting oil is used for metals fabricated on automatic machines. Some oil attaches to metal
fines. As the metal fines are contaminated with oil they are not accepted for metal recycling.
A centrifuge was purchased from a drycleaner and is used to centrifuge the oil from the
fines. A timer was installed to standardise centrifugation times. The oil is reused and the
metal fines are recycled off-site. Annual oil consumption is reduced by 4,095 L or thirty six
25 gallon drums (from 5,460 L to 1,395 L). Metal waste reduction was not determined.
Economics
Savings: cutting oil 36 drums X $220/drum = $7,920 per year.

Benefits

Reduced waste disposal costs (metal fines)


One-off costs: $450 for purchase centrifuge, $150 for timer.
Ongoing costs: electricity for centrifuge 8,831 X $0.10/kWh = $883 per year.
Reduced cutting oil consumption. Reduced metal waste

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Metal Fabrication

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Metal Fabrication

5.

5.1.

CP FOR METAL CLEANING PROCESSES

Metal cleaning process description

Virtually all fabricated metal products require some cleaning prior to the actual finishing or plating of the metal
product. During the shaping processes, the metal surfaces usually become oxidised or coated with grease which
may interfere with the finishing processes. The design of cleaning operations depends upon three interrelated
factors: the nature of the contamination, the metal substrate and the degree of cleanliness required.
The preparation of metal surfaces generally involves solvent cleaning, chemical treatment and mechanical
surface treatment. Table 2 summarises the most common cleaning processes used by metal product businesses.
Water cleaning is an integral part of every cleaning method. Many cleaning methods require that a water wash
to be performed before and after each stage of cleaning.

Table 2 Types of metal cleaning processes.8


Process

Description

Solvent cleaning:

Organic solvents are used to remove lubricants (oils and greases) and paints applied
to the surface of metals during mechanical forming operations.
Cleaning where the solvent and contaminants are suspended in water. The piece is
either sprayed with or immersed in the emulsified solvent.
Cleaning of parts using high energy sound waves and a solvent immersion bath.
Cleaning of small parts by exposure to solvent vapours. Vapours are generated by
heating a solvent reservoir. The surface is cleaned by the flushing action of solvent
that condenses on the part. Two types of vapour degreasing include immersionvapour degreasing and spray-vapour degreasing.
Manual cleaning of metal objects that are too large for immersion operations.
Removal of organic coatings (paint) from a workpiece. The stripping of such
coatings is usually performed with caustic, acid, solvent, or molten salt using
processes similar to those for degreasing operations.
Treatment is undertaken as an integral part of forming processes to alter the surface
of the metal.
This process is used for removing oxides and minor corrosion from metal surfaces.
Acid cleaners are used in spraying, wiping, and electrolytic processes.

Emulsified solvent degreasing


Ultrasonic vapour degreasing
Vapour degreasing

Wiping
Paint stripping

Chemical treatment:
Acid cleaning


US Environmental Protection Agency, 1992.
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55

Metal Cleaning

5.2.

Metal cleaning process inputs and outputs

INPUTS

OUTPUTS

Uncleaned semi-product
Energy
Water for cooling
Non halogenated
solvents
(e.g. petroleum,
turpentine, petrol)
Halogenated solvents
(e.g. CFK 113/freon,
1,1,1-trichloroethane)
Uncleaner semi-product
Energy
Water for cooling
Acid cleaners
Additives

SOLVENT CLEANING

CHEMICAL
TREATMENT
W

T
CLEANING
E

Acid cleaners waste with


Acids
Additives
Dissolved metals
Salt
Water

ALKALINE
CLEANING

Alkaline waste with


Alkaline salts
Additives
Organic soils
Water

E
ETCHING

Abrasives
(e.g. aluminum oxides,
silicon carbide mixed
with oil or water-based
binder)

Clean semi-product
Waste cooling water
Rinse waters with
Metal compound
Cleaners
Additives

ACID

Alkaline cleaners
Additives

Clean semi-product
Waste cooling water
Contaminated or spoiled
solvents
Non halogenated
Halogenated
Solvent vapours

PICKLING

Abrasives with
Aluminium
Silica
Metal
Oxide
Water
Grease

MECHANICAL
SURFACE
TREATMENT

Figure 4 Inputs and outputs of metal cleaning

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Metal Cleaning

5.3.

CP options for metal cleaning processes

The checklist below summarises CP options that could be implemented by metal cleaning businesses to
reduce resource consumption (inputs) and waste generation (outputs). The checklist provides a useful start
point for businesses to identify potential options for further investigation.
The format of the checklists is as follows:

CP options: this column describes the suggested CP options that could be appropriate to your business.
Cost: this column identifies the approximate implementation cost for each option. In the checklists
almost all options are identified with a no for nominal or no costs (ie. less than $300), low for costs
between $300 and $3,000, and high for costs higher than $3000.
Implementation: the implementation columns should be used to identify the implementation status of
the options. Options which have not been implemented should be marked by the no column. Options
that have been partly or fully implemented can be identified by ticking the appropriate column. The
N.A./Not feasible column can be used to mark options that are not relevant to your business. Options
identified in the no or partial columns can be considered for feasibility analysis.
Priority: this column should be used to identify the level of priority which the option has, where A
represents high priority, B medium priority and C the lowest priority.
Responsibility/Comments: this column should be used to record the name of the person or people
responsible for investigating the option further. You may also wish to use the column for including any
other comments you may have on the option.

Some of the options are described in more detail in the case studies provided in section 5.4.

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Metal Cleaning

METAL CLEANING
CP OPTION

COST

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Partly

No

N.A./ Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

Management of cleaning baths


Regularly maintain apparatus

No

Manage bath preparation and replacement

No

Regular remove sludge from cleaning baths

Low

Skim oil from baths with oil wheel or paper (see case study Pacific
Coilcoaters)

Low

Increase cleaning efficiency by manual brushing to remove caked


soil

No

Agitate bath to increase cleaning efficiency

No

Locate bath to minimise evaporation

No

Use bath lids to minimise evaporation (see case study Barclay


Engineering)

Low

Use ping pong balls on bath surface to reduce temperature loss

No

Increase freeboard space to minimise evaporation

No

Use counter current cleaning

Low

Use cold solvent degreasing (111-tri) at contamination level less


than 10%

Low

Use hot water bath prior to acid baths

Low

Maintenance of solvents
Manage the load weight within limits

No

Use a thermostat to control bath temperature

Low

Standardise the time in the vapour degreaser

No

Use only the amount of solvent necessary in the baths

No

Reduction of drag-out
Standardise the drip time
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No

58

Metal Cleaning

METAL CLEANING
CP OPTION

COST

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Install drip trays or drainage boards (see case study Pacific Wire)

No

Redesign racks to improve dripping of liquid

Low

Use techniques to wipe off bath solutions (e.g. air knives, squeegees)

Low

Partly

No

N.A./ Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

Management of rinsing
Use deionised water for the last rinse

Low

Install a counter current rinsing system (see case study Rokos


Quality Powder Coatings and Colourtec Services)

Low

Install flow valves for constant water flow (see case study
Galvanising Services)

Low

Reuse steam condensate from heated cleaning baths to heat rinse


bath (see case study Pacific Wire)

No

Recycle rinse water into cleaning tanks (see case study Galvanising
Services)

No/
Low

Use spray rinsing

Low

Use fog spraying

Low

Cleaning agent replacement


Remove source of contamination

No

Use protective peel-coatings

Low

Use mechanical cleaning systems, e.g. rumbling (see case study


Galvanising Services)

High

Use water-based cleaning

High

- water (see case study Barclay Engineering)


- neutral, alkaline, acidic
- spraying, ultrasonic, electrolytic, hydrosonic cleaning
Replacement solvent with less hazardous solvent (see case study
Accord Industries)
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
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Low

59

Metal Cleaning

METAL CLEANING
CP OPTION

COST

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

Fully

Replace trichloroethylene with hexane for cleaning.

No

Replacement of methylene chloride used for paint stripping by:

No/
Low

- mechanical rumbling

IMPLEMENTATION
Partly

No

N.A./ Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

- incineration (see case study Colourtec Services)


- alternative chemical

Solvent recycling onsite of offsite by


Distillation (see case study Barclay Engineering)

Low

Evaporation (see case study Metal Protection)

High

Sedimentation

Low

Decanting

Low

Centrifugation

Low

Filtration (see case study Pacific Wire and Galvanising Services)

Low

Ultrafiltration

High

Cooling (see case study Pacific Wire)

High

Solvent extraction

High

Sludge treatment to remove contaminants prior to


disposal
Recover metals from baths or sludge for reuse

High

Treat sludge from cleaning baths with cement prior to disposal (see
case study Barclay Engineering)

No

Wastewater treatment to remove contaminants prior to


sewer discharge
Chemical treatment
- wet air oxidation
- chemical oxidation
- supercritical water treatment
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60

Metal Cleaning

METAL CLEANING
CP OPTION
These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which
options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.
Biological treatment
- activated sludge
- aerated lagoons
- trickling filters
- anaerobic treatment
Thermal treatment
- boilers
- rotary kiln incinerators
- liquid injection incinerators
- fluidised bed incinerators
- fixed hearth incineration
- multiple hearth incineration
- infrared incineration
- oxygen incineration
- plasma arc

COST

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Partly

No

N.A./ Not
feasible

PRIORITY

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

(Name)

High

High

Note: No= nominal cost (<$300); Low= Low-cost ($300 - $3,000); High= High-cost (> $3,000).

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Metal Cleaning

5.4.

CP case studies for metal cleaning processes

This section provides summary case studies for a number of the CP options implemented by New Zealand
businesses that undertake metal cleaning.
PACIFIC WIRE LTD: Reuse steam condensate for cleaning baths
Details
Steam condensate from heated borax and metasilicate tanks is collected and used to fill and
heat the rinsing tank. Approximately 5.4 m3 water per day or 1,971 m3 per year is saved.
Also, 144,000 kWh is saved per year because the rinsing tank requires less heating. The
condensate was collected from the steam traps and was transported into the tanks. The work
undertaken by maintenance staff to install hot water recycle pipelines and material costs
were nominal.
Economics
Water savings are $1,080 per year and energy savings are approximately $3,000 per year.
The payback period is immediate.
Benefits
Reduced water and energy consumption and costs.
PACIFIC WIRE LTD: Recovery of bath dragout
Details
Pacific Wire have a series of five cleaning tanks. Rubber sheets were placed between the
different cleaning tanks to prevent dragout spillages caused by moving objects from one
tank into the next. As a result, chemical consumption and trade waste discharges were
reduced.
Economics
Six rubber sheets cost $360 ($60 each). Savings have not been determined.
Benefits
Reduced chemical consumption, including acids and sulphates. Reduced wastewater
stream.
PACIFIC WIRE LTD: Regeneration of sulphuric acid
Details
The first stage of making wire is the pickling of the rod steel. This is done in pickling baths
of dilute sulphuric acid which removes rod scales, rust and dirt. The acid requires
replacement when the iron level reaches 12%.
Use acid from the pickling baths is recycled by an acid recovery process (see diagram). The
liquid is cooled to 0oC where iron salts crystallise and precipitates to the bottom of the
cooling tank. The weak acid which is free of iron is syphoned back to the pickling tank for
reuse. The crystals are removed via draining bins into hoppers. They are then sold as
ferrous sulphate heptahydrate (ferrosulphate) for fertiliser blending. Each year
approximately 4,000 tonnes of diluted (= 200 tonnes of undiluted) sulphuric acid is
recycled and approximately 500 tonnes of ferrosulphate is produced for sale.

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Metal Cleaning

Economics

Benefits

The existing system is overhauled which costs $50,000. Annual savings are $231,000
including:
- $126,000 ($630/tonne) from reduced sulphuric acid consumption;
- $50,000 ($100/tonne) from ferrosulphate revenue;
- $55,000 reduced trade waste costs through reduced disposal of spent sulphuric acid.
Reduced wastewater stream, sulphuric acid consumption and associated costs. Income from
selling ferrosulphate as fertiliser.

PACIFIC WIRE LTD: Caustic soda regeneration


Details
Caustic soda is used in one of the cleaning tanks and becomes contaminated with boron
from the previous cleaning tank. By cooling the caustic soda, the contaminants form a gel
which is subsequently separated from the weak caustic soda solution by filtration in a filter
bag. Following treatment the gel is landfilled. The clean caustic soda is reused in the
cleaning tank. Each year 20,000 L of caustic soda is recycled rather than discharged into
the sewer. Water consumption has also been reduced by approximately 300 m3/year.

Contaminated caustic IN

Contaminated caustic IN

Cooling tank with agitator


and cooling coils
Clean caustic
holding tank

Clean caustic
returned

Caustic
cleaning 1

Filter
bag

Clean caustic returned

Clear caustic OUT

Caustic
cleaning 2

Contaminated gel treated


and landfilled

Economics

Benefits

The system cost $17,000 to install and $18,000 a year to operate.


Total savings are $56,000 and include:
- reduced caustic soda consumption of 20,000 L per year
- reduced disposal of caustic soda solution of 46,000 per year
- reduced trade waste costs associated with caustic soda disposal.
- reduced water costs of $192 per year.
The payback period is 6 months.
Reduced caustic soda consumption, disposal and costs. Reduced water consumption and
costs.

GALVANISING SERVICES LTD: Self regulating flow valves


Details
The objective of rinse water conservation is to use only as much water as is needed. Self
regulating flow controls valves have been installed in the rinse tanks water inlet. The valves
set the water flow at a constant rate (0.06 L/sec) independent of the back pressure in the
mains. The flow control valves are low cost, easy to install and maintain, and reliable. The
company saves 2000 m3 of water per year.
Economics
Annual water costs are reduced by $1,700.
Benefits
Reduced water consumption and costs.
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Metal Cleaning

ROKOS QUALITY POWDER COATINGS LTD: Counter current rinsing


Details
Many businesses like Rokos Quality Powder Coatings are still using once through rinse
systems comprising of separate tanks for cleaning or finishing of metal products. As the
water in the tank rapidly gets contaminated with dragouts from previous baths, a continuous
flow of water is required.
A counter current rinsing system can provide the solution . With counter current rinsing,
multiple baths are used in an array rather than separately (see diagram). The direction of the
workpieces is opposite to the flow of the water through the baths. This means that the
workpieces are first rinsed in the most polluted water, and lastly in clean fresh water. Clean
water is only added to the last bath and goes by overflow and gravity to the other baths in
the series.
Rokos Quality Powder Coatings installed a counter current system consisting of four 6000
L tanks in series. Water consumption was reduced from 27,000 m3 to 1,300 m3 per year.
Counter current rinsing leads to a slight reduction in production capacity, but this is easily
compensated by the advantages of the reduced water consumption.
The availability of space can be a problem for implementing counter current rinsing. A
careful inspection of the process and the series can often reveal opportunities for extra
rinsing baths. Examples include:
reduce the number of processing positions by 1 or 2 to increase the number of cleaning
positions;
eliminate older processes, e.g. sine-dip before chromating, Cr(VI) reduction following
chromating;
evaluate the size of the rinsing baths. In many cases, large baths can be turned into
multiple smallers baths, suitable for counter current rinsing;
enlarge the whole array.9

Fresh Water

Work Flow

Next
Process

Rinse 4

Rinse 3
Rinse 2

Rinse 1
Previous
Process

Economics

Benefits

as Trade Waste

Costs were nominal as the tanks already existed and only needed to be linked to enable
water to flow through all tanks. Water savings are approximately $7,000-8,000 per year.
Reduced trade waste charges are $5,000 per year. The payback period is immediate.
As the pollution is concentrated in a smaller volume, resulting benefits include:
reduced trade waste charges;
smaller wastewater treatment installation with lower costs.
Reduced water consumption. Rinsing and product quality are also improved.


Institute for Applied Environmental Economics (TME), 1996.
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Metal Cleaning

 
           !
Details

Economics
Benefits

To prepare the steel for painting the coils are soaked in caustic soda and acid baths. The
caustic soda baths were being discarded every 2-3 weeks because of contamination with oil
from the coils. The company began skimming off the waste oil and storing it for separate
treatment. As a result the caustic soda baths now last for 12 months.
Chemicals are also recycled prolonging the life of the chemicals and significantly reducing
toxic discharges.
Costs for waste oil treatment have not been determined. Total savins are approximately
$33,000 per year. The payback period is 12 months.
Reduced caustic soda consumption and costs. Reduced trade waste discharge and costs.
Reduced labour time to replace caustic soda baths.

