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PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT

CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION

1.1 DEFINATION OF ROBOT


A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical
machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.

1.2 PIPE INSPECTION


In the world, millions of miles of pipeline carrying everything from water to crude oil.
The pipe is vulnerable to attack by internal and external corrosion, cracking, third party
damage and manufacturing flaws. If pipeline carrying water springs a leak bursts, it can
be a problem but it usually doesn't harm the environment. However, if a petroleum or
chemical pipeline leaks, it can be a environmental disaster.
When a pipeline is built, inspection personnel may use visual, X-ray, magnetic particle,
ultrasonic and other inspection methods to evaluate the welds and ensure that they are of
high quality. These inspections are performed as the pipeline is being constructed so
gaining access the inspection area is not a problem. In some sections of pipeline are left
above ground like but in most areas they get buried. Once the pipe is buried, it is
undesirable to dig it up for any reason.

1.3 GENERAL FAILURE OF PIPE


1.3.1 Scaling of pipe:
In most cases, pipe scale is the material that builds up on the inside of pipes. This
material makes the inner area of the pipe smaller, which will either decrease the volume
or increase the pressure of the liquid flowing through the system. In addition, this makes
machinery based on flowing water work harder to gain the amount of liquid they need.

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Pipe scale is also the term used to describe the musical resonance of a specific pipe on a
pipe organ.
Pipe scale mostly consists of minerals present in the liquid flowing through the pipe. In
water, this generally means calcium and magnesium. As water flows, small irregularities
in the pipe's surface will catch impurities. These impurities will continue to catch on
these rough spots, causing them to grow. This is similar to how the formations in caves
are made, just much faster.
The buildup of pipe scale has several direct impacts on the liquid in the pipe. As the inner
surface of the pipe becomes smaller, the liquid must change its flow patterns to
compensate. If the system allows for quantity variations, the volume of water transferred
by the system will begin to decrease. If the system transfers a set volume of liquid, then
the pressure and speed will build up in the pipe. This could cause problems if there are
weak or leaky joints in the system.

1.3.2 Corrosion of pipe:


Pipes used to distribute drinking water are made of plastic, concrete, or metal (e.g., steel,
galvanized steel, ductile iron, copper, or aluminum). Plastic and concrete pipes tend to be
resistant to corrosion. Metal pipe corrosion is a continuous and variable process of ion
release from the pipe into the water. Under certain environmental conditions, metal pipes
can become corroded based on the properties of the pipe, the soil surrounding the pipe,
the water properties, and stray electric currents. When metal pipe corrosion occurs, it is a
result of the electrochemical electron exchange resulting from the differential galvanic
properties between metals, the ionic influences of solutions, aquatic buffering, or the
solution pH.

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1.3.3 Cracking in pipe:
Low alloy steel welded pipes buried in the ground were sent for failure analysis
investigation. Failure of steel pipes was not caused by tensile ductile overload but
resulted from low ductility fracture in the area of the weld, which also contains multiple
intergranular secondary cracks. The failure is most probably attributed to intergranular
cracking initiating from the outer surface in the weld heat affected zone and propagated
through the wall thickness. Random surface cracks or folds were found around the pipe.
In some cases cracks are emanating from the tip of these discontinuities.

1.4 PIPE LINE INSPECTION ROBOT


This is a robot which inspects the pipe line inner surface by travelling through pipe and
does visual video inspection and providing the surface inspection to the user or inspector
who can obtain the result easily at outside of the pipeline.

1.5 OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT


1.5.1 Monitoring of inner surface:
The robot must easily inspect the inner surface of the pipe line without any trouble and
gives proper live images to the inspector.

1.5.2 Low cost with high quality:


It must have a low cost with effective functions and high durability with high quality.

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1.5.2 Unskilled labor:
For general inspection no need of skilled person. An unskilled labor cal easily inspects
the pipe.

1.5.3 All inspection points with maximum efficiency:


It can inspect the pipe with maximum accuracy with high grade result.

1.5.4 Easy for transport:


It must be easy for traveling purpose with zero damage.

