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UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOG
P ETRONAS

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEPTEM BER 2012 SEM ESTER

COURSE :

CCB2053 MASS TRANSFER DESIGN

DATE
TIME

29th DECEMBER 2012 (SATURDAY)

:
:

9.00 AM

12.00 NOON (3 HOURS)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1.
2.
3.
4.

Answer ALL questions from the Questions Booklet.


Begin EACH answer on a new page in the Answer Booklet.
lndicate clearly answers that are cancelled, if any.
Where applicable, show clearly steps taken in arriving at the solutions and indicate

ALL assumptions.

5.
6.

Do not open this Question Booklet until instructed.


Engineering Data Formulae Booklet is provided.

Note :

There are ELEVEN (11) pages in this Question Booklet including the cover
page and Appendix.

Universiti

Teknologi

PETRONAS

CCB 2053
1.

a.

Explain TWO (2') types

of mass transfer and gives TWO (2)

examples for each type of mass transfer.


[4 marks]

b.

Ammonia (NHs) gas is diffused through a layer of nitrogen (N2) gas

at 298 K and 1 atm pressure. The partial pressure of ammonia at


one point is 0.133 atm and at the other point 20 mm away it is
0.066 atm. The diffusivity of the mixture is 2.30 x 10-5 m2ls.

Calculate the flux of NH3 in kgmol/s,m2 with non-diffusing

Nz

at one boundary.
[4 marks]

ii.

Repeat part (i) assuming Nz also diffuses and the flux


eq

is

uimolar cou nterdiffusion.


[3 marks]

iii.

Based on the mass flux obtained in part (i) and (ii), which
conditions give the highest flux? Explain your answer.
[3 marks]

CCB 2053

FIGURE Q1 shows an adiabatic equilibrium flash separator which

c.

indicates all variables in each stream.

F
zi
TF

Pf

xi
TL

P,

FIGURE Q1: Adibatic Equilibrium Flash Separator


Compute the degrees of freedom using the Gibbs phase rule.
[3 marks]
il

What variables might be specified

to solve the above

problem?
[3 marks]

ccB2053

a.

Give THREE (3) reasons why an economic tradeoff exists between the
number of trays and the reflux ratio.
[3 marks]

b.

A continuous distillation column operating at 1 atm is to be designed for


separating an ethanol-water mixture. The feed is 20 mol% ethanol and the
feed flow rate is 1000 kgmol/h of saturated liquid. A distillate composition

of 80 mol% ethanol and bottoms composition of not more than 2 mol%


ethanol is desired. The reflux ratio is 5/3. Equilibrium data for ethanolwater system at 1 atm are given in TABLE e3.

TABLE Q3: Equilibrium data of ethanol in ethanol-water system


Temperature

Molpercent of

Molpercent of

("c)

ethanol in the liquid

ethanol in the gas

phase, x

phase, y

100.0

0.00

0,00

95,5

1.90

17.00

89.0

7.21

38,91

86.7

9.66

43.75

84

16.6't

50.89

82.7

23.37

54.45

82.3

26.08

55.80

80.7

39.65

61.22

79.7

51.98

65.99

78.7

67.63

73.85

78.1

89.43

89.43

78.3

100.00

100.00

ccB2053

i.

calculate the amount of distillate and bottom products in kgmol/h.


[4 marks]

ii.

By using the graphical McCab-e-Thiele method,

determinethe

number of theoretical stages required.


[6 marks]

iii.

Estimate the minimum reflux ratio.


[3 marks]

iv.

lf the feed condition changes to saturated vapour condition, discuss

the differences in the number of theoretical stages.


[4 marks]

CCB 2053

Using a suitable diagram, show the operating line for minimum liquid

a.

flow of absorption process and the operating line for minimum gas
flow of a stripping process. Justify your answers.
[4 marks]

A packed tower 4,0 m tall is used to absorb ethyl alcohol from an

b.

inert gas by 90 kgmol/h of pure water at 303K and 101.3 kPa. The

total gas stream flowrate of 100 kgmol/h contains 2.a moP/o alcohot
and the exit concentration is 0.20 mol%. The equilibrium relation is

i.

mx : 0.68x for this dilute stream.


Calculate the mol fraction of ethyl alcohol in the ext liquid.
[4 marks]

Using the analytical equations, calculate the


theoretical trays,

ill

y'/.