COLOURTEC SERVICES LTD: Counter current rinsing


Details
A counter current rinsing system will be installed comprising of two 5,000 L tanks in series.
Water consumption is expected to be reduced from 14m3 to 10m3 per day, equivalent to an
annual reduction of almost 1,500 m3 per year.
Economics
Savings from water and wastewater charges are expected to be $2,400 per year. Costs
associated with installing the system are nominal as the tanks are already available.
Benefits
Reduced water consumption.
GALVANISING SERVICES LTD: Recycling and filtration of rinse water from cleaning baths
Details
Wastewater from rinsing tanks needs to be treated to remove zinc prior to discharge into the
sewer. Galvanising Services previously treated the wastewater with caustic soda in a
neutralisation tank. As a result the zinc hydroxides precipitated and the clean liquid was
discharged as trade waste. As there was little control over the neutralisation reaction,
however, suspended salts were discharged with the wastewater.
In the new situation, spent diluted acid and rinse water are recycled as shown in the figure
below. Spent weak acid is disposed of through a waste contractor. The spent dilute acid is
filtered and then reused in the weak acid tank. Fresh acid is added to obtain the correct
concentration. Fresh dilute acid is made using concentrated acid and filtered rinse water.
Thus spent dilute acid and rinse water are recycled rather than dicharged as trade waste.
The suspended iron particles are trapped in the filter. Water consumption has reduced by
approximately 3,500 L per month. Quantities of wastewater and sludge discharged and
associated cost were reduced. As the zinc levels in trade waste are reduced, the business
now complies with trade waste bylaws.

Work Flow
Zinc Pot

Pre-flux
Recycle

Rinse
Recycle
Dil. Acid

Weak Acid

Economics
Benefits

Reduced water costs of $2,400 per year.


Reduced water consumption. Compliance with environmental regulations through reduced
zinc levels in wastewater. Reduced wastewater quantities and costs. Reduced quantities of
sludge.

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GALVANISING SERVICES LTD: Replacement of acid cleaning by mechanical rumbling


Details
In the nail galvanising plant at Galvanising Services, the acid cleaning process has been
replaced with abrasive cleaning by mechanical rumbling. Nails and sawdust are mixed in a
rumbling barrel. The barrel rotation exposes the surface of the nails to the sawdust which
absorbs the drawing soaps and the manufacturing oils. The impact of nail on nail removes
any corrosion and the activation of the extractor removes both the contaminated sawdust
and any corrosion dust. The process gives reliable surface finish so there is no need for
pickling with hydrochloric acid, and the component can be directly processed in the
prefluxing tank and the galvanising zinc pot. As a result consumption of 42,000 l/year of
hydrochloric acid is eliminated.
Economics
Capital costs for the purchase and installation of the system are $45,000. The operating
costs of the mechanical rumbler are nominal.
Total estimated savings from elimination of the acid pickle and rinsing process are $30,000
and include:
- reduced acid consumption $20,000/year;
- reduced spent acid disposal $8,000/year;
- reduced treatment $2,000/year.
The payback period is 18 months.
Benefits
Reduced costs for acid consumption, disposal and treatment. Reduced water consumption
and costs. Reduction of zinc ash and drost generation. Compliance with environmental
legislation. Improved health and safety conditions resulting in improved staff morale.
GALVANISING SERVICES LTD: removal and recycling of zinc dross and dust
Details
Zinc dross is a pasty solid comprising of 96% zinc and 4% iron and is produced by dragout
form iron-containing pickle salts, the fluxin solution, products that are being galvanised,
and iron and steel products reacting with molten zinc.
Zinc ash is a mixture of zinc oxide and entrained zinc, which is often in excess of 80% of
the total weight. Zinc ash is produced when zinc is in contact with air.
Galvanising Services has reduced the formation of zinc dross and zinc ash by 18 tonnes per
year by:
improving work practices through good housekeeping;
filtration of the fluxing solution;
replacing acid pickling by mechanical rumbling (see previous case study).
Economics
Savings of reduced zinc dross and ash formation is $45,000 per year.
Benefits
Reduced zinc costs. Reduced zinc dross and zinc ash waste. Reduced emissions. Improved
health and safety conditions for staff.
COLOURTEC SERVICES LTD: Paint stripping by incineration rather than methylene chloride
Details
The landfilling of methylene chloride has been prohibited in the Auckland region since
June 1996. This forced Colourtec Services to look at alternative methods for stripping
paint from products. Paint is now removed offsite by another company through
incineration in a high temperature furnace which has resulted in the elimination of
methylene chloride use and the avoidance of sludge.
Economics
Incineration costs are $1 per piece. Methylene chloride is eliminated resulting in savings
of $3,600 per year.
Benefits
Elimination of methylene chloride use and sludge disposal. Reduced costs of $3,600 per
year. Less down time. No handling of hazardous chemicals providing improved health
and safety conditions.
GALVANISING SERVICES LTD: Continuous preflux filtration
Details
Iron levels in the zinc ammonium chloride preflux tank must be maintained at minimum
levels of 1% as excess iron has a detrimental effect on the amount of waste produced. The
majority of the iron is introduced to the preflux through dragout from the acid tanks.
Because of the high iron content during pickling, rinsing is necessary before prefluxing. A
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Economics
Benefits

continuous preflux filtration system has therefore been installed over the preflux to remove
iron from the process.
As the preflux filtration system was already available only installation costs were made.
Zinc ammonium chloride savings have not been determined.
Reduced zinc ammonium chloride consumption.

ACCORD INDUSTRIES LTD: Water soluble cleaning agent


Details
A water soluble cleaning agent, Enforce, is being trialed by Accord Industries as an
alternative to kerosene for washing steel components. Enforce lasts at least twice as long as
kerosene as the collected oil can be skimmed off the surface. With kerosene the oil becomes
part of the mixture and cannot be removed. However, Enforce can cause steel components
to rust and therefore a rustproof agent is also being tested in the cleaning agent to overcome
the problem.
Economics
The price of the two cleaning agents is comparable. Therefore using Enforce could halve
cleaning costs for most components manufactured.
Benefits
In addition to financial savings, the health of the workers would also be improved as
Enforce is not as damaging if it comes in contact with their skin.
BARCLAY ENGINEERING LTD: Water-based cleaning of aluminium parts
Details
Water is used for the cleaning of aluminium instead of kerosene, after it was determined that
the same results were obtained. The consumption of 200 L kerosene per year is eliminated.
Economics
Savings of kerosene are approximately $800 per year.
Benefits
Elimination of kerosene consumption and emissions. Improved health and safety conditions
for employees
BARCLAY ENGINEERING LTD: Bath lids to control evaporation
Details
Evaporation takes place from cleaning baths, especially 111-trichloroethylene and caustic
soda, because the chemicals are volatile and baths are heated to 80-90oC. A lid was already
used for the 111-trichloroethylene bath and has now also been installed on the caustic soda
and chromic acid baths.
Economics
Savings of cleaning bath chemicals could not be determined. One-off costs: $10 ($5 per lid).
Benefits
Reduced emissions to the atmosphere. Reduced chemical and water consumption for
cleaning baths. Improved health and safety conditions for employees.
BARCLAY ENGINEERING LTD: Recycling of 111-trichloroethylene
Details
As a result of metal cleaning, 111-trichloroethylene (111-tri) baths become contaminated
with metal fines, dirt and water from previous rinsing. Each year 300 L of 111-tri is recycled
onsite through distillation. Less chemicals are used and disposed of as trade waste.
Economics
Savings on 111-tri are $961 per year. Costs for the distillation system are $460. The payback
period is 6 months
Benefits
Reduced 111-tri consumption and costs. Reduced trade waste.
BARCLAY ENGINEERING LTD: Treatment of sludge with cement
Details
Approximately 3 kg of sludge is accumulated annually from the metal cleaning baths.
Amounts of less than 5 kg can be disposed of as solid waste at the landfill. However, it is
likely that the sludge contains metals and acids, even though concentrations have not been
determined. Sludge used to be rinsed with water prior to disposal to remove contaminants,
creating a contaminated wastewater stream. To treat the sludge prior to disposal one shovel
of cement should be mixed with each kg of sludge to fix metals and neutralise acids. This
will work effectively where the pH is higher than 3.
Economics
Costs: $10 year for 40 kg bag cement.
Benefits
Reduction of chemicals discharged to trade waste. Compliance with trade waste bylaws.

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6.

CP FOR METAL FINISHING PROCESSES

6.1.

Metal finishing process description

Metal surface treatment involves the actual modification of the metal workpiece's surface properties, to
increase corrosion and abrasion resistance, alter appearance, or in some other way enhance the utility of the
product. Plating operations include electroplating and electroless plating processes. Table 3 summarises the
most common surface treatments.

Table 3 The most common surface treatments in the metal product industry.10
Process

Description

Chemical and
electrochemical
conversion coating
Case hardening

These operations are designed to deposit a coating on a metal surface that performs a corrosion
protection and/or decorative function, and in some instances is a preparation for painting.
Processes include phosphatising, chromating, anodising, passivating and metal colouring.
This process forms a hard surface (the case) over a metal core that remains relatively soft. The
case is wear-resistant and durable, while the core is left strong. Hardening processes include
carburising, carbonitriding, nitriding, microcasing and hardening using localised heating and
quenching operations.
Metal coating provides a layer that changes the surface properties of the workpiece so they are
compatible with the metal being applied. The combination of two materials creates a composite
material, which is not possible with either material alone. Metallic coatings (as defined here) refer
to diffusion coatings, spraying techniques, cladding, vapour deposition and vacuum coating.
Electroplating involves the production of a thin surface coating of one metal upon another by
electrodeposition. Electroplating is achieved by passing an electric current through a solution
containing dissolved metal ions as well as the metal object to be plated. The metal object acts as a
cathode in an electrochemical cell, attracting metal ions from the solution. Ferrous and nonferrous
metal objects are typically electroplated with brass, bronze, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron,
lead, nickel, tin and zinc. Anodising is a very similar process and involves coating of aluminium
objects with metals, in particular chromium.

Metallic coating

Electroplating


US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990
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6.2.

Metal finishing process inputs & outputs

The inputs and outputs involved in metal surface treatment and plating are outlined in Figure 5. Electroplating
operations can result in solid and liquid waste streams that contain chemicals. Most surface treatment and
plating operations generate liquid waste streams and sludge containing metal hydroxides, sulphides and
carbonates.
INPUTS

OUTPUTS

Metal product

Treated, plated or coated product

Energy

Solid waste:
metal fines

Cooling water
Rinsing water
Plating bath water

METAL FINISHING
Oils
Solvents
Chemicals
Metals
Paints

Liquid waste
wastewater (cooling, rinsing)
spent solvent solutions
quench oils and tanks
spent salt bath (sodium cyanide)
paints
Emissions:
solvent & paint emissions
heavy metal emissions
heat
combustion gases

Figure 5 Inputs and outputs of metal finishing processes.

6.3.

CP options for metal cleaning processes

The checklist below summarises CP options that could be implemented by metal finishing businesses to
reduce resource consumption (inputs) and waste generation (outputs). The checklist provides a useful start
point for businesses to identify potential options for further investigation.

 

  
    

CP options: this column describes the suggested CP options that could be appropriate to your business.
Cost: this column identifies the approximate implementation cost for each option. In the checklists
almost all options are identified with a no for nominal or no costs (ie. less than $300), low for costs
between $300 and $3,000, and high for costs higher than $3,000.
Implementation: the implementation columns should be used to identify the implementation status of
the options. Options which have not been implemented should be marked by the no column. Options
that have been partly or fully implemented can be identified by ticking the appropriate column. The
N.A./Not feasible column can be used to mark options that are not relevant to your business. Options
identified in the no or partial columns can be considered for feasibility analysis.
Priority: this column should be used to identify the level of priority which the option has, where A
represents high priority, B medium priority and C the lowest priority.
Responsibility: this column should be used to record the name of the person or people responsible for
investigating the option further. You may also wish to use the column for including any other comments
you may have on the option.

Some of the options are described in more detail in the case studies provided in section 6.4.
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METAL FINISHING
CP OPTIONS

COSTS

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Partly

No

PRIORITY
N.A./Not
feasible

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

Waste and emission reduction


Install a wet scrubber to scrub hydrochloric acid emissions from
galvanising factory.

High

Raking adjustment to prevent lumps on wires in galvanising line (see


case study Pacific Wire)

No

Energy conservation
Use low energy filter paper and plastisol (see case study GUD NZ)

No/low

Use air knives to dry products (see case study GUD NZ and Universal
Electroplaters)

High

Insulate heated process baths with covers during non production hours
(see case study Universal Electroplaters)

No

Insulate heated baths with ping pong balls

No/ Low

Water conservation
Use counter current rinsing (see case study Rokos Quality Powder
Coatings, section 5.4)

Low

Use self-regulating flow controls with set flow rates (see case study
Galvanising Services, section 5.4)

Low

Optimise and standardise the water flow

Low

Use conductivity regulators to control water flow based on


conductivity in rinse tanks

Low

Reuse rinse water in two or more baths (see case study Metal
Protection)

No

Redesign rinse tank/ rack and barrel system to improve rinsing

Low

Use spray and fog rinses (fog nozzles) over plating baths

Low

Agitate the rinse bath to improve rinse efficiency

Low

Agitate workpieces in the rinse bath to improve rinse effectiveness

No

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METAL FINISHING
CP OPTIONS

COSTS

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Partly

No

PRIORITY
N.A./Not
feasible

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

Reduction of dragout
Prepare baths using demineralised water

No

Use drip trays or drip sheets to recover dragout from baths

No/ Low

Prevent dragout spillage on floors by placing sheets between baths (see


case study Pacific Wire, section 5.4)

No

Standardise dripping times

No

Reduce the bath concentration to minimum necessary

No

Motivate and train personnel to follow efficient procedures

No

Electroplating process control


Use Hull Cell tests to monitor solution concentrations

No/ low

Monitor pH levels

No

Test plating thickness

Low

Control bath temperatures (e.g. using thermostats)

Low

Regularly analyse solutions

No/ low

Provide suitable agitation of baths

Low

Monitor the anode area

No/ low

Treatment of spent electroplating baths prior to disposal to


remove contaminants
Add calcium hydroxide to precipitate calcium carbonate

Low

Use low current electrolysis to remove metallic impurities

Low

Use activated carbon filter to remove dissolved organic impurities and


solids

Low/High

Apply "freezing" to copper and zinc cyanide solutions.

Low

Remove suspended solids in treated wastewater streams using


dissolved air flotation treatment (see case study Metal Protection)

High

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METAL FINISHING
CP OPTIONS

COSTS

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Use filtration to separate suspended solids or sedimented particles from


treatment baths

Low

Use inhibitors to prevent the attack by chemicals on base substrates


(see case study Galvanising Services)

Low

Use fume suppressants to prevent fume emissions (see case study


Galvanising Services)

Low

Use wetting agents to improve cleaning effectiveness (see case study


Galvanising Services)

Low

Separate grease film from degreasing baths through centrifugation or


filtration

Low

Partly

No

PRIORITY
N.A./Not
feasible

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

Metal recovery from plating baths by:


Use electrolytic recovery to remove metals (see case study Universal
Electroplaters

High

Use evaporation of water from plating baths to recycle rinse dragouts


(see case study Metal Protection)

High

Use reverse osmosis to concentrate solutions

High

Apply electrodialysis to concentrate and purify chromic acid baths and


rinse waters

High

Use ion exchange to purify dilute solutions

High

Use ultrafiltration for filtering emulsions

High

Substitution of solvent paints


Use high solids painting

Low

Use water-based paintings and/or coatings

Low

Use powder coating rather than spray painting (see case study GUD
NZ)

High

Use radiation-curable paints and/or coatings

High

Overspray reduction
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METAL FINISHING
CP OPTIONS

COSTS

These are suggested options only. Managers should decide which


options are appropriate to investigate and/or implement.

IMPLEMENTATION
Fully

Reuse paint residuals

No

Optimise process by:

No

Partly

No

PRIORITY
N.A./Not
feasible

RESPONSIBILITY

(A>B>C)

- training painters/sprayers
- preventive equipment maintenance
- pre-inspection of workpieces

Improved painting techniques and equipment


Use high volume low pressure (HVLP) spraying

Low

Use electrostatic spraying

Low-High

Plunge products where possible

Low

Clean apparatus regularly

No

Reuse cleaning waste for next or other cleaning process

No

Reuse cleaning waste as dilution for base paint

No

Recover solvent paint by:


Distillation

High

Filtration

Low

Centrifugation

Low

Decanting

No

Note: No= Nominal cost (<$300); Low= Low-cost ($300 - $3,000), High= High-cost (> $3,000).

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6.4.