1.5.5 90 0 turn & sufficiently work against gravity:


It must take turn in 90 0 bend (elbow) and it must work against the gravity not fully
vertical but at least inclined position up to 450.

1.5.6 Mumbai water pipe lines, our robot can locate the exact location where the
crack is present:
This is our main objective of our project. It will be explain in next chapter PROBLEM
DEFINITION

1.6 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we discussed about just of our project topic & its definition and objectives
of our project.
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CHAPTER 02
PROBLEM DEFINITION

2.1 MUMBAI WATER PIPE LINES


Mumbai! The city of 1.5 crore people.
The water supply to Mumbai from various sources is about 563 million gallons per day
(MGD). The monsoon precipitation is collected in six lakes and supplied to the city
through the year. 460 MGD are treated at the Bhandup Water Treatment Plant, the largest
in Asia. The BMC manages to supply between 70 and 75% of the city's water needs.
The water distribution system in Bombay is about 100 years old. Water is brought into
the city from the lakes after treatment, and stored in 23 service reservoirs. Since two of
the major sources, Tansa and Lower Vaitarna, are at a higher level than the city, not
much power is required to pump the water.
The service reservoirs are mainly situated on hills. Some of them are located at Malabar
Hill, Worli Hill, Raoli, Pali Hill, Malad, Powai and Bhandup. Timings of water supply to
different parts of the city vary between 2 and 5 hours.

2.2NEED
2.2.1 Water pipe lines in MUMBAI:
The pipeline from main source has diameter about 3 to 4 meters after that it has
branches to supply water in different areas.
The big diameters pipelines are easily inspected by manually inspection. But
small diameter pipes which are in branches which has diameter up to 25 inch
which is critical to inspect.
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Most of the branches of pipelined are situated parallel to the gutter lines and most
of them are in buried into the earth.
Almost all pipelines are 25 years old and its life is almost affected because of
continuous digging the road, gutter lines and buildings construction.
If crack present in the pipelines which results the gutter drainage water mixed
with drinking water which affects our health.
Also there is a scaling and corrosion because of long year services.
If any problem occurred with pipeline results the decrease in pressure of water
and to obtain the previous supply of water to maintain the force of water BMC dig
the whole path of pipe line & then repair the crack or replace which is more
costly.
It means waste on money and time hence it is too difficult though it is small
diameter pipe line.

2.2.2 Boiler steam carrying pipe lines:


In MIDC areas most of small scale industries uses the boiler.
Boiler is the most sensitive part which must be inspected periodically
During the inspection of steam carrying pipe line they uses outer source which is
increased in maintenance cost.
If they neglect the inspection of steam carrying pipe lines then it results in major
accidents.

2.3 OUR OBJECTIVES RELATED WITH PROBLEM DEFINITION


Design a robot in that way which can easily inspect the water pipelines and trace
out the location where crack is present.
Advantage
In current method they dig whole pipe line which is too costly as
discussed in earlier chapter but due to our pipe inspection robot

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they can easily trace problem and dig the pipe where actual
problem occurs.
This can saves lot of time and money of BMC.
It must directly give the live images to the inspector to its device and its control
must be easy.
Advantage
Unskilled labor can easily inspect and can generate the report
quickly
No need of high skilled engineers
The robot can easily inspect the boiler steam carrying pipe lines..
Advantage
No need to small scale industries to use outsource
Saves money of industries
Pipe inspection robot can be used for general purpose.
o Ex. In Case of central ac plant duct inspection
Advantage
This robot can be easily used for general purpose where the use of
pipe is present.
We will try to provide different sensors for general inspection. Ex.
Temperature sensor poisons gas sensor, moisture quantity
measurement sensor.