Determine the HETP for the above absorption proess.


[4 marks]

tv.

Show the relationship between the number of theoretical


trays obtained n part (ii) and the number of transfer unit
obtained in part (iii) by using suitable graphical explanation.
[4 marks]

CCB 2053
4.

ln

general, extraction

s preferred

over distillation

for

certain

applications.

Define the liquid-liquid extraction process and its importance

over distillation,
[2 marks]

i.

state TWo (2) requirements for liquid-liquid extraction to be


feasible.
[2 marks]

b.

An aqueous feed of 200 kg/h containing 25 wt% acetic acid is being


extracted by pure isopropyl ether at the rate of 600 kg/h in a
counter-current multistage system. The exit acid concentration in
the aqueous phase is to contain 3 wt% acetic acid. The riquid-riquid
equilibrium data at 25oC and 1 atm are presented in TABLE e4.

TABLE Q4: Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid (A)- water

(W)- isoproppyl ether (E) system at2SoC and 1 atm.


Water layer

lsopropyl ether layer

wt%(A)

wt%(W)

wt%(E)

98.9

1.2

0.69

98.1

1.41

wt%(A) wt%(W) wt%(E)

1.2

0
0.18

0.6
0.5

99.3

97.1

1.5

0.37

0.7

98.9

2.89

95.5

1.6

0.8

98.4

6.42

91.7

1,9

0.79
1.93

1.0

97.1

13.30

84.4

2.3

4.82

1.9

93.3

25.50

71.1

3.4

3.9

84.7

36.70

58.9

4.4

6.9

71.5

45.30

45.1

9.6

46.40

37.1

16.5

11.40
21.60
31.10
36.20

10.8
15.1

99.4

58.1
48.7

&

CCB 2053
5.

A continuous countercurrent multistage system is to be used to leach oil


from a meal by benzene solvent. The process is to treat 2000 kg/h of an
inert solid meal (B) containing 800 kg oil (A) and also 50 kg benzene (c),

The inert flow per hour in the fresh solvent mixture contains 1310 kg
benzene and 20 kg oil. The leached solids are to contain ea kg oil. The
leaching process is in the condition of constant underflow of
N = 1.85 kg solid/kg solution.

a.

Plot the equilibrium data on a Ponchon-savarit diagram using the


graph paper provided.
[4 marks]

b.

usng the graph in part (a), determine the weight fraction of


leaving the stream.

or, yy

[4 marks]

c.

calculate the amount of underflow slurry, L, trd in the ovelow, v,


leaving the stream.

d.

Determine the number of stages required for the process.

-END OF PAPER-

CCB 2053

APPENDIX

Constants

Conversion factors

Gas constants, R;

T(K) = tf C) + Zts
1 atm = 760 torr = 101325 Pa

= 8314 m3Pa /kg 'K'mol


= 83.145 cm3 barlK.mol

l bar = 1OsPa = 0.9869 atm


1 liter = 1 dm3= 1O0O cm3

= 82.055 cm3 atm/K.mol

Equatons:
1. General diffusion and convection

No:

"=

Jo

-cD*+.9o(*^+trr)
azc
D

ulP n' - p 'l)


RT(r, - ,,)

Flux for equimolarcounter diffusion

2. Stagnant, non-diffusing B (total pressure constant)

DnuP
r
" --ln
RT(2,-Zt) P-p,qt

tY .,

3. Rectifying operating line:

.R
l'-_-r+_
'

R+l

4. Rayleigh:

'idL: ln L'

xD

Jr

R+l

,-_t-

d*
f'
r ^=y-x
L2
J,

5. Absorption material balance: (constant molar flow)


v ( -z'): t(
{f +-)*
- -.,-l .' l+,-l
l- r,0, (l-!o,)
[l-r,,J lt- y,,)
6. KremserEquation

nl

: I

lt t- "?u--)rls ADSorPIlon
Absorption ractor i
-'re ris
)lwhere
Y, ntr,
-

InA

10

A,

: :t-

ffirV r,,

CCB 2053

t'oc _
-

^/

ln{l(t -l) t All0,,, - kx,,y(y,,,, - kxi,)l+ (t l)}

7. Extraction:

Fraction of a solute, i, absorb

"O:

ffi

8. Fuller equation:
lo'r'trs(l lMrrllM)'')

/r _
u..18-ffi

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