CP case studies for metal finishing processes

This section provides summary case studies for a number of the CP options implemented by New Zealand
businesses that undertake metal finishing processes.
PACIFIC WIRE LTD: Raking adjustment to prevent lumps on wires
Details
Following the galvanising process, hot zinc wires are passed through gravel to remove
any zinc dross formed during the process of galvanising. Employees use a stick or rake to
loosen the gravel, but where they touch the wires lumps are formed which need to be cut
out losing valuable product and labour time. A modified tool was made and employees
were instructed how to rake the gravel without touching the wires. Wire waste was
reduced by 1,000 kg per day or 300 tonnes per year.
Economics
No costs were involved in modifying the rake. Savings through reduced raw material
consumption have not been fully costed but are estimated as several $100,000s per year.
The payback period was immediate.
Benefits
Reduced zinc dross and production loss estimated at several $100,000/year. Improved
product quality. Increased productivity through increased throughout as fewer stoppages.
GUD NZ LTD: Use of low energy filter paper and plastisol or polyurethane
Details
Filter paper and plastisol are the main filtering components of a car filter. The use of low
energy filter paper, low energy plastisol and polyurethane are currently being
investigated. By using these alternatives, curing of the filters is no longer necessary as the
filter paper and plastisol/polyurethane is already pre-cured. It is expected that as a result
only one rather than two ovens will be needed at GUD reducing heating costs by 50%.
Economics
This option is still being trialed but it is expected that investment costs will be nominal or
very low and savings could be high.
Benefits
Reduced energy consumption and costs.
UNIVERSAL ELECTROPLATERS LTD: Insulating covers on plating baths
Details
Six covers were purchased for covering plating baths at night to reduce temperature loss.
Economics
Six covers cost $50 in total. Approximately $200 is saved on energy a year.
Benefits
Reduced energy consumption. Reduced contamination of baths with dust.
GUD NZ LTD: Powder coating
Details
GUD are currently investigating replacement of traditional spray painting techniques with
powder coating for the application of paint to metal cases. In powder coating the metal
case is electrically charged which enables the powder to attach evenly to the surface. The
object is then heated to melt the paint onto the surface. Because a powder is used,
excess powder can easily be captured and reused, which is not possible with liquid paint.
Economics
This option is still under investigation, but planned for implementation in the future.
Benefits
Reduced paint consumption as surplus paint can be reused. More equal paint coverage
and better looking product. Reduced waste water quantities and costs.
Reduced solvent emissions. Improved health and safety conditions for employees.
GUD NZ LTD: Use of air knives rather than compressed air to dry products
Details
Air knives are now used for drying filters rather than compressed air. This reduces energy
consumption with no adverse effects on product quality. Drying with compressed air
required a warming up period, whereas air knives provide instant heat. As a result,
products dry faster with improved product quality.
Economics
Purchase costs for one air knife are $7,000. Savings from reduced energy consumption are
$5,500 per year. The payback period is 15 months.
Benefits
Reduced energy consumption and costs. Improved product quality.
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UNIVERSAL ELECTROPLATERS LTD: Air knives rather than evaporators to dry products
Details
Air knives are currently being trialed to replace heating elements for surface drying of the
products. Air knives provide a faster and more uniform drying and use less power
compared to heating elements.
Economics
Savings will be determined following the trial.
Benefits
Reduced energy consumption and costs. Improved product quality.
GALVANISING SERVICES LTD: Use of inhibitors and fume suppressants
Details
Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is used to pickle clean steel (Fe) objects prior to galvanising and
to strip old layers of zinc (Zn) from already galvanised objects. When hydrogen chloride
is in contact with steel or steel oxides, it reacts as follows:
Fe+ 2 HCl
FeCl2 + H2(g)
FeO + 2 HCl
FeCl2 + H2O
2 FeCl3 + 3 H2O
Fe2O3 + 6 HCl
Fe3O4 + 8 HCl
2 FeCl3 + FeCl2 + 4H2O
Similar reactions take place between hydrogen chloride and zinc:
Zn + 2 HCl
ZnCl2 + H2(g)
ZnO + 2 HCl
ZnCl2 + H2O
These reactions cause three problems for metal cleaning businesses:
the reactions with steel and zinc generate iron chloride and zinc chloride which end
up in the wastewater stream;
hydrogen chloride emissions are produced near the bath surface through contact with
the air. The vapours are a health hazard for production staff;
during the reactions hydrogen gas (H2) is formed which is trapped in the solution. The
gas is potentially explosive.

Economics
Benefits

Galvanising Services has added inhibitors, fume suppressants and wetting agents to the
pickling baths to solve these problems:
inhibitors (steel pickling bath): the first reaction between hydrogen chloride and steel
is suppressed by up to 94-98%. This reduces the formation of hydrogen gas and the
production of iron chlorides;
fume suppressants (both baths): these chemicals form a foam layer on the bath
surface, preventing the emission of hydrogen chloride vapours;
wetting agents (both baths): these chemicals improve the contact between
workpieces and chemicals in the bath. As a result the pickling process is improved.
$600 is spent each year on inhibitors. This is a slight increase in costs but this is
outweighed by the benefits.
Reduced metal corrosion. Reduced hydrogen chloride emissions. Improved health and
safety conditions for staff and compliance with health and safety regulations. Improved
wastewater quality and reduced trade waste costs.

UNIVERSAL ELECTROPLATERS LTD: Fume and mist depressants to reduce emissions


Details
Fume and mist suppressants are used in process baths to prevent formation of fumes.
Chemical emissions and consumption are reduced as a result.
Economics
Each year $600 is spent on fume suppressants. This is a slight increase in operating costs,
but the benefits of health and safety due to minimal emissions outweigh the costs.
Benefits
Reduced chemical consumption. Reduced emissions. Improved staff health and safety
conditions.

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UNIVERSAL ELECTROPLATERS LTD: Metal recovery through electrolysis


Details
The recovery of gold, copper and zinc from wastewater through electrolysis is currently
under investigation. The wastewater is pumped into an electrolytic unit containing inert
ceramic beads. A fluidised bed is formed. Two electrodes are placed in the unit and as an
electric current is applied, metal deposits on the cathode. The metal can be reused while
the wastewater is discharged into the sewer.
Economics
Costs associated with the purchasing and running of the electrolytic unit and potential
savings on metals are still being determined.
Benefits
Reduced gold, copper and zinc consumption. Reduced trade waste contamination with
metals.
METAL PROTECTION LTD: Dissolved air flotation wastewater treatment
Details
Often electroplating wastewaters are contaminated with containing chrome and other
metals, cyanide, acids, alkalines and other strong chemicals, and therefore require
treatment prior to discharge as trade waste. Metal Protection Ltd treats contaminated
electroplating liquids in the following way:
chrome containing wastewaters are treated with sodium metabisulphate to reduce
chromium from its hexavalent (CrVI) to its trivalent state (CrIII);
chlorination of toxic cyanides in electroplating wastewater to harmless carbonates
and free nitrogen using sodium hypochlorite.
The pretreated chrome and cyanide wastewaters and other untreated wastewaters now
need to be treated to separate the metal precipitates from the cleaner liquids. A
neutralisation process and a dissolved air flotation technique are used to achieve this:
the pH of all the liquid waste stream is increased using caustic soda to cause heavy
metals and metal hydroxides to precipitate;
the wastewater with suspended particles is pumped under high pressure through a
venturi and aeration tank to a flotation tank where pressure is released;
the air in the wastewater causes the metals and metal hydroxides to float on top of the
cleaner liquid, which can now easily be skimmed off and separated in a bag filter for
separate treatment and disposal. The remaining liquid can be discharged to trade
waste safely.

Pretreated cyanide
Pretreated chrome
Other contaminants
in waste water

Aeration

Caustic soda

Dissolved Air Flotation Tank

pH adjustments
High pressure
pump

Filter bags
Treated water discharged
as trade waste
Sludge for
disposal

Economics

Benefits

Installation of the system cost $150,000. Savings are approximately $30,000 per year.
Although the payback period is 6 years, the main reason for implementing this option was
to meet trade waste discharge limits for chromium and cyanide.
Improved trade waste quality. Compliance with trade waste regulations.

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PACIFIC COILCOATERS LTD: New painting machine to reduce scrap


Details
A new painting machine was installed to improve the operating procedures. Scrap has
been significantly reduced.
Economics
Annual savings are $243,000.
Benefits
Reduced scrap and disposal costs. Improved product quality.
METAL PROTECTION LTD: Recycling of chemicals using a atmospheric evaporator
Details
Electroplating baths contain toxic metals such as zinc, chrome and nickel. Rinsing baths are
contaminated with these metals through dragout.
Metal Protection Ltd recycles electroplating chemicals using an atmospheric evaporator (see
diagram). The bath liquid is firstly passed through a filter to remove contaminants. In the
evaporator the solution is then distributed over a wet deck surface through gravity flow
diffuser nozzles, with air blowing at right angle to the surface causing water to evaporate.
The obtained concentrated solution is returned to the electroplating bath. The volume saved
in baths is diluted to the correct chemical concentration using rinse water from the rinse
bath. This allows reuse of the metals from the rinsing bath rather than their discharge to
trade waste.
Evaporated
water

Filter

Evaporator
Air

Recycle

Electroplating
bath

Economics

Benefits

Rinsing tank

The system cost $50,000 to install and is in the process of commissioning. Total savings
resulting from chemical recovery, reduced treatment and disposal of wastewater and
sludge are approximately $45,000 per year. The payback period is 18 months.
Recovery of valuable chemicals from the rinsing tank. Reduced wastewater quantities and
discharge costs. Reduced disposal costs for sludge

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7.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND COUNCIL FUNCTIONS

This chapter provides an introduction to the laws and regulations which impact on metal product businesses
and briefly outlines the responsibilities of regulatory authorities.

7.1.

Legal requirements

The purpose of the legal section of this Guide is to provide an overview of the legislation, standards and
guidelines which affect metal product businesses and which should be considered when implementing
cleaner production programmes.
In implementing Cleaner Production processes, consideration needs to be given to the potential adverse
affects of some actions which might impact negatively on social, environmental and workplace standards or
in simply transferring the problems elsewhere.
As well as Acts of Parliament, Regulations and Council bylaws there are a number of standards and codes of
practice which affect a business environment. The most important legislation affecting cleaner production is
outlined in the following sections.

7.1.1.

Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA)

Description
The RMA is the principal piece of legislation for environmental management in New Zealand. Its key
purpose is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources, and it does so by
controlling the effects of activities rather than the activities themselves.
Discharges
Section 15 (Discharges of contaminants into the environment) specifies that discharges to air, land and
water are only permitted through a rule in a regional plan or a specific resource consent. Such discharges
include, for example, open burning, poring liquids onto the ground or into the stormwater drainage system.
Unless authorised by a resource consent or a regional plan rule, these discharges are illegal and the
dischargers may be liable for prosecution by the regional council. The placing of waste into a landfill, or the
discharge of sewage effluent from a sewage treatment plant are also considered discharges to the
environment, and are usually legalised through a resource consent held by the owner/operator of the landfill
or sewage treatment plant. However, the consent is tied to certain conditions which the operator must
comply with, which determined restrictions on what is acceptable in the landfill or the sewer system.
Implications for the metal products industry
The RMA states clearly that direct discharges to the environment are prohibited. This means that any
wastes produced by a company, be they liquid, solid or gaseous (ie emissions) need to be disposed of to a
facility that has a consent to do so legally, ie a landfill, a sewage treatment plant or an incinerator. It is the
responsibility of businesses to identify relevant rules which control waste disposal. A key rule which affects
an increasing number of landfills is that hazardous wastes is no longer accepted. Hazardous wastes need to
be treated to render them non-hazardous before they are accepted at a landfill. Check with your regional
council what wastes are considered hazardous (See Appendix 4 for contact details).
Given the costs associated with waste treatment and disposal, and their likely increase in the future, the
implementation of CP procedures aimed at reducing the quantity and toxicity of waste is likely to bring real
financial benefits to businesses.
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Land Use
In contrast to discharges, land use is generally controlled by city/district councils. Relevant rules are
specified in district plans. Land use rules, especially those addressing the use and storage of hazardous
substances, are of importance when establishing a new facility, or significantly altering an existing one.
Historically, hazardous substances have been controlled by specifying the quantity which can be used or
stored on a site (the list approach), and this technique is still used by some territorial local authorities.
Another, comparatively new approach being used by some city/district councils is the Hazardous Facility
Screening Procedure (HFSP). This procedure is a screening method which considers the actual or potential
effects of the substances that are handled on a site, specifically with respect to human health, the
environment and their fire or explosion risk. Councils that have adopted this screening method have
incorporated a threshold table into their district plans which specifies whether a proposed facility is a
Permitted Activity or a Discretionary Activity. Discretionary activities require a resource consent. In
these cases risk assessment may have to be carried out to ensure that the risk is acceptable to the wider
community.
Implications for the metal products industry
Land use controls, especially those relating to the use and storage of hazardous substances, seek to provide
appropriate and safe site structure and lay-out as well as appropriate site management procedures to
minimise spillage and other accidental releases of hazardous substances. In this way, compliance with the
locally adopted land use rules should be an important component of any business procedure, but especially
so when CP practices are implemented. Again, given that each city/district council has the regulatory
powers to set its own rules for land use, it is the task of the business to obtain information about the relevant
rules.

7.1.2.

The Building Act 1991 and the Building Regulations 1992

Description
The Building Act specifies the functions and powers of the Building Industry Authority and territorial local
authorities (city/district councils), while the Building Code describes performance criteria buildings have to
achieve to be deemed safe. This also includes specifications for buildings which house hazardous
substances.
Implications for the metal products industry
Building consents will be required for any new buildings or alterations of existing structures. This provides
an opportunity for incorporating improvements consistent with CP practice (such as the design of
appropriate storage areas) as well as providing for increased safety with respect to the use and storage of
hazardous substances.

7.1.3.

Health and Safety In Employment Act 1992

Description
This Act, administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Division of the Department of Labour (OSH),
addresses the responsibilities of employers with respect to the identification and elimination of hazards and
the protection of workers from hazards. The Acts objective is to provide for the prevention of harm to
employees at work, and it does so by:
promoting excellence in health and safety management by employers;
prescribing, and imposing on employers and others, duties in relation to the prevention of harm to
employees;
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providing for the making of regulations and the development of codes of practice relating to hazards to
employees.
Implications for the metal products industry
Given that the metal product industry uses considerable amounts of hazardous substances in the normal
course of its work, knowledge of and adherence to the HSE Act is particularly relevant. To this end, OSH
has developed a range of guidelines and codes of practice to assist employers with compliance.

7.1.4.

Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations

Description
This Acts principal purpose is to provide for the control of the packing, marking, handling, carriage,
storage, and use of certain flammable, oxidising, and corrosive materials, and certain compressed, liquefied,
dissolved, and other gases. This legislation is administered by the Department of Labour and local Councils.
Implications
The use of dangerous goods in metal product businesses is widespread. Any changes in the quantity or
means of handling, storing, packing or use of dangerous goods by businesses should be advised to the local
Council Dangerous Goods Inspector and the dangerous goods licence altered accordingly.

7.1.5.

The Hazardous Substance and New Organisms Act 1996 (HSNO Act)

Description
This is the major legislation controlling the import, manufacture, use and handling of hazardous substances
in New Zealand. It was enacted on 10 June 1996, and has repealed a host of other laws in order to
streamline the legislation and provide a one-stop-shop. The Act has established the Environmental Risk
Management Authority (ERMA), which will be responsible for the assessment of hazardous substances and
new organisms, and for controlling their hazards.
The Act itself only establishes the framework for hazardous substances management - its practical
implementation will occur through the HSNO Regulations. Until these Regulations are finalised (late
1997/early 1998) and the Act becomes fully enforceable, old legislation such as the Dangerous Goods Act
and the Toxic Substances Act remains in force.
The HSNO Act specifies that a precautionary approach should be adopted with respect to the management
of hazardous substances, and is essentially risk-based (rather than being prescriptive). Its aim is to provide
for the management of hazardous substances throughout their life cycle.
The Act is enforced by a number of different agencies such as the Customs Department (import of
hazardous substances and new organisms), the Labour Department (in the workplace), Land Transport
Safety and the Police (transport) and the territorial local authorities (city/district councils) for anything else.
These agencies may also delegate their enforcement functions to each other.
Implications for the metal products industry
The HSNO regulations will provide the minimum standards/controls for packaging, labelling, handling etc
of hazardous substances, following on from the superseded controls provided by the Dangerous Goods and
Toxic Substances Acts. With the emphasis on a precautionary approach and the management of risks posed
by hazardous substances, it is likely that the HSNO Act will favour the use of less hazardous substances.
This is consistent with the objective of Cleaner Production.

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7.1.6.

The Health Act 1956

Description
This Act enables territorial local authorities (city or district councils) to appoint environmental health
officers who enforce provisions for the control of nuisances, sewerage works and offensive trades (which
are defined in the Third Schedule of this Act), and the collection and disposal of refuse. Under this Act,
territorial local authorities can also establish bylaws to control the handling and storage of noxious
substances which are or have the potential to be offensive.
The Act is also the principal legislation for the Public Health Authorities, who administer and enforce the
Health Act in regard to any issues beyond local concerns, and assume an audit function with respect to the
work carried out by the local environmental health officers. The Public Health Authorities also appoint
Health Protection Officers who enforce Toxic Substances Regulations for Class 6 (Toxic Substances), Class
7 (Radioactive Substances) and Class 8 (Corrosives).
Implications for the metal products industry
Some of the substances used and handled by metal product businesses may be subject to local bylaws under
this Act.

7.1.7.

Local Government Act 1974.