2.4 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we highlighted problem definition and try to bold our solution and clarify
the path of our aims related with project.
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CHAPTER 03
LITERATURE SURVEY

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Pipeline video inspection' is a form of telepresence used to visually inspect the
interiors of pipelines. A common application is to determine the condition of small
diameter sewer lines and household connection pipes.
Older sewer lines of small diameter, typically 6-inch (150 mm), are made by the
union of a number of short 3 feet (0.91 m) sections. The pipe segments may be made
of cast iron, with 12 feet (3.7 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) sections, but are more often made
of vitrified clay pipe (VCP), a ceramic material, in 3 feet (0.91 m), 4 feet (1.2 m) & 6 feet
(1.8 m) sections. Each iron or clay segment will have an enlargement (a "bell") on one
end to receive the end of the adjacent segment. Roots from trees and vegetation may
work into the joins between segments and can be forceful enough to break open a larger
opening in terra cotta or corroded cast iron. Eventually a root ball will form that will
impede the flow and this may cleaned out by a cutter mechanism and subsequently
inhibited by use of a chemical foam - a rooticide.
With modern video equipment the interior of the pipe may be inspected - this is a
form of non-destructive testing. A small diameter collector pipe will typically have a
cleanout access at the far end and will be several hundred feet long, terminating at
a manhole. Additional collector pipes may discharge at this manhole and a pipe (perhaps
of larger diameter) will carry the effluent to the next manhole, and so forth to a pump
station or treatment plant.

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3.2 TYPES OF INSPECTION PROCESS


3.2.1 Camera tractor:
A run to be inspected will either start from an access pipe leading at an angle
down to the sewer and then run downstream to a manhole, or will run between
manholes.
The service truck is parked above the access point of the pipe. The camera tractor,
with a flexible cable attached to the rear, is then lowered into the pipeline. The
tractor is moved forward so that it is barely inside of the pipeline.
A "down-hole roller" is set up between the camera tractor and the cable reel in
the service truck, preventing cable damage from rubbing the top of the pipeline.
The operator then retires to the inside of the truck and begins the inspection,
remotely operating the camera tractor from the truck.
When the inspection is complete or the camera cable is fully extended, the camera
tractor is put in reverse gear and the cable is wound up simultaneously.
When the camera tractor is near the original access point, the down hole roller is
pulled up and the camera tractor is moved into the access point and pulled up to
the service truck.
A tractor may be used to inspect a complete blockage or collapse that would
prevent using a fish and rope as described below.
Pulling the camera backwards
For small diameter pipes there may not be enough room for the tractor
mechanism. Instead, a somewhat rigid "fish" is pushed through the pipe and
attached to a rope at the access point near the truck. The fish is then pulled to
place the rope along the pipe. The rope is then used to pull the inspection pig and
cable through the pipe. Detaching the rope, the cable is then used to pull the pig
backwards as the pipe is inspected on the monitor (this is the method shown in the
illustrations below).

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3.2.2 Analysis of video footage:
Much of the analysis of what was viewed in the pipeline is conducted at the time
of the inspection by the camera operator, but the entire inspection is always
recorded and saved for review.
Using software you can easily record digital video and simplify the analysis
process, here are some samples of different applications available on the market:
The early detection and identification of cracks, leakage points, blockages or intrusions
allows for the adequate repair or replacement of pipeline to be undertaken.
With pipeline infrastructure ageing, the urban sprawl widening and the population
growing, demand is continually increasing on our water and sewer mains.
The development of teleinspection technology equipment has opened up a new world for
the maintenance, repair, replacement and construction of pipelines, allowing greater
consultation ahead of any excavation work.
Teleinspection technology allows pipe inspection without any digging, allowing
inspectors to save the unnecessary cost of excavation around a pipe which might still be
in a robust and safe condition and not in need of replacement or even repair.
Major developments and improvements over the years in the design of equipment now
allows for improved results when determining the most appropriate method or product
equipment to be used to complete any scheduled work
Robotic CCTV crawlers, pushrod portable systems, laser profiling and sonar profiling are
just some of the inspection technology systems now being utilized during regular
inspection of water and sewer mains. These systems allow for comprehensive
information on the condition of the underground infrastructure to be collated, allowing a
planned maintenance program to be developed.
CCTV robotic crawlers/tractors and pushrod manual systems allow for condition
reporting and surveying of an asset, giving early warning of failures and allowing for
economical repair under no-crisis conditions.

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CCTV is used in a variety of methods. The camera is placed in the pipeline and is either
winched through or self propelled. Crawlers are electronically powered, with the power
supply for the camera coming from a connection at the rear. The picture and control
signals are transferred to a monitor control centre managed by an operator working to
detect and determine what condition work or repairs are recommended.