Description
Among a host of other issues, this Act specifies the responsibilities for waste management which lie largely
with city/district councils. These responsibilities have been strengthened and expanded by a recent
amendment to the Act. The LGA also empowers these councils to make Trade Waste Bylaws (Section 491),
a function which will not be affected by the new HSNO Act.
Implications for the metal products industry
This Act provides the basis for the waste management procedures undertaken by each city/district council,
both with respect to the collection, management and disposal of solid wastes and the collection, treatment
and disposal of (liquid) trade wastes. Because control over these issues lies with local government, there
are no nation-wide standards or regulations applying to the disposal of solid or liquid, hazardous or nonhazardous wastes. It is therefore the responsibility of the individual business to obtain the relevant
information about waste management requirements, specifically those pertaining to hazardous waste
management, from either the regional council or the city/district council.
It is important to note that in Auckland, trade wastes are regulated by Watercare Services Ltd.

7.1.8.

The Transport Act 1962

Description
The Transport Act specifies the rules and regulations for road transport, including the transport of hazardous
substances. Of particular importance in this regard is the NZ Standard 5433:1988 - Code of Practice for the
Transport of Hazardous Substances on Land. It states that drivers transporting hazardous substances require
a hazardous substances license, which provides them with the skills to segregate the different classes of
hazardous substances properly and be knowledgeable about labels and the documentation necessary for safe
transport of hazardous substances.
Implications for the metal products industry
In accordance with good CP practice, it is appropriate to ascertain whether the contracted carrier complies
with the relevant transport regulations.
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7.1.9.

Other controls, rules, regulations and standards

In addition to the legislation outlined above, there is also a wide range of Codes of Practice, national
standards and regulations that may be relevant to the metal products industry. Some of these are listed
below.
Asbestos Regulations 1983 and 1986 amendments
NZ Standard 9201:Model General Bylaws 1995 (Trade Wastes, Chapter 23P)

OSH Guidelines for the Use of Organic Solvents, 1992


OSH Guidelines for the Management and Removal of Asbestos, 1995
OSH Draft Health and Safety in Employment (Asbestos) Regulations, 1994
OSH Guidelines for the Management of Lead-based Paint, 1995

Department of Health, 1988: Code of Practice for the Safe Management of PCBs
Department of Health: Waste Management Guides Numbers 02 - 06
New Zealand Chemical Industry Council Responsible Care Management System.

7.2.

Responsibilities of regulatory authorities

Often more than one agency is involved in implementing the legislation, regulations and standards outlined
above. A metal product business can therefore expect to come in contact with any or all of the officers
described below in the course of identifying and complying with relevant regulations. The functions of the
different councils and who you should contact are summarised in the figure and the table below.

Metal Product Businesses

Regional Council
Unitary Authority

City Council
District Council
Unitary Authority

Public Health
Authority

Labour
Department

Discharges to land, air


and water

Land use
Buildings
Noise
Waste collection, storage,
disposal
Recycling & CP

Public health

Health and safety

Figure 6 Useful contacts for metal product businesses.

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Table 5 Functions of different local authorities in New Zealand.


ORGANISATION
Regional Council or
Unitary Authority

City Council
District Council
Unitary Authority

Public Health
Authority
Labour Department

ACT
Resource Management
Act (RMA)

RMA
RMA
RMA
RMA/ Hazardous
Substances and New
Organisms Act
RMA
RMA
RMA
Trade Waste Bylaw
(Local Government Act)
RMA
RMA
RMA
Building Act
Dangerous Goods Act /
HSNO Act
Transport Act
Health Act
Health Act
Health, Safety and
Employment Act

FUNCTION
Control of discharges to air,
land or water
Resource consents for
discharges to air, land or water
Water quality
Water take permits
Coastal protection
Hazardous and solid waste
management

CONTACT
Resource Quality Section

Soil conservation
Monitoring
Pest control
Wastewater treatment

Land Resources Officer


Inspectorate Manager
Land Resources Officer
Trade Waste Officer

Land use consents


Subdivisions
Noise control
Building permits
Hazardous substances
use/storage
Roading
Public Health
Public health

Planning Officer
Planning Officer
Noise Control Officer
Building inspector
Dangerous Goods Officer

Health and safety

Pollution Control Officer /


Consents Manager
Water Resources Officer
Water Resources Officer
Coastal Resources Officer
Regional Waste Officer

Roading Engineer
Environmental Health Inspector
Health Protection Officer
Occupational Safety and Health
Officer

Note: Unitary Authorities have regional and district council responsibilities. The three Unitary Authorities in New Zealand include
Gisborne District Council, Marlborough District Council, and Tasman District Council.

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REFERENCES
Cluistra, R., Smink, D. (1991) Research for alternative cleaning agents, EADM, environmental concern
alkaline degreasing agents in the metal industry (Onderzoek naar alternatieve reinigingsmiddelen, MAOM:
milieubezwaarlijkheid alkalische ontvettingsmiddelen in de metaalindustrie).
Hofman, H.D., Koppert, P.C. (1991), Prevention of Waste and Emissions at B&S Ltd, Erasmus Centre for
Environmental Studies (ECES), Erasmus University of Rotterdam, Rotterdam.
Hoo, S.C. de, et al., (1991). Manual for the prevention of waste and emissions (Handleiding voor preventie
van afval en emissies), Ed., SDU publishers, The Hague.
Huisingh, Martin, Hilger, Seldman, (1991). 'Plumbing products manufacture, Case study 24'. In: Proven
profits from pollution prevention: case studies in resource conservation and waste reduction, Volume III.
Institute for Local Self-Reliance, Washington D.C.
Institute for Applied Environmental Economics (TME) (April 1996). The use of cleaner production
technologies in the metal finishing and electronics industry. The Hague, The Netherlands.
Kothuis, B.A.S., Berkel, C.W.M., van, (1992). Manual for the prevention of waste and emissions in the
metal products industry (Handboek voor de preventie van afval en emissies in de metaalproduktenindustrie).
Tebodin Engineers and Consultants, Den Haag.
Ministry for the Environment, (May 1994). Cleaner Production Guidelines, Wellington, New Zealand.
Ministry for the Environment, (July 1993). Case studies from New Zealand Industry, Wellington, New
Zealand.
New Zealand Financial Press Ltd, (1996), The New Zealand Business Whos Who, 37th edition.
Punte, S.S., (1995). New Zealand Cleaner Production Project: phase 2, literature search.
Punte, S.S., (1996). Comparative Cleaner Production.
Recycling Operators of New Zealand (RONZ), (1997), The New Zealand Recycling Directory 1996/1997.
Telecom New Zealand Ltd, (1996), Yellow Pages 1997/97.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Hindin, D.A., Burch, W.M., Fort, D.L. (January 1992). Pollution
prevention options in metal fabricated products industries. A bibliographic report. EPA/560/8-92/001A.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (1990). Guides to pollution prevention: the fabricated metal
products industry. EPA/625/7-90/006.

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85

References

APPENDIX 1: Worksheets
The following worksheets will assist metal product businesses to implement a CP programme. The
worksheets should be used together with the steps described in Chapter 2.

Worksheet 1:
Instructions:

Overall input - output summary

List all significant inputs and outputs. It may be helpful to include actual quantities
and costs where you know them.

Inputs

Processes

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Outputs

Appendices

Worksheet 2:
Instructions:

No

Walk-through

Use this form to list your observations during your walk-through

Observation

Location of Observation

Reason

Eg. Water left running

Drum cleaning facility

Tap not turned off during tea


break.

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Worksheet 3:
Instructions:
No

Potential CP options identified during Walk-through

List sources of wastes and potential opportunities for improvement.

Observation / Source of
Waste

Improvements / Changes Suggested


(input changes, process changes, output
changes)

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Select for feasibility


Yes / No

Appendices

Worksheet 4:
Instructions:

Technical and Practical Evaluation

Tick the appropriate response. Skip over questions that do not apply. Fill out one
form for each option you are evaluating.

Cleaner Production option:


yes
1.

Have you determined that this option has a proven track record?

2.

Will this option maintain or improve product quality?

3.

Is it compatible with existing equipment, systems and


procedures?

4.

Will this option adversely affect productivity ?

5.

Will this option need existing staff to be trained?

6.

Will this option require additional staff?

7.

Will production be stopped during implementation?

8.

Will the vendor guarantee this option?

9.

Is your plant layout and design capable of incorporating this


option?

no

not sure

10. Are materials and parts readily available?


11. Have you determined that this option will improve or maintain
worker safety and health?
12. Can this option be easily serviced?
13. Are other businesses using this option?
14. Can you receive technical advice on this option?
15.

16.

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Worksheet 5:
Instructions:

Environmental Evaluation

Tick the appropriate response. Skip over questions that do not apply. Fill out one
form for each option you are evaluating.

Cleaner Production option:


yes
1.

Will this option reduce environmental impacts?

2.

Will this option reduce water use?

3.

Will this option reduce energy use?

4.

Does this option use fewer materials?

5.

Does this option use renewable resources?

6.

Will this option reduce the toxicity of the materials


used?

7.

Will this option reduce waste and emissions?

8.

Are you certain that this option will not simply move
contaminants from one form to another (e.g., from solid
wastes to air emissions)?

9.

Will this option reduce the toxicity of the wastes and


emissions produced?

no

not sure

10.

11.

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Worksheet 6:
Instructions:

Economic Evaluation

Tick the appropriate response. Skip over questions that do not apply. Fill out one
form for each option you are evaluating.

Cleaner Production option:


yes
1.

Is this option within your price range? (consider both


capital and ongoing operations costs)

2.

Does this option have an acceptable payback period?

3.

Does this option reduce your raw material costs?

4.

Does this option reduce your energy costs?

5.

Does this option reduce your water costs?

6.

Does this option reduce your storage costs?

7.

Does this option reduce your labour costs?

8.

Does this option reduce regulatory compliance costs?

9.

Will this option reduce the costs associated with worker


injury or illness?

no

not sure

10. Will this option reduce your insurance premiums?


11. Will this option reduce your waste treatment and
disposal costs?
12. Will this option increase your product quality and price?
13. Does your policy relax these criteria for projects which
are clearly suitable but which do not meet the normal
criteria?
14.

15.

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Appendices

Worksheet 7:
Instructions:

Evaluate Cleaner Production Options

Summarise the technical, environmental and economic evaluations of the cleaner


production options on this form. Add project information. Consider aspects
mentioned in step 6 (chapter 2).
Option

Feasible (yes/no)
Tech

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92

Selected for
implementation (yes/no)
Total

Appendices

Worksheet 8:
Instructions:

Description of Cleaner Production options selected for


implementation

Describe each cleaner production option. Use separate page for each option.

Option Name
Brief description of Option

Input material(s)
Affected (include water,
energy and staff time)

Process(es) affected

Product(s) affected

Wastes and emissions


affected

Costs / Budget

Responsibility

Time Frame

Start Date

Finish Date

Payback

Signed on completion ........................................................ Date: ..............................................

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APPENDIX 2: Summary of environmental and health impacts of chemicals


Chemical compound
or reagent

Application

Health and Environmental Impacts


(WES - TWA = workplace exposure standard - time weighted average based on 8 hour exposure to airborne
contaminants)

NOTE Under no circumstances should functionality or hygiene be compromised by the selection of a less toxic chemical or reagent. Staff required to handle toxic and hazardous chemicals should
be trained to do so and be required to use the appropriate safety clothing and equipment.
Aluminium

Anodising

Cadmium compounds

Cadmium electro
plating

Chromium compounds

Chromium electro
plating

Copper

Copper plating

Cyanide(s), especially
sodium and potassium
cyanides

Electroplating, Case
hardening

Iron

Mercury and mercury


compounds

Electrodes, Amalgam
formation

WES -TWA: (metal dust and aluminium oxide) 10 mg/m3; (welding fumes) 5 mg/m3; (soluble salt and not otherwise classified) 2 mg/m3.
Effects of overexposure to dust may irritate nose and throat. Excessive inhalation of fumes may be severely damaging to respiratory
passages and/or lungs. Dust may form flammable and explosive mixture with air, especially when damp. Reacts with strong acids, caustics,
strong oxidizing agents.
Keep away from heat, sparks, flame. Avoid breathing dust.
WES -TWA as Cd : (inspirable dust) 0.01 mg/m3; (respirable dust) 0.002 mg/m3.
Chronically toxic leading to blood disorders and emphysema. Known human carcinogen.
Overexposure to vapors may cause irritation of mucous membranes, dryness of mouth and throat, headache, nausea and dizziness. Inhalation
may be harmful or fatal. Chronic effects of cadmium compounds from low level exposure in the air may cause irreversible lung injury,
kidney disease, and other adverse effects. Dust may irritate eyes. Cadmium compounds should NOT be flushed down the drain. Cadmium is
mobile in the environment and can be transferred to humans through the food chain.
WES -TWA as Cr: (compds of Cr0, CrII, CrIII) 0.5 mg /m3; (CrVI compds) 0.05 mg/m3.
Causes dermatitis, nasal irritation and skin ulcers. Known human carcinogen While the specific compounds cannot be identified, there is evidence that certain chromium compounds cause cancer in humans and
experimental animals. Chromium is widely distributed in air, water, soil and food. Trivalent chromium may be an essential trace ingredient
in the human diet and no specific data is available to link trivalent chromium to cancer.
Chromium is one of the environmentally undesirable heavy metals. CrVI compds, such as chromates and dichromates, are highly soluble
and therefore mobile in waterways. Avoid chromium compds entering stormwater drains and limit discharges to sewers since the chromium
ends up in the sludge which often is deposited in the landfill from where leachate can carry the heavy metals back into the waterways.
WES -TWA: (dust and mist) 1 mg/m3; (fumes) 0.2 mg/m3.
Dust may cause sneezing and coughing; and may irritate skin or eyes.
Prolonged exposure may cause dermatitis. Ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, gastrointestinal irritation.
Note: The substance exists as a solid mass; however, warnings are based on inhalation of dust, mist or fume emissions that are possible
during manufacturing or chemical reactions.
WES -TWA as CN: 5 mg/m3
Acute poison. Single dose as low as 50-100 mg could be fatal, eliminates respiratory function of the blood. Lower doses cause weakness,
headache, confusion, and occasionally nausea and vomiting.
Avoid putting cyanides down the drain. They are readily oxidised into harmless products, but in nature this process may be slow and the
cyanide could kill microbes and fauna. Therefore, destroy cyanides with chlorine bleach before discharge to waste.
WES -TWA as Fe: (metal oxide dust and fume) 5 mg/m3; (soluble salt) 1 mg/m3.
Some solutions are poisons; may be fatal if swallowed; causes burns harmful if swallowed.
Do not get in eyes, on skin, on clothing; avoid breathing vapour.
WES -TWA as Hg: (metal vapour) 0.05 mg/m3; (alkyls) 0.01 mg /m3; (aryls and inorganics) 0.1 mg /m3.
Affects the central nervous system. Causes tremors, neuropsychiatric effects, dental and renal problems.
Mercury is another of the undesirable heavy metals. Treat as for chromium compds, but even more stringently.

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Chemical compound
or reagent

Application

Health and Environmental Impacts


(WES - TWA = workplace exposure standard - time weighted average based on 8 hour exposure to airborne
contaminants)

Lead compounds

Paints, alloys

Nickel

Nickel plating

Silver compounds

Silver plating

Tin

Tin electro plating,


alloys, packaging

Zinc

Galvanising /
Electroplating

Alkalis - Sodium and


potassium hydroxide

Pre-treatment (eg. in
galvanising),
Neutralisations

Surfactants

Metal finishing

Hydrochloric acid

Pre-treatment (eg. in
galvanising)

Sulphuric acid

Pre-treatment (eg. in
galvanising)

WES -TWA: (inorganic dust and fume as Pb) 0.1 mg/m3; (as lead arsenate) 0.15 mg/m3; (lead chromate as Cr) 0.05 mg/m3.
Cumulative poison leading to severe blood disorders. Lead can cause serious, permanent kidney and brain damage at high enough levels;
particularly harmful to children retarding mental development. Lead compds are sources of another undesirable heavy metal. Lead is also a
probable tetratogen in humans; may decrease fertility in males and females. Treat as for chromium compds (see above).
WES -TWA as Ni: (metal, sulphide roasting, fume and dust) 1 mg/m3; (carbonyl) 0.12 mg/m3; (soluble salt) 0.1 mg/m3.
Nickel dusts and fumes can affect when breathed in.; Nickel is a carcinogen and may damage the developing fetus.
Cancers in humans are associated with Nickel refining; Skin contact may cause skin allergy, with itching, redness and later rash; Lung
allergy occasionally occurs with asthma-type effects; High exposure can cause cough, shortness of breath and fluid in the lungs, which is
sometimes delayed for 1 to 2 days after exposure.
The dust is a flammable solid and is a dangerous fire and explosion hazard.
Handle with extreme caution.
WES -TWA as Ag: (metal) 0.1 mg/m3; (soluble salt) 0.01 mg/m3.
Solutions are severe poisions; harmful if swallowed; causes burns, argyria, a blue-grey discoloration of the skin, internally and externally;
may lead to lung disorders.
Do not get in eyes, on skin, on clothing. Treat as for mercury compounds.
WES -TWA as Sn: (metal, oxide, inorganic compounds) 2 mg/m3; (organic compounds) 0.1 mg/m3.
Concentrated solution may be fatal if swallowed; effects of overexposure to vapors may be irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes;
inhalation of vapors may cause coughing, chest pains, difficulty breathing; or unconsciousness. Liquid may cause burns to skin and eyes;
ingestion may cause irritation and burning to mouth and stomach.
WES -TWA as Zn: (dust) 10 mg/m3; (oxide fume) 5 mg/m3; (chromates) 0.01 mg/m3.
Contact with skin or eyes or inhalation may cause irritation or burns; prolonged exposure may cause dermatitis.
Unusual fire & explosion hazards : dust reacts violently with water liberating and igniting hydrogen.
Note: The substance exists as a solid mass; however, warnings are based on inhalation of dust, mist or fume emissions that are possible
during manufacturing or chemical reactions.
WES -TWA - dust 2 mg/m3 - ceiling.
Very strong alkalis; highly corrosive towards organic materials, e.g., skin, even at moderate concentrations;
Should be washed down sinks or drains with plenty of water. Preferably it should be neutralised with dilute acid beforehand. (Local
authorities require waste water entering the sewer and the stormwater systems to have a pH in the range 6 - 10).
Industrial surfactants may cause skin and eye irritation on contact; nuisance foaming effects in waterways, tradewaste sewers; phosphatebased surfactants causes eutrophication in waterbodies.
WES -TWA - (fumes) 7.5 mg/m3 (5 ppm) - ceiling.
Inhalation of vapors may cause pulmonary edema, damage to upper respiratory system, collapse; corrosive liquid may cause severe burns to
skin and eyes; ingestion may cause nausea and vomiting and may be fatal. Acids reacts with a number of metals releasing hydrogen which
forms explosive mixture with air.
WES -TWA - 1 mg/m3.
Inhalation of vapors may cause severe irritation of the respiratory system; corrosive liquid may cause severe burns to skin and eyes;
ingestion may cause severe burns to mouth, throat, and stomach, may have adverse effect on kidney function and may be fatal; chronic
overexposure may result in lung damage. Dilute acids reacts with a number of metals, releasesing hydrogen which forms explosive mixture
with air. Concentrated acid also reacts with metals, releases sulphur oxide gases and reacts violently with water.

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Chemical compound
or reagent
Solvents
Acetone

Application

Health and Environmental Impacts


(WES - TWA = workplace exposure standard - time weighted average based on 8 hour exposure to airborne
contaminants)

Solvent cleaning
Vapour degreasing

WES -TWA: 1185 mg/m3 (500 ppm).


Effects on central nervous system; a human eye, skin and throat irritant; prolonged exposure causes heache; contact with skin has a defatting
effect, causing drying and irritation.
Highly flammable; dangerous when exposed to heat or flame or oxidisers; poses explosion hazard when vapour is exposed to flame.
WES -TWA: 3540 mg/m3 (1000 ppm) - for chlorodifluoromethane. 5260 mg/m3 (1000 ppm) - for trichlorofluoromethane.
Ozone layer depletion
WES -TWA: 174 mg/m3 (50 ppm).
Poison danger, causes irritation, harmful if absorbed through skin, may be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Carcinogenic. Produces hazardous
leachate. Inhalation may cause headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, narcosis, suffocation, lower blood pressure, central nervous system
depression. Eye contact may result in temporary corneal damage.
This material or its vapors in contact with flames or hot glowing surfaces may form corrosive acid fumes.
Exercise due care (avoid contact and keep away from heat, sparks, flame).
WES -TWA: 445 mg/m3 (150 ppm).
Drowsiness, irritation of respiratory tract, and loss of consciousness; contact with skin or eyes may cause irritation; prolonged exposure may
cause dermatitis; liquid may cause permanent eye damage; ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, gastrointestinal
irritation; Extremely flammable. Target organs - nasal septum, lungs; Routes of entry - inhalation, ingestion, eye contact, skin contact.
Highly flamable; keep away from heat, sparks, flame; avoid breathing vapor. In case of fire, use alcohol foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide
- water may be ineffective. Flush spill area with water spray.
WES -TWA: 205 mg/m3 (50 ppm).
Flammable, causes irritation, harmful if inhaled. Inhalation of excessive amounts of vapors may cause depression, dizziness, confusion or
collapse; liquid may cause dermatitis; target organs respiratory system, eyes, skin, central nervous system.
Strong oxidising agents.
Keep away from heat, sparks, flame. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, clothing. Avoid breathing vapor. Keep in tightly closed container. Use
with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after handling.
In case of fire, use alcohol foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide - water may be ineffective. Flush spill area with water spray.
WES -TWA: 335 mg/m3 (50 ppm).
Reported as causing cancer in laboratory animals; toxic by inhalation or swallowing; health and contact hazards; inhalation of vapors or
ingestion may cause headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, irritation, and loss of consciousness; prolonged skin contact may
result in dermatitis; eye contact may result in temporary corneal damage; chronic effects of overexposure may include damage to kidneys,
liver, lungs, blood, or central nervous system.
This material or its vapors in contact with flames or hot glowing surfaces may form corrosive acid fumes.
Keep away from heat, sparks, flame. Exercise due care.
WES -TWA: 188 mg/m3 (50 ppm).
Toxic, but less toxic than benzene. Short exposure causes headache nausea; long exposure to low levels causes impairment of co-ordination,
headache and aplastic anemia; and to high levels brain damage.
Inhalation and ingestion are harmful and may be fatal; liquid may be irritating to skin and eyes; prolonged skin contact may cause
dermatitis; eye contact may result in temporary corneal damage; chronic effects of overexposure may include kidney and/or liver damage.
Take due care.
WES -TWA: 680 mg/m3 (125 ppm).
Not seriously toxic at low levels, but is an ozone depleting substance (ODS), one of the many organochlorines which have this

Chloroflourocarbons

Refrigerant

Methylene chloride
(Dichloromethane)

Paint stripping agent,


metal degreasing
agent

Methyl ethyl ketone


(MEK)

Spray painting,
Solvent Cleaning,
Vapour degreasing

Methyl iso-butyl ketone


(MIBK)
( 4-methyl-2- pentanone)

Spray painting,
Solvent Cleaning
Vapour degreasing

Perchloroethylene
(Tetrachloroethylene)

Solvent Cleaning,
Vapour degreasing

Toluene

Spray painting,
Solvent Cleaning,
Vapour degreasing

1,1,1- Trichloroethane

Solvent Cleaning,
Vapour degreasing

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Appendices

Chemical compound
or reagent

Application

Trichloroethylene
(Trichloroethane)

Solvent Cleaning,
Vapour degreasing

Xylene

Solvent Cleaning,
Vapour degreasing,
Paint and adhesive
solvent

Health and Environmental Impacts


(WES - TWA = workplace exposure standard - time weighted average based on 8 hour exposure to airborne
contaminants)
undesirable property.
This organochlorine solvent on the list of banned ODSs. Alternatives, such as alcohols and ketones, should be used instead.
WES -TWA: 269 mg/m3 (50 ppm).
Reported as causing cancer in laboratory animals. Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Drowsiness, irritation of respiratory tract, and loss of
consciousness. Inhalation of vapors may cause pulmonary edema. Contact with skin or eyes may cause irritation. Prolonged exposure may
cause dermatitis. Ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting, headaches,dizziness,
Gastrointestinal irritation, central nervous system depression and hearing loss. Chronic effects of overexposure may include damage to
kidneys, liver, lungs, blood, or central nervous system.
In contact with flames or hot glowing surfaces may form corrosive acid fumes.
Exercise due care (avoid contact).
WES -TWA: 350 mg/m3 (80 ppm).
More acutely toxic than toluene. Causes blood disorders, aplastic anemia, stomach problems, disturbs the nervous system and damages the
heart, liver and kidneys.
Use in an extraction fume cupboard.

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Appendices

APPENDIX 3: Overview of new techniques for metal finishing processes


This appendix provides an overview of techniques that can be used to minimise waste produced by metal
product businesses.11


Institute for Applied Environmental Economics (TME), 1996
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APPENDIX 4: Contacts for further information


This appendix provides contact details of central and local government and organisation for further
information on cleaner production, legislation.
PROJECT PARTNERS AND PARTICIPATING ORGANISATIONS
David Murray
New Zealand Manufacturers Federation
PO Box 11543
WELLINGTON

Camille Astbury / Sophie Punte/ Nas Jabrani


Opus International Consultants
PO Box 12003 Wellington
Ph 04-4717000 / Fax 04-4717770
PO Box 5848 Auckland
Ph 09-3559500 / Fax 09-3559584
http://www.opus.co.nz

Viv Auty/Paul Forrest


Resource Recovery Unit
Wellington City Council
PO Box 2199
WELLINGTON

Mnistry for the Environment


PO Box 10362
Wellington
Ph: 04-4987400
Fax: 04-4710195
http://www.mfe.govt.nz

Christine Byrch
Waste Minimisation Officer
Christchurch City Council
PO Box 237
Christchurch

Greg Brown
Programme Manager
Water and Waste Water Treatment
ECNZ Marketing - Energy Services
PO Box 930
WELLINGTON

Tegan McIntyre
Environmental Projects Officer
Hamilton City Council
Private Bag 3010
HAMILTON

Patricia Blutner / Viv Heslop


Waste Minimisation Coordinator
Auckland Regional Council
Private Bag 68912
Newton
AUCKLAND

Kevin Stevens / Philip du Plooy


Water Care Services
Private Bag 92802
Auckland
David Bentham
Refuse and Recycling Officer
North Shore City Council
Private Bag 93500
Auckland

Rachel Bell
Mercury Energy
Private Bag 92008
AUCKLAND

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION AUTHORITY (EECA)


An independent government agency charged with determining and implementing practical measures for achieving greater energy
efficiency in New Zealand.
1st Floor, 177 Parnell Road, PO Box 37-444
Parnell, Auckland
Ph 09-3775328
Fax 09-3660531

Unit B, 52 Mandeville Street, PO Box 8562, Riccarton,


Christchurch
Ph 03-3431240
Fax 03-3431219

33 Bowen Street, PO Box 388


Wellington
Ph 04-4712200
Fax 04-4995330

View EECAs home page on the Worldwide Web:


hhtp://www.energywise.co.nz

ENERGY COMPANIES12
Alpine Energy Ltd, P O Box 530, TIMARU, 03 688 9079
Bay of Plenty Electricity Ltd, P O Box 404, WHAKATANE, 07
307 2700
Buller Electricity Ltd, P O Box 243, WESTPORT, 03 789 7219

Marlborough Electric Ltd, P O Box 144, BLENHEIM, 03 578


4039
Mercury Energy Ltd, P B 92008, AUCKLAND, 09 522 4499
Northpower Ltd, P B 9018, WHANGAREI, 09 430 1803


New Zealand Financial Press, 1996.
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Appendices

Central Electric Ltd, P O Box 275, ALEXANDRA, 03 448 7327


CentralPower Ltd, P B 11024, PALMERSTON NORTH, 06 351
0510
CHB Power Ltd, P O Box 59, WAIPUKURAU, 06 858 8100
CitiPower Ltd, P B 37, Nelson, 03 546 0238
Counties Power Ltd, P B 4, Pukekohe, AUCKLAND, 09 238
9139
Dunedin electricity Ltd, P O Box 1404, DUNEDIN, 03 474
0322
Eastland Electricity Ltd, P O Box 1048, GISBORNE, 06 867
9499
Egmont Electricity Ltd, P B 904, HAWERA, 06 278 7139
Electra Ltd, P O Box 244, LEVIN, 06 368 6119
Electricity Ashburton Ltd, P B 802, ASHBURTON, 03 308
4169
Electricity Invercargill Ltd, P O Box 88, INVERCARGILL, 03
214 9448
Electro Power Ltd, P O Box 440, PALMERSTON NORTH, 06
351 2800
Enerco Gas Auckland, P O Box 34, AUCKLAND,
Enerco Gas Central, P O Box 1447, PALMERSTON NORTH,
Enerco Gas East, P B 9003, HASTINGS,
Enerco Gas Wellington, P B 14-903, Kilbirnie, WELLINGTON,
Hawke's Bay Power Ltd, P O Box 555, HASTINGS, 06 878
7119
King Country Energy Ltd, P O Box 363, TAUMARUNUI, 07
895 8139
MainPower NZ Ltd, P B 1004, RANGIORA, 03 313 6069

Auckland Gas Company, P O Box 34, Auckland,


Bay of Plenty, P B, Mount Maunganui,
Dunedin City Gas Dept, P O Box 2292, Dunedin,
East Coast Supply Ltd, P B, Hastings,
Gas Direct, PB, Lower Hutt,
Gisborne Gas Co Ltd, P O Box 549, Gisborne,
Greymouth, P O Box 76, Greymouth
Hawera Gas Co Ltd, P O Box 60, Hawera
Invergas, P O Box 174, Invercargill
Levin Gas, P B, Levin
Lyttelton, P O Box 2108, Christchurch
Nelson, P O Box 844, Nelson

Otago Power Ltd, P O Box 109, BALCLUTHA, 03 418 1600


Power New Zealand, P B 93505, Takapuna, AUCKLAND, 09
486 7200
Powerco Ltd, P B, Wanganu, 06 345 4517
PowerNet Ltd, P O Box 1642, INVERCARGILL, 03 217 1876
Scanpower Ltd, P O Box 157, DANNEVIRKE, 06 374 8039
Southpower Ltd, P B 4999, CHRISTCHURCH, 03 363 9000
Taranaki Energy Ltd, P B, New Plymouth, 06 758 7669
Tasman Energy Ltd, P B, Nelson, 03 544 8099
Tauranga Electricity Ltd, P O Box 13305, Tauranga, 07 577
0650
The Power Company Ltd, P O Box 1748, Invercargill, 03 217
1876
Top Energy Ltd, P O Box 243, Kaikohe, 09 401 0325
TransAlta New Zealand Ltd, P B, Lower Hutt, 04 576 8700
TrustPower Ltd, PB 12023, TAURANGA, 07 574 4800
Waipa Power Ltd, P O Box 303, Te Awamutu, 07 871 7139
Wairarapa Electricity Ltd, P O Box 466, Masterton, 06 377
3773
Wairoa Power Ltd, P O Box 131, Wairoa, 06 838 7274
Waitaki Power Ltd, P O Box 345, Oamaru, 03 434 8000
Waitomo Energy Services, P O Box 281, Te Kuiti, 07 878
5699
WEL Energy Group Ltd, P O Box 925, HAMILTON, 07 838
1399
Westpower Ltd, P O Box 388, GREYMOUTH, 03 768 0242

GAS SUPPLIERS13
New Plymouth Energy, P B, New Plymouth
Northland, P B, Whangarei
Oamaru, P O Box 147, Oamaru
Otago, P O Box 1, Dunedin,
Palmerston North City Corp, P B, Palmerston North,
Raglan, P O Box 1, Ngaruawahia,
Southland, P O Box 1, Bluff,
Taranaki, P O Box 348, New Plymouth,
Timaru, P O Box 76, Timaru,
Wanganui Gas, P O Box 32, Wanganui
Wellington Gas Co Ltd, P B, Wellington
Whakatane, PB, Whakatane

 

Association of Consulting Engineers
Administration Office, Level 7, 108 The Terrace, PO Box 10 247 Wellington, New Zealand, CEO Enrico Vink
Ph: 64 4 472 1202 or 0800-500-100 toll free, Fax: 64 4 473 3814 , E-mail: service@acenz.co.nz , URL: http://www.acenz.org.nz/
Provides a database of all engineering and related consultants in New Zealand and directs client to appropriate expertise. ACENZ
can help you locate a consultant in your own area who can help you with your project or problem.
Building Research Association Of New Zealand (BRANZ)
The BRANZ advisory helpline : 0800 808085
Moonshine Road, Judgeford, Porirua City. Private Bag 50908, Porirua City, Ph 64 4 235 7600, Fax 64 4 235 6070, E-mail:
branzewb@branz.org.nz, URL: http://www.branz.org.nz/
BRANZ offers the building and construction industry in New Zealand and overseas access to an
extensive range of research, testing, consulting and information services covering the design,
construction, management and maintenance sectors of the industry. BRANZ Serivices cover durability of metals, coatings and
polymers and include advisory, appraisals, building controls, consulting, education, research and testing. Products and services are
funded by fees from those who use them and by the Building Research Levy.
Material and Quality Consultants Ltd
PO Box 20-311, Christchurch, Ph: 03 - 3586199 Fax: 03 - 3586499, E-mail: dennis.hills@xtra.co.nz
Speciality: Plastics and Rubber


New Zealand Financial Press, 1996.
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Appendices

Heavy Engineering Research Association (HERA)


Hera House, Gladding Place P.O.Box 76-134, Manukau City, New Zealand, Ph 09 262-2885, Fax: 09 262-2856
HERA is a non-profit research organisation serving metal-based industries in New Zealand. It is also national centre for
information about design, steel structures, welding, metal fabrication and industry capability.
Useful HERA publications for further contacts include directories of :
Heavy Engineering Companies; and
Consultants and Suppliers to the industry
New Zealand Non Destructive Testing Association (NDTA)
NDTA, P.O.Box 12241, Wellington, New Zealand
The Association was formed in 1977 and has a membership of NDT practitioners and users from a wide spectrum of industry. The
NDTA is a technical subgroup of the Institute of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ).
Materials Performance Group (MPT) of Industrial Research Limited
PO Box 31-310, Wellington, New Zealand, Attn: Peter Wilson, Ph: 04 5690027, Fax: 04 5690431, Email: p.wilson@irl.cri.nz,
URL: http://www.irl.cri.nz/
The group is part of Industrial Research Limited but has scientific and business linkages with sister organisations in the AsiaPacific region. MPT offers a range of specialised technological services to industry. Services: research, testing, development and
failure investigations. Materials: metals & alloys, plastics, rubbers, elastomers, composites.
Australasian Corrosion Association - Corrosion Prevention Centre
New Zealand Branch PO Box 5961 - Wellesley Street, Wellington, E-mail:corrprev@internex.net.au, URL: http://corrprev.org.au
The Australasian Corrosion Association is the Technical Society in Australasia for those involved in the technology and mitigation
of corrosion in any or all of its various forms. The Corrosion Prevention Centre, the Associations Headquarters, provides conducts
training courses, publishes the Corrosion.
Control Directory, has a number of publications for purchase, and provides a corrosion referral service. The Corrosion Control
Directory provides a list of manufacturers, suppliers and consultants serving the corrosion engineering profession. The aim is
enable engineers, architects, technicians and other prospective users of corrosion control products and services to quickly obtain
such information.
Institution Of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ)
Level 4, Molesworth House, 101 Molesworth Street, Wellington, PO Box 12 241, Wellington, Warwick Bishop, Chief Executive,
Ph: 04 4739444, Fax:
04 4732324 , E-mail: ipenz@ipenz.org.nz , URL: http://www.ipenz.org.nz/
Institution of Professional Engineers is New Zealand's foremost society for professional technical management, spanning all
engineering disciplines. IPENZ has technical groups in a number of specialised areas relevant to industry who could provide
referral service and useful advise.
The publications of IPENZ include:
New Zealand Engineering magazine, a commercial, monthly magazine.
Engineering papers on subjects of technical interest
Special projects examining specific issues
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
General Managers Office, Aurora House, 62 The Terrace, PO Box 3705 Wellington, Ph 04-4712937/ Fax 04-4990891
Other OSH branches are located throughout New Zealand.
A host of links to useful sites pertaining to health and safety can be found at the homepage of Occupational Safety & Health
Administration, U.S. Department of Labour. The Occupational Safety & Health Administrations site can be found at
http://spider.osha.gov/
New Zealand Business Directory
The New Zealand Business Directory is categorised listing of Business-related Web Sites of New Zealand Companies and
organisations who carry out business activities. No site will be listed until it is up and functional. The New Zealand Business
Directory is a Clearinghouse Approved Internet Guide. Listing is free of charge, but relies on voluntary enrolment. The site is
located at http://www.nzbd.co.nz/. The New Zealand Business Directory currently does not list email addresses. (Binary Brothers
currently run such a service at http://bitz.co.nz/bitz/email/)
Surface Coatings Association Australia Inc (SCAA).
PO. Box 6171, St. Kilda Road Central, Melbourne 3004, Australia. Ph:+61-3 9510 2643, Fax:+61 3 9529 6069, E-mail:
design@scaa.asn.au, URL: http://www.scaa.asn.au/
The SCAA is an internationally-recognised organisation which aims to further the understanding and development of surface
coatings in Australia. SCAA has members from such diverse fields as paint, printing ink, adhesives and cosmetics. Raw materials
suppliers and end users of these industries are also represented. Currently, SCAA has a membership of 1300 nationally as well as a
number of members from the Asia Pacific region.
Publications include:
Surface Coatings Australia
Raw Materials Index
Surface Coatings Textbook

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Appendices

New Zealand Manufacturers Federation


PO Box 11-543 Manners Street, Wellington. Ph 04-4733000, Fax 04-4733004.
The New Zealand Manufacturers Federation represents the interests of the New Zealand Manufacturers and consists of a number of
constituent industry groups such as Plastics Institute of New Zealand. The activities of the Federation include industrial relations,
newsletters, annual conferences, industry statistical analysis etc. The web site of the federation hosts information on other
constituent groups and links to related websites and news groups. The sitecan be located at http://www.manufacturers.org.nz/
Some Useful Links related to Manufacturing
MMLink
NZ
www.mmlink.org.nz

Manufacturers Info Net


USA
www.mginfo.com

World Class Manufacturing


Ireland www.iol.ie/~phough

Engineering Abstracts
USA
www.ei.org

International Journals
UK
www.mcb.co.uk

New Zealand Manufacturing related Newsgroups :


news://www.manufacturers.org.nz/exports.opportunities

news://www.manufacturers.org.nz/exports.engineering

news://www.manufacturers.org.nz/research.fundingsources

Plastics Institute of New Zealand (PINZ)


PINZ, PITO, PEAC, PFER, PO Box 76-378, Manukau, Level 4, Leyton House, Manukau Shopping Centre
Ph: 09-262-3773, Fax: 09-262-3850, Email: pinz@attmail.com
PINZ is a national industry group affiliated to the New Zealand Manufacturers Federation. The institute provides assistance for the
plastics industry and its people, through the implementation of industry training, communication and research programmes. The
Institute incorporates and/or sponsors :
The Plastics Environmental and Advisory Council (PEAC). (Environmental advice and direction for, and on behalf of, the
industry).
The Plastics Industry Training Organisation (Plastics ITO). (A separately incorporated ITO arranging industry training to meet
industry needs).
The Plastics Foundation for Environmental Research (PFER). (Funds research programme and applications directed at the
enhancement of waste management and conservation of plastics).
New Zealand Directory of Industry and Professional Associations
Publishing Solutions Limited, PO Box 983, Wellington, NZ, URL:http://www.pubsol.co.nz/
The directory is first published in 1997 and contains key information on occupational and industry incorporated societies by name
of the organisation, by industry and organisational classification, and by the publications they produce.
Central Laboratories
Hutt Park Road, Gracefield, PO Box 30-845, Lower Hutt, Ph: 04- 5683119, Fax: 04- 5683169, E-mail: Peter.Thorby@opus.co.nz,
URL:http://www.opus.co.nz
Chemical analysis

Noise, vibration, and air quality monitoring

Laboratory testing

LOCAL AUTHORITIES
Ashburton District Council PO Box 94 ASHBURTON Ph (03) 3085139/Fax (03) 3081836
Auckland City Council Private Bag 92607, Symonds Street, Auckland Ph: (09) 6250300/Fax: (09) 6256064
Auckland Regional Council Private Bag 68912, Newton ARC Wasteline: (0800)REDUCE (733823) Fax: (09) 3662155
Banks Peninsula District Council PO Box 4 LYTTELTON Ph (03) 3288065/Fax (03) 3288283
Buller District Council PO Box 21, Westport Ph: (03) 7897239/Fax: (03) 7897233
Canterbury Regional Council PO Box 345 CHRISTCHURCH Ph: (03) 3653828/Fax: (03) 3653194
Carterton District Council PO Box 9 Carterton Ph: (06) 3796626/Fax : (06) 3797832
Central Hawkes Bay District Council PO Box 127, Waipawa Ph (06) 8578060/Fax (06) 8577179
Central Otago District Council PO Box 122, Alexandra Ph: (03) 4486979/Fax: (03) 4489196
Christchurch City Council PO Box 237 CHRISTCHURCH Ph: 3791660/Fax 3711786
Clutha District Council PO Box 25, Balclutha Ph: (03) 4181350/Fax: (03) 4183185
Dunedin City Council PO Box 5045, Dunedin Ph: (03) 4774000/Fax: (03) 4743594
Environment Bay of Plenty PO Box 364, Whakatane Ph: (07) 3072545/Fax: (07) 3072544
Environment Waikato PO Box 4010, Hamilton East Ph: (07) 8567184/Fax: (07) 8560551
Far North District Council Private Bag 752, Kaikohe Ph: (09) 4012101/Fax: (09) 4012630
Franklin District Council Maukau Road Private Bag 5 Pukekohe Ph: (09) 2371300/Fax: (09 2383884
Gisborne District Council PO Box 747 Gisborne Ph (06) 8672049/Fax (06) 8678076
Gore District Council PO Box 8, Gore Ph: (03) 2089080/Fax: (03) 2089087
Grey District Council PO Box 382, Greymouth Ph: (03) 7681700/Fax: (03) 7681703
Hamilton City Council Private Bag 3010, Hamilton Ph: (07) 8386583/Fax: (07) 8386599
Hastings District Council Private Bag 9002, Hastings Ph (06) 8780500/Fax (06) 8780505
Hauraki District Council PO Box 17, Paeroa Ph: (07) 8628609/Fax: (07) 8628607
Hawkes Bay Regional Council Private Bag 6006, Napier Ph (06) 8353164/Fax (06) 8353601

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Horwhenua District Council Private Bag 4002, Levin Ph: (06) 3687189/Fax: (06) 3679212
Hurunui District Council PO Box 13 (Carters Road S H 1) AMBERLEY Ph (03) 31488 6/Fax (03) 314 9181
Hurunui District Council PO Box 13, Amberley Ph: (03) 3148816/Fax: (03) 3149181
Hutt City Council Private Bag 31912, Lower Hutt Ph: (04) 5706666/Fax: (04) 5691625
Invercargill City Council Private Bag 90104, Invercargill Ph: (03) 2181959/Fax: (03) 2144655
Kaikoura District Council P O Box 6 (34 Esplanade)KAIKOURA Ph (03) 3195026/Fax (03) 3195308
Kaipara District Council Private Bag 1001, Dargaville Ph: (09) 4397059/Fax: (09) 4396756
Kapiti Coast District Council Private Bag 601, Paraparaumu Ph: (04) 2985139/Fax: (04) 2972563
Kawerau District Council Private Bag, Kawerau Ph: (07) 3238779/Fax: (07) 3238072
Mackenzie District Council P O Box 52 (Main Street) FAIRLIE Ph (03) 6858514/Fax (03) 6858533
Manawatu Wanganui Regional Council Private Bag 11025, Palmerston North Ph:(06) 3579009/Fax:(06) 3567477
Manawatu District Council Private Bag 10001, Feilding Ph: (06) 3230000/Fax: (06) 3230822
Manukau City Council Private Bag 76917, Manukau City Ph: (09) 2628900 /Fax: (09) 2625169
Marlborough District Council PO Box 443 Blenheim Ph (03) 5785249/Fax (03) 5786866
Masterton District Council PO Box 444, Masterton Ph: (06) 3789666/Fax: (06) 3788400
Matamata-Piako District Council Mike Brook PO Box 266, Te Aroha Ph (07) 8848179/Fax (07) 8848865
Napier City Council Private Bag 6010, Napier Ph (06) 8357579/Fax (06) 8344155
Nelson City Council PO Box 645, Nelson Ph: (03) 5460271/Fax: (03) 5460239
New Plymouth District Council, Private Bag 2025, New Plymouth Ph: (06) 7596060/Fax: (06) 7596070
North Shore City Council Private Bag 93500, Takapuna Ph: (09) 4868613/Fax: (09) 4868510
Northland Regional Council, Private Bag 9021 Whangarei Ph: 09-438-4639/Fax: 09-438-0012
Opotiki District Council PO Box 44, Opotiki Ph: (07) 3156167/Fax: (07) 3157050
Otago Regional Council Private Bag 1954, Dunedin Ph: (03) 4740827/Fax: (03) 4790015
Otorohanga District Council PO Box 11, Otorohanga Ph: (07) 8738199/Fax: (07) 8737991
Palmerston North City Council Private Bag 11034, Palmerston North Ph: (06) 3568199/Fax: (06) 3552262 Papakura District
Council Private Bag 7, Papakura Ph: (09) 299 8870/Fax:(09) 2981906
Porirua City Council PO Box 50218, Porirua Ph: (04) 2371477/Fax: (04) 2371459
Queenstown Lakes District Council Private Bag 50072, Queenstown Ph: (03) 4427330/Fax: (03) 4427334 Rangitikei District
Council Private Bag 1102, Marton Ph: (06) 327 8174/Fax: (06) 3276970
Rotorua District Council Private Bag 3029, Rotorua Ph: (07) 3484199/Fax: (07) 3463143
Ruapehu District Council Private Bag 1001, Taumarunui Ph: (07) 8958188/Fax: (07) 8953256
Selwyn District Council Private Bag 1 (High Street) LEESTON Ph 3213859/Fax No: 3243531
South Waikato District Council Private Bag, Tokoroa Ph: (07) 8868109/Fax: (07) 8861718
South Wairarapa District Council PO Box 6, Martinborough Ph: (06) 3069611/Fax: (06) 3069373
South Taranaki District Council Private Bag 902, Hawera Ph: (06) 2788010/Fax: (06) 2788757
Southland Regional Council Private Bag 90116, Invercargill Ph: (03) 2156197/Fax: (03) 2158081
Southland District Council PO Box 903, Invercargill Ph: (03) 2187259/Fax: (03) 2189460
Stratford District Council PO Box 320, Stratford Ph: (06) 7656099/Fax: (06) 7657500
Taranaki Regional Council, Private Bag 713, Stratford Ph: (06) 7657127/Fax: (06) 7655097
Tararua District Council PO Box 115, Dannevirke Ph: (06) 3748068/Fax: (06) 3749121
Tasman District Council Private Bag 4, Richmond 7031 Ph: (03) 5448176/Fax: (03) 5447249
Taupo District Council Private Bag 2005, Taupo Ph: (07) 3779805/Fax: (07) 3780118
Tauranga District Council Private Bag, Tauranga Ph: (07) 5777216/Fax: (07) 5718917
Thames Coromandel District Council Private Bag, Thames Ph: (07) 8686025/Fax: (07) 8689027
Timaru District Council PO Box 522 TIMARU Ph (03) 6848199/Fax (03)6841225
Upper Hutt City Council Private Bag 907, Upper Hutt Ph: (04) 5288769/Fax: (04) 5282652
Waikato District Council Private Bag 544, Ngaruawahia Ph: (07) 8563199/Fax: (07) 8248091
Waimakariri District Council Private Bag 1005 RANGIORA Ph (03) 3136136/Fax (03) 3134432
Waimate District Council PO Box 122 WAIMATE Ph (03) 6898079 Fax (03) 6898075
Waipa District Council Private Bag 2402, Te Awamutu Ph: (07) 8717133/Fax: (07) 8714061
Wairoa District Council PO Box 54, Wairoa Ph (06) 8387309/Fax (06) 8799924
Waitaki District Council Private Bag 50058, Oamaru Ph: (03) 4348060/Fax: (03) 4348442

Waitomo District Council PO Box 404, Te Kuiti Ph: (07) 878 8801/Fax: (07) 8787771
Wanganui District Council PO Box 637, Wanganui Ph: (06) 345 8529/Fax: (06) 3453355
Wellington Regional Council PO Box 11646, Wellington Ph: (04) 3845708/Fax: (04) 3856960
Wellington City Council PO Box 2199, Wellington Ph: (04) 8013752/Fax: (04) 8013003
West Coast Regional Council PO Box 66, Greymouth Ph: (03) 7680566/Fax: (03) 7687133
Western Bay of Plenty District Council Private Bag 12803, Tauranga Ph:(07) 5718008/Fax:(07) 5779820
Westland District Council Private Bag 704, Hokitika Ph: (03) 7558321/Fax: (03) 7558026
Whakatane District Council Private Bag 1002, Whakatane Ph: (07) 3079800/Fax: (07) 3070718
Whangarei District Council Private Bag 9023 Whangarei Ph: 09-4384879

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

105

Appendices

APPENDIX 5: RECYLING IN NEW ZEALAND


This appendix provides contact details of recycling companies, organisations and operators for each New
Zealand region. Recycling information was provided by local authorities and obtained from the Yellow
Pages 1996/9714 and The New Zealand Recycling Directory 1996/1997.15

NORTHLAND REGION
Cardboard and Paper
Council Services, ph 09-4384879: monthly kerbside collection
in Whangarei City area, first refuse collection day of each month
Paper Reclaim, Riverside Drive, Whangarei ph 09-4389208
Metal
Tauraroa, Hikurangi, Uretiti, Kokopu, Ruatangata Transfer
Stations, aluminium cans.
North Industrial Recyclers, 22 Kaka St, Whangarei, 09-4386469,
scrap metal, metal drums
Kamo Scrap Metals, Granfield Place, Kamo, 09-4352488, scrap
metal, metal drums.
Paper Reclaim, Riverside Drive, Whangarei, 09-4389208, metal.
Provincial Industries, 34 Port Road, Whangarei, ph/fax 094383771, scrap metal, car bodies, aluminium & steel cans.
Kaikohe Recycling & Refuse Contractors Ltd 51 Ratkin Street,
Kaikohe, ph 025 909 584, 09-4011475.
Kaitaia Wrecking and Scap Metal, 138 North Rd, Kaitaia, ph
408 1937
Glass
Tauraroa, Hikurangi, Uretiti, Kokopu, Ruatangata Transfer
Stations.
Paper Reclaim, Riverside Drive, Whangarei, 09-4389208.

Garden Waste for Composting


Pohe Island Landfill, composting, free entry.
Oakura, Hikurangi and Uretiti Transfer Stations, drop-off for
organic waste.
Whangarei Compost, Whangarei Landfill, ph 09-4381011.
Other recyclables
Main drop off facility at Pohe Island Landfill, free entry.
Provincial Industries, 34 Port Road, Whangarei, ph/fax 094383771, sacks, rags, car bodies, batteries.
Kaitaia Recycle Station, Church Rd, Kaitaie, ph 4080982.
Dargaville Tidy Bins Ltd, 35 Beach Road, Dargaville
Ph: (09) 439 8768
Plastics
Paper reclaim, Riverside Drive, Whangarei, 09-4389208.
Provincial Industries, 34 Port Road, Whangarei, ph/fax 094383771.
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film

AUCKLAND REGION
Cardboard and Paper
Brite Way Recycling, Rangi Rd, Takni, ph 09-2662900.
Bintone Holdings Ltd, PO Box 12005 Penrose, ph 09-5710361,
paper only.
Carton Traders, ph 5798588.
Fernleigh Recyclers & Scrap Buyers, 114B Kitchener Road,
Waiuku, ph 07-2359472.
Mido International Co Ltd, 25a Flaxdale St Bdale, ph 09-483
2303.
Packaging Recyclers, 38 Bancroft Cre Glen Eden, ph 098187105.
Paper Chase, 33 Hugo Johnston Drive, Penrose, ph 09-5799756,
025-733994.
Paper Reclaim, ph 09-5710242.
Pukekohe Transfer Station, Nelson Street, Pukekohe, ph 072371300.
Shredders Paper Recyclers, PO Box 83234, Edmonton, ph 098367150.
WasteCare, 09-5250831.
Waste Management, 86 Lunn Ave MtWel, 09-5271300.
Packaging
Carton Traders, 09-5798588.
Kiwi Packaging, 09-2783139.
Packaging Recyclers, 09-8187105.

Solvents and Engine Oil


Dominion Oil, Pukemiro Street, Te Papapa, ph 0800-739839, oil.
ERS Recycling, ph 09-2782431, oil.
Refined Solvents, 42 Stonedon Drive, Etamki, ph 09-2740540,
solvents and oil.
Waste Oil Collections, ph-2786563, oil.
Ground Control Ltd, ph 828 9600, chemical solvents.
WasteOil Collections, ph 09-278 6563.
Some petrol stations accept small amount of waste oil. Small
amounts: Mobil Garage, cnr Massey and Manukau roads,
Pukekohe.
Glass
Edwards Enterprises Ltd 33, Keeling Rd, Henderson, ph 098387417, glass bottles for reuse.
Glass Recyclers of NZ Ltd, McNab St Penrose, ph 09-5255703.
King Brothers, ph 09-2989029.
Metro Waste, ph 09-3573531.
WasteCare, 09-5250831.
Fernleigh Recyclers & Scrap Buyers, 114b Kitchener Rd,
Waiuku, ph 07-2359472.
Pukekohe Transfer Station, Nelson Street, Pukekohe, ph 072371300.
For location or supply of other bins (Franklin District) please
contact Fernleigh Recyclers.


Telecom New Zealand, 1996.
Recycling Operators of New Zealand, 1996.
Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry
Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

106

Appendices

Shredders Paper Recyclers, 09-8367150.


Metal
All refuse transfer stations. Car bodies Lawries Road refuse
transfer station only, conditions apply. Refer Mason Contractors
(WW) Ltd, ph 09-4258567.
Glucina Smelters Ltd, 557 Rosebank Road Avondale, ph 098282530.
Hewes Metals, 12A Subway Rd, Puk, ph 09-2386989.
Fernleigh Recyclers & Scrap Buyers, 114B Kitchener Road,
Waiuku, ph 07-2359472.
Pukekohe Transfer Station, Nelson Street, Pukekoe, ph 072371300.
SJ Metals, 169 Manukau Rd, Pukekohe, ph 07-2383974.
Inmetals Trading, ph 09-5795127.
McCamish Metals, 370 Neilson St, Tpapa, ph 636 8628
Metal Smelters, 3 Sim Rd, Penrose, ph 09-5795518
Re-Useable Steel Ltd, 388 Church Street, Penrose, ph 095253595.
WasteCare, 09-5250831.
Aluminium & Steel Cans
Can Man Recyclers Ltd, cnr Walmsely Rd & Marjorie Jayne,
Cre Otahu, ph 09-2763755.
Comalco, ph 09-5730831, aluminium cans.
Controlled Air Systems, ph 09-3275084, aluminium cans.
Fernleigh Recyclers & Scrap Buyers, 114B Kitchener Road,
Waiuku, ph 07-2359472.
Pukekohe Transfer Station, Nelson Street, Pukekoe, ph 072371300.
Steel Can Recycling, ph 09-2623888.
Batteries
GNB New Zealand Ltd recycle plastic and lead components of
batteries in their New Zealand facilities. Collection agents
(usually vehicle service garage) are in most towns. Details for
Rodney District from Councils enquiries unit, ph 09-4265169.

Garden Waste for Composting


Garden Bins, 1/25 Sailfish Dve, Auckland West, ph 09-6304658.
Sunshine Gardin Bag Co, PO Box 12496 Penrose, ph 096346122.
The Living Earth Co Ltd, Captain Strings Road, Tpapa, ph 096221109.
Rodney District: Refuse Transfer Stations at Silverdale and
Snells Beach accept organic material for composting. For
reduced charges for compostable waste to apply, the waste must
be delivered separately from other general (non compostable)
rubbish, clean and uncontaminated.
Toner Cartridges & Printer Ribbons
Hewlett Packard, 09-3566600.
Sprint Supplier, 09-3766000.
Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
Advanced Plastics, ph 09-579 3968, grade 2-7.
Astron Plastics Ltd43 Cryers Rd Etamki, ph 09- 2742077, grades
2-7.
Conlon Plastics Recycling, 9 Culperry Rd Gdene, ph
09-8186105, grades 2,4,5 & 6.
Controlled Air Systems, ph 09-3275084, grades 1-7.
Nylex NZ, ph 09-2745149.
Petro Plastics, 09-8286022, grade 5.
Pukekohe Transfer Station, Nelson Street, Pukekohe, ph 072371300.
Shazavin Marketing, ph 09-5731042, grades 2,4,5.
Refer to list of plastic processors which is available from
Auckland Regional Council Regional Wasteline, ph 093662070.

WAIKATO REGION
Cardboard and Paper
IHC Crosbie Recycle, Leonard St, Waiuku, ph 07-2359363 or
Crosbic Rd, Kukekohe, ph 07-2387970.
Paper Chain, 24 -28 Bristol Place, Trapa, ph 07-8551833.
Wastecare Ltd, PO Box 5625, Fktn, ph 07-8473409.
Gracelands Recycling Plant, Paterangi Rd, Tamtu, ph 078718638.

Glass
Gracelands Recycling Plant, Paterangi Rd, Tamtu, ph 078718638.
Turangi Recycling Centre, 51 Patikura Place, Turangi, ph 073867548.
Wastech Environmental Services Ltd, 115 Woodlands Rd,
Opotiki, ph/fax: 07-3155184.

Metal
HRC Recycling Centre Ltd, 86 Sunshine Ave, Hamilton, ph 078499973.
Cableco Metal Industries Ltd, P O Box 9536, Hamilton, ph: 078477831

Oil
Wastech Environmental Services Ltd, 115 Woodlands Rd,
Opotiki, ph/fax: 07-3155184.

Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
Prunings and Garden Waste for Composting
Hamilton Organic Recycling Centre, PO Box 15148, Dinsdale,
ph/fax:07-8461514 / 025-744 476.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Cartridges and printer ribbons


Kiwi Refills, 4 Dunegan Place, ph 07-8460270.
Other recyclers
Ace Recycling, Sloss Rd, Tkroa, ph 07-8866642.
Carter Holt Harvey Plastic Products, Industrial Packaging,
Private Bag 3044, Hamilton, ph 07-8493999
Independent Recyclers, 3B Webb St, Huntley, ph 07-8286692.
Kaimahi Services Ltd, 3 Seddon St, Opure, ph 07-8786692.
Kiwi Recycling Ltd, 21 Fairview Tce, Paero, ph 07-8626126.
South Waikato Achievement Centre, PO Box 147, Tokoroa,
ph/fax: 07-8868941.
Textile Recycling Centre, PO Box 10444, Te Rapa, Hamilton, ph
07-8467158.

107

Appendices

BAY OF PLENTY REGION


Cardboard and Paper
Cardboard Bin Hire, Whakatane, ph 07-3084135, cardboard
only.
Paper Chain, PO Box 12689, Penrose, ph 07-5770098
(Tauranga).
Tauranga Recycling, 148 Birch Ave, ph 07-5786380.
Tauranga Recycling Centre, Cambridge Rd, ph 07-5718234.
Waste Management NZ Ltd, Ferguson Place Rorua, ph 073490222. 20 Cross Rd Tauranga, ph 07-5779440.
Waste Management Kerbside Collection, Whakatane, ph 073089190.
Metal (steel, copper, brass, lead)
Bay Metals Tauranga Ltd, 20 -22 Glasgow St, Tauranga ph 075783766.
Container Recyclers 1993, 22 Alach St Tauranga, ph 075782245.
Corbett Steel Scrap, Mirrielees Rd, Tauranga, ph 07-5782543.
Drums Ready, 22 Alach Street, Greerton, ph 07-5782245, metal
& plastic containers/drums.
Greanneys Wire Ropes Ltd, Maru St, Mt Manuganui, ph 075782543.
Industrial Traders Ltd, Rotorua 07-3486966, Whakatane 073089100, Tauranga 07-5756400.
J & M Recyclers, Depot 67 Maleme St, Greerton, ph 075413215, car bodies.
Metal Man Recyclers, 20 Waihi Rd, Tauranga, ph 07-5783500.
Tallyho Industries Ltd, 82 Tallyho Street, Rotorua, ph/fax 073482278.
Whakatane Recyclers, 34B Valley Road, Whakatane, ph 073070408.
Recycling Unit, Whakatane Landfill.
Aluminium & Steel Cans
Can Centre, 20-22 Glasgow Street, Tauranga, ph 07-5783766.
Inustrial Traders, Commerce Street, Whakatane, ph 07-3089100.
J & M Recyclers, Depot 67 Maleme St, Greerton, ph 075413215.
Metal Man Recyclers, 20 Waihi Rd, Tauranga, ph 07-5783500.

Oil
Repco, 32 Pyne Street, Whakatane, ph 07-3085338.
Some service stations that are in the Oil Recovery Scheme.
BP, Caltex, Shell, Mobil - please ask first.
Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
Drum Ready, 22 Alach Street, Greerton, ph 07-5782245, plastic
containers/drums.
Recycling Unit, Whakatane Landfill.
Huimai Trust, Galatea Road, Te Teko, ph 07-3228287.
Milk vendors, kerbside collection when purchasing milk.
Batteries
Metal Man Recyclers, 20 Waihi Rd, Tauranga, ph 07-5783500.
Glass
J & M Recyclers, Depot 67 Maleme St, Greerton, ph 075413215.
Waste Management Kerbside Collection, ph 07-3089190.
Recycling Unit, Whakatane Landfill.
Blue Bins Base , Ohope Hill, NW Carpark.
Tallyho Industries Ltd, 82 Tallyho Street, Rotorua, ph/fax 073482278.
Clothing
Child Cancer Bins, Base Mokorua Gorge, Orice Chopper carpark, Rear Briscoes, ph 025-952010, 07-8495106.
Salvation Army Thrif Shop, King Street, Kopeopeo, ph 073088231.
New Zealand Red Cross, King Street, Kopeopeo.
Community Handcrafts, King Street, Kopeopeo.
Other
Rotorua District Recycling Committee, C/-: RDC, PB 3029,
Rotorua, ph 07-3624755.

GISBORNE DISTRICT
Cardboard and Paper
Gisborne Paper Salvage, 203 Stanley Street, ph 06-8676209.
Metal Drums (must be clean)
Gisborne Bottle & Scrap Metal Recyclers, 265A Grey, ph 068677393.

Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
Gisborne Paper Salvage, 203 Stanley Street, ph 06-8676209.

HAWKES BAY REGION


Cardboard and Paper
Allbrites ph 843 3103 (also label backing paper)
Waste Management, ph 879 8400
Henderson Rd Recycling Depot - small amounts only
Metal Drums (must be clean)
Drum reconditioners - Boom Drum Distributors, ph 879 7480
Recycling
Industrial Scrap Crushers, Orchard Rd, Hastings, ph 878 5553

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Garden Waste for Composting


Redclyffe Transfer Station (Springfield Rd), Napier ph 844 4945.
Henderson Rd Transfer Station, Flaxmere ph 878 0570.
Agrow Products, Waitangi Rd, Awatoto, Napier ph 835 4033.
Oil
Small amounts - some BP, Mobil, Shell and Caltex stations,
Henderson Rd Recycling Depot.

108

Appendices

Metal Processors, 410 Victoria St, Hastings, ph 878 7059


Inmetals, Austin St Napier ph 843 7434 or Warren St Hastings
ph 878 8776
Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film

Promach Lubricants, Kelfield Place, Hastings, ph 879 7137


VJ Oil Distributors, Omahu Rd, Hastings, ph 876 5238
Sherwoods, Maraekakaho Rd, Hastings, ph 876 0166 (own
customers only)
Redclyffe Transfer Station, Springfield Rd, Napier
De Luxe Ford, Bridge St, Wairoa ph 838 8374
Recycling Depot
Henderson Rd Recycling Depot at Henderson Rd Transfer
Station, Flaxmere. All clean, sorted recyclable and reusable items
accepted for free.

Allbrites/HB Power Recycling, ph 843 3103 - phone to check


which plastics are collected
Waste Management ph 879 8400 - phone to check which plastics
are collected.
Number 1 & 2, Henderson Rd Recycling Depot
Ask supplier about take-back options.

TARANAKI REGION
Cardboard and Paper
Taranaki Recyclers, PO Box 865, New Plymouth
Farex Garbage Removers, P O Box 528, Hawera, ph 062788466.
Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
Oil
A&G Burroughs Ltd, PO Box 7076, Fitzroy, ph 06-7551296.

Metal
Taranaki Drum and Pallet Recycling, Te Arie Rd, New
Plymouth, ph 025-432812, ph 06-7583437.
Cableco Metal Industries Ltd, PO Box 30009, New Plymouth, ph
06-758 7444.
Ingrams Contracting Ltd, P O Box 390, Hawera, ph 06-2784786.
West Coast Scrap Metals, 136 Molesworth St, New Plymouth, ph
025-863250.
Other
Geange Enterprises, PO Box 16, Hawera, ph 06-2784319.
River City Recyclers, P O Box 354, Wanganui, ph 06-3447408.
The Textile Recycling Centre Ltd, P O Box 7005, St Johns,
Wanganui, ph 06-3438044.

Glass
Ingrams Contracting Ltd, P O Box 390, Hawera, ph 06-2784786

MANAWATU-WANGANUI REGION
Cardboard and Paper
Clean Green Wheelie Bins, PO Box 7, Otaki, ph 06-3646468.
Paper Reclaim NZFP Palmerston Nth Ltd, 8 Moa Street, ph 063592456.
River City Recyclers, 88 Gilbert Street, Wanganui, ph 063447408.
Omega Recyclers, 116 Napier Rd, Palmerston North, ph 063562344.

Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
River City Recyclers, 88 Gilbert Street, Wanganui, ph 063447408.

Metal
Major Metals, 416 Heads Road, Wanganui, ph 06-3445653,
025-432369, scrap metal.
River City Recyclers, 88 Gilbert Street, Wanganui, ph 063447408, scrap metal, aluminium cans.
Central District Drum & Pallet Recyclers, ph 025-433536, metal
drums, wooden pallets.

Glass
River City Recyclers, 88 Gilbert Street, Wanganui, ph 063447408.
Other
Evo Bins & Recyclers, PO Box 286, Levin, ph/fax 06-3670777.
Wastecare Ltd, P O Box 4144, Palmerston North, ph 063578278.

Oil
Thurline Transport, PO Box 38668, Petone, ph 04-5682185,
0800-732953.

WELLINGTON REGION
Cardboard and Paper
Masterton Recyclers, Masterton Landfill, Nursery Road,
Masterton, ph 04-3775624.
NZ Paper Recyclers, PO Box 2540, Wellington, 04-4997258.
Omega Recyclers, Wellington, ph 04-4720487.
Paper Chain, 142 Hutt Road, Gracefield, ph 04-5682000.

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Glass
C&G Thurston Ltd, PO Box 273, Paraparaumu, ph 04-2374406.
NZ Paper Recyclers, PO Box 2540, Wellington, 04-4997258.
WGR Enterprises Ltd, PO Box 38-105, Petone, ph 04-5685521.
Solvents and Oil

109

Appendices

Papex NZ Ltd, Unit 5/4 Glover Park, Nrnga, ph 04-4991199.


Waste Management NZ Ltd, cnr Bouvarie & Udy Streets,
Petone, ph 04-5693550.
WasteCare Ltd, ph 04-5683579.
Metal
AKB Ingot Metals, 5 Port Rd, Seaview, ph 04-5688300.
Drum Reconditioners - Southcorp NZ Ltd, Lower Hutt, ph 045683059.
Total Recycling Ltd, 148 Eastern Hutt Rd, Wellington, ph 045673400.
Wairarapa Scrap Metals Ltd, 99-105 Ngaumutawa Road, ph 063782196.
Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
NZ Paper Recyclers, PO Box 2540, Wellington, 04-4997258.
Masterton Recyclers, Masterton Landfill, Nursery Road,
Masterton, ph 04-3775624.
Aluminium and Steel Cans
NZ Paper Recyclers, PO Box 2540, Wellington, 04-4997258.
WGR Enterprises Ltd, PO Box 38-105, Petone, ph 04-5685521.

Dawson Oil Recyclers, PO Box 48094, Silverstream, Upper Hutt,


ph 04-5289909.
Masteron Recyclers, Masterton Landfill, Nursery Road,
Masterton, ph 04-3775624 (small amounts).
Refined Solvents (Wgtn) Ltd, 9 Gough St, Seaview, Hutt City,
ph/fax 04-5686559.
Thurline Transport Services Ltd, 190 Gracefiled Rd, Gracefield,
ph 04-5682185 / 0800-732953.
United Environment Ltd, PO Box 33024, Petone, ph/fax 045688622.
Building Materials
Home Improvers Building Recyclers, 274 Taranaki St,
Wellington, ph 04-3848332.
Ironman, Upper Hutt, ph 04-5268777, roofin iron, timber,
demolition.
Kapiti Building Recyclers Ltd, 300 Kapiti Rd, Param, 042972722.
No Name Building Recyclers, 102 adelaide Rd, Wellington, ph
3898889.
Renovators, 95 Cuba St, Petone, ph 04-5683381.
Other
GNB Technologies, P O Box 36026, Moera, Lower Hutt, ph 045684269 (lead acid and car batteries).
Onyx NZ Ltd, P O Box 33094, Petone, ph 04-4723140.
The Textile Recycling Centre Ltd, PO Box 51092, Tawa,
Wellington, ph 04-2357859.
Wairarapa Resource Recovery, Nursery road, Masterton, ph 043787609 (refrigerators and other whiteware).

TASMAN, NELSON & WESTCOAST


Cardboard and Paper
Nelson Cardboard Recycling, 62 Beatty St, Nelson, ph 035474064.

Oil
Bens Oil Ltd, 42 Quarantine Rd Stoke, ph 03-5473389.
Nelson Recycling Centre, Pascoe Street, Nelson, ph 03-5485760.

Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
Nelson Recycling Centre, Pascoe Street, Nelson, ph 035485760.

Metal
Bens Oil Ltd, 42 Quarantine Rd Stoke, ph 03-5473389, metal
drums.
Nelson Recycling Centre, Pascoe Street, Nelson, ph 03-5485760.
Other
Kemble Trading Company, 75 Beatty St, Stoke, ph 03-5477347.

Building Materials
Hill and J Demolition, ph 03-5479466

MARLBOROUGH DISTRICT
Cardboard and Paper
Marlborough Recycling, PO Box 752, Blenheim, ph/fax 035782146.
Glass
Marlborough Recycling, PO Box 752, Blenheim, ph/fax 035782146.

Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film

CANTERBURY REGION
Cardboard and Paper
Paper Chain, Christchurch, ph 03-3484924.
Coleridge Paper Company, Christchurch, ph 03-3667713.
Paper Collection Services, Christchurch, ph 03-3433116.
Southern Recycler Ltd, 242 Annex Rd, Mdltn, ph 03-3390389
Southern Recycling, Timaru, ph 03-6882524

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Organic Waste
CCC Composting Plants, ph 03-3849347, 025-377997.
CCC Recycling transfer stations, ph 03-3711383
Garden Waste Recyclers, 31 King Street, ph 03-3139119.
Glass
Alexanders, Christchurch, ph 03-3553290.

110

Appendices

Metal
McIvor Metal Industries Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3385045.
Graeme Trillo Metals, Christchurch, ph 03-3483205.
Sims Pacific Metals Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3844059.
South Island Metal Recoveries Ltd, 615 Halswell Junction, Isltn,
ph 03-3492780.
Timaru Metal Recycling, Timaru, ph 6844701
Graeme Sargent Metals, Timaru, ph 03-6882675
Waste Management NZ Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3480619.
Whylie TE & Co Ltd, 6 -8 Maunsell St, Wistn, ph 03-3897370

NZ Express Transport Chch Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3845800.


Southern Cross Bottle Exchange, Christchurch, ph 03-3665634.
Southern Grain Spirits NZ Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3276389.

Aluminium and Steel Cans


Cash for Cans, Christchurch, ph 03-3844059.
Canterberry Plastics Recycling, ph 03-3843442.
Fletchers Alunimum Can Recycling, PO Box 9241, Addtn, ph
03-3657426.

Toner Cartridges
Corporate Consumables, Christchurch, ph 03-3655060.
NZ Toner Cartridge Co, Christchurch, ph 03-3666515.
Ribbon Processors, Christchurch, ph 03-3582371.
Ribbon Xchange, Christchurch, ph 03-3793687.

Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film
Astron Plastics Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3494400.
Canterbury Plastics Recycling, Christchurch, ph 03-3843442.
Controlled Air Systems, Christchurch, ph 03-3275084.

Other
Fatman (1991) Limited, Kaiapoi, ph 03-3275323 (fats and
cooking oils).
Textile Recycling Centre Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3495896
(textiles).
Corporate Consumables, ph 03-3655060 (toner cartridges).
Ashburton Recycling, 2 Watson Street, Ashburton, ph 033085759.
Musgrove Bros Ltd, 199 Wigram Rd, ph 03-3227922 (building
materials).

Solvents and Oil


Industrial Engineers Ltd (Glydol Oil Co), Christchurch, ph 033841763, oil.
Resource Oil Ltd, Christchurch, ph 03-3845435, oil.
Solvent Rescue Ltd, 37C Coleridge St, Sydhm, ph 03-3665018,
solvents.

OTAGO & SOUTHLAND REGION


Cardboard and Paper
Chingford Industries, 343 North Road, Dunedin, ph 034730444.
Otago Paper Recyclers Ltd, 59 Willis St, Dunedin, ph 034770491.
Southland Cardboard Recycling, 70 Ariki Avenue, Otatara, ph
03-2189475.
Envirowaste Services Ltd, 33 Wickliffe Rd, Dunedin, ph 034777722

Plastics
Types of Plastics - look on bottom of container for recycling
triangle with number inside, or ask your supplier.
1 PET - fizzy drink bottles
2 HDPE milk bottles, many opaque containers
4 LDPE some bags and plastic film

Metal
Sims Pacific Metals, 5 Wharf Street, Dunedin, ph 03-4770427.
Gore Bottleyard, PO Box 254, Gore, ph: (03) 2087316
(aluminium cans).
Palmers Scrap Metal, 277 Bond Street, Invercargill, ph 032182231.
Otago Metal Industries, 33 Brighton Road, Green Island,
Dunedin, ph 03-4884555.
Everitt Enterprises Ltd, 42 Wilkie Rd, South Dunedin, ph 034552739

Glass
Glass Collection Service, 41 Brighton Rd, ph 03-4882334.
Gore Bottleyard, PO Box 254, Gore, ph: (03) 2087316.
Envirowaste Services Ltd, 33 Wickliffe Rd, Dunedin, ph 034777722

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Oil
Otago Oil, 510 Kaikorai Valley Road, Duedin, ph/fax 034884317.

Building waste
Dunedin Demolition Suppliers, 39 Ward Street, Dunedin, ph 034775603
Eastwood Recycled Building Supplys, 71 Maclaggan St,
Dunedin, ph 03-4775696

111

Appendices

APPENDIX 6: Hazardous waste disposal facilities in New Zealand


Company
name

Location

Phone
number

Contact

Services provided

ChemWaste
Industries NZ
Ltd

OnehungaAuckland

09-6346777
09-6346778

Jafar Davari,
Wayne Plummerr

Dunstan
Sprayers

Dunstan

03-488 8239

Ian Davis Sharon


Davis

restaurant/kitchen grease traps


rural septic tanks
timber treatment chemicals
oil/oily waters
cess pits, industrial and road side
electroplating acids/alkalis
surplus chemical reagents
waste paints/solvents
Mixed agrichemicals: DDT/DDE,
345-T, organonitrogen pesticides,
organophosphorus pesticides

Fuel
Refiners/
Resource Oil

Christchurch

03 384 0316

Ian Berry

Collex Waste
Management
Waste Care

Christchurch

03-318 8424

Ken Muscroft
Taylor

Stores in 50000 gallon locked,


sealed concrete tank until used.
Sprayers will pay disposers when
chemical used
May do these in future - waiting for
machine from Australia

hydrocarbon
contaminated soils/sludges
Acide/corrosives

Encapsulate then landfill $1.60/litre

Mixed agrichemicals: DDT/DDE,


245T, organonitrogen pesticides,
organophosphorus pesticides

Wellington

Brian Daly

04-472 3140

Auckland

David Taylor

09-571 1400

Collector of commercial and industrial waste. All treatment done by United

Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

112

Prefer chemicals to
be delivered to him.
May collect from
areas in Otago if in
the area.
Possible ethylene
glycol from air
conditioning units
possible treatment of
PCP, PCB in future.

5c/litre if required for pH adjustment


in tank
Not at present
Hydraulic oil free if in drums
Waste oil sump drainage 15c/litre
Is contracted to Canterbury Regional
Council to dispose of agrichemicals.
Investigates disposal
options/potential users of chemicals

Hydrocarbon contaminated
soils/sludges
PCB contaminated soils and sludges
Acids/corrosives
CFCs
Others
Collector and transporter only. All treatment via United Environmental

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry

Proposed
services

Company has following capabilities:


on-site waste treatmen experience
site remediation expertise
recycling and recovery initiatives
waste minimisation techniques
environmental auditing skills

Mixed agrichemicals: DDT/DDE,


345-T, organonitrogen pesticides,
organophosphorus pesticides

CFCs
Others
Agriculture
New Zealand

Transport
costs

Liquid collection
truck $120/hour

Appendices

Company
name

Location

Phone
number

Contact

Dominion Oil
Refining Co

Auckland

Robert
Brooker

0800-803 645

Milburn
Cement

Westport

Chris White

03-789 7259

Perry Waste
Services

Hamilton

Peter Higgs

07-829 9936

Medichem
Waste
Services

PakurangaAuckland

Graham
Vinsen

09-273 1998

Chemical
Freight

Christchurch

Barry Thorpe

03-343 0656

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Services provided

Transport
costs

Proposed
services

10c-12c/litre, usually paid by


supplier of oil.

Included in 1012c/litre cost, may be


higher for distant
areas

Proposed new
collection coordinated by oil
companies and
Milburn. Paid for by
the oil company
supplying the oil.

Waste oil used as fuel for cement


kiln - collected from depots and
sites around South Island
Hydrocarbon contaminated
soils/sludges - bioremdiated

12c/litre, may vary with region.

Mixed agrichemicals: DDT/DDE,


245T, organonitrogen pesticides,
organophosphorus pesticides

Storage or recycling to other users


provide lined crates $5/week, 1m,
for storage

No transport charge oil companies


provide subsidy.
Can arrange
transport, using
carrier. If large
enough site, may be
cheaper to set up
bioremediation on
site, or liaise with
council to set up
specialist landfill
site.
$230/tonne ChchAuck.

Hydrocarbon contaminated
soils/sludges
PCB contaminated soils and sludges
Acids/corrosives

Storage as above

Environmental
All waste oil into communal pool,
except for large batches (eg:
250,000 litres per year NZ Refining
Co. hydraulic oil) processed
separately.

CFCs
Others
Dangerous goods storage facility
only.

113

$79.50 per tonne, plus $600 for


laboratory analysis prior to disposal.

Storage as above
Dispose of via United Waste
Management or Waste Management
NZ Ltd
Future

PCPs, PAHs future


treatment likely, eg:
old gas works sites.
Thermal desorption,
vaporises
hydrocarbons.
Proposed mobile
machine for use any
location - $100-$150
per tonne.
Future treatment of
agrichemicals,
hydrocarbon
sludges, PCB
contaminated
sludges, PCB
contaminated
sludges, CFCs,
currently under
investigation.

$300/tonne DunedinAuck
Wilders Transport

Appendices

Company
name
Services
Limited
Mainfreight
Transport
Limited

United
Environmenta
l

Location

Phone
number

Contact

Services provided

Christchurch

Jenny Hay

03-348 4059

$90 for one 200 litre drum


$299 per tonne Dunedin to
Auckland

Auckland and
Wellington

Steve Pople

09-274 7963

Transport of hazardous substances worst case organic peroxides,


oxidising agents, explosives. Cost
dependent on volume, weight,
composition, where packed.
Chemical stabilisation,
neutralisation, precipitation,
encapsulation

Mixed agrichemicals: DDT/DDE,


245T, organonitrogen pesticides,
organophosphorus pesticides
Hydrocarbon contaminated
soils/sludges
Acids/corrosives

No

CFCs

BJ Dakin and
Co Ltd

Christchurch

03-384 9888

Jennifer Leadley

Others
Chemical stabilsation of wastes
followed by landfill disposal

Industrial wastes - septic tanks,


grease, timber treatment,
electroplating chemicals
Mixed agrichemicals: DDT/DDE,
245T, organonitrogen pesticides,
organophosphorus pesticides

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

114

Transport
costs

Proposed
services

Some transport
provided by United,
or use any transport
firm licensed for
dangerous goods, eg:
Mainfreight,
Chemfreight.

$100/tonne
12c-30c/litre depending on
neutraliser required. Chrome VI
40c-60c/litre
50c/litre (200litres) = $105 per 200
litres
75c/litre (20 litres) = $16 per 20
litres
No radioactives or explosives.
Otago office 0800
882020 transfers
chemicals via bulk
liquid tanker, cost
added to treatment
cost. Mainfreight etc
can be used for
smaller volumes.
70c per litre upwards depending on
waste type and treatment required.
No

Appendices

Company
name

Location

Phone
number

Contact

Services provided
Hydrocarbon contaminated
soils/sludges

PCB contaminated soils and sludges


Acids/corrosives

Refined
Solvents

Wellington

04-568 6559

Bill Evason

Medical
Waste Otago
Limited

Dunedin

03-479 0045
03-479 0028
(fax)

Royce Rivers

Otago Waste
Disposal
Limited

Dunedin

03 477 6325

Alan Fleming

CI:Cs
Others
Distillation and blending of solvent
based chemicals - paints, inks,
chlorinated solvents, thinners

Incineration of medical waste.


No incineration of agrichemicals,
hydrocarbon sludges, PCB
contaminated soils and sludges,
acids, corrosive chemicals or CFCs.
No treatment done in Dunedin, all
transported to Christchurch to
Resource Oil or Solvenr Refiners.
Costs quoted include transport and
GST.
Waste Oil

Solvents
Bilge Waste
Black oil/burning oil
Hydrocarbon contaminated
soils/sludges
Others
Maxwell
Brothers

Dunedin

03-488 3059

Cleaner Production Guide for the Metal Product Industry


Minimising waste, reducing costs and caring for the environment

Transport
costs

Proposed
services

Some - up to a few tonnes. Price


dependent on concentration and
time of year (temperature etc affects
treatment time required)
No
Depends on heavy metal
concentration. Chromic acid $1.20$1.80 per litre. Depends on the
chrome level and concentration of
metals. H2SO4 approx 80c per litre.

25c/litre to remove solvent predisposal. This varies for the type of


wast e and process involved.

$17 per drum (200


litre) to Wellington
from South Island
$25 per drum return
to South Island from
Wellington

15c-25c/litre. 15c if just to collect


oil, 25c+ if tanks need to be cleaned
etc.
90c/litre
22c/litre
50c/litre
$2/kg
Up to $2.50 per litre depending on
contaminant and treatment required.

Transportation only, do not usually


transport hazardous chemicals.

115

Appendices

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