3.2.3 Robotic crawlers:


Robotic crawlers first appeared in the 1950s and the 1990s saw the coming of the age of
this equipment in Australia. A greater range of products and equipment now allows
inspections to be completed in areas once deemed inaccessible, providing vision that
could previously not be seen in small, large or restrictive locations.
Specialist robotic crawling tractor systems are now produced to inspect pipes ranging
from 100 mm up to larger pipes in excess of 2 m in diameter.
Crawlers systems can be fitted with a fixed forward view camera head, a pan & tilt
camera head, or even a zoom pan & tilt camera head fitted with laser for crack width
measurement detection. Some crawlers are fitted with an elevator lift to allow greater
camera height and vision while working in a larger size pipe. Others are steerable to give
directional control if working in larger pipes or box culvert pipe.
Recent developments have led to the introduction of lateral inspection systems, with the
system entering the service connection line from the main using remote control functions
and allowing vision from a pan & tilt camera head. Lateral inspection systems can be
deployed in 150 mm mainline pipe upwards. Introduction of the camera into laterals is
aided by a motorised driven guide device and monitoring camera.
The new 3D Optoscanner, Panoramo, is the latest inspection system to be released to the
Australian market, capturing images of the pipeline and its condition through the use of
two high resolution digital photo cameras. The two 186 wide-angled camera lenses are
integrated in the front and rear section of the housing. Pipes are inspected at a speed of 35
cm (14 inches) per second.
During inspection, xenon flashing lights are triggered at the same position in the pipe.
The hemispherical pictures are scanned together to form 360 spherical images. During

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the scanning process, which is possible in both forward and reverse direction, the data is
transferred digitally to the inspection vehicle and is immediately available to the operator
for orientation purposes and to locate any obstructions.
The data is stored in the form of film and removable onto hard disks or DVDs as storage
media. This unique method of inspection captures a complete inspection of the pipe
surface allowing you to rotate and also pan & tilt the camera image at any position in the
pipe whilst reviewing the data film.
An unfolded 2D view of the inner pipe surface allows rapid viewing of the pipe condition
and permits computer-aided measurement of the position and size of objects. For further
analysis and

3.2.4 Laser profiling:


The ability to detect and measure changes in pipe shape or bore clearance, be it due to
deformation, siltation, corrosion or erosion, is difficult at the best of times, especially
when using conventional CCTV camera systems.
This is further exasperated by the fact that the video footage produced by the camera is
without calibration or a reference point from which to take accurate measurements of any
kind it is all guesswork.
Any conventional CCTV survey thereby runs the risk of missing subtle, but relevant,
changes in the pipes shape as observations are dependent on the keenness of the
operators eye.
Rigid pipes, such as vitrified clay, present less of a problem as these tend to crack or
collapse rather than deform and the results are rather obvious. However, even in
circumstances where deformation is obvious it can still be difficult to determine the exact
extent of the deformation or if the deformation has got worse over time.
To address this problem, recent advances in pipeline inspection technology have seen the
refinement and development of state-of-the-art profiling systems that have enabled the
range of applications and degree of accuracy of traditional survey delivery systems to be
enhanced dramatically.

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These new systems are all geared towards the elimination of human error, increased
reliability of technology and, ultimately, accuracy of information.
Laser profiling incorporates cutting edge, split laser technology that allows for pipe
profiling to be carried out under normal light conditions. This means that profiling and
conventional CCTV imaging can be carried out in tandem without interfering with the
quality of the survey results.
The laser profiler allows you accurately determination of amount of damage contained
within a pipe asset. The attachment shows the actual shape of the pipe while the software
can predetermine the correct pipe shape and calculate the difference between the two.
The aim of projecting a bright line onto the internal pipe wall is to define a plane on the
video image where measurements on the image can be translated in the real dimensions
of objects observed through the camera.
The system is calibrated by using two fixed points with a known separation on the radial
light plane, established with small marker pins that are illuminated by the laser light.
These act as calibration points on the video image to identify the scale of the image
where it is illuminated by the red laser light. The laser intensity is sufficient to make the
generated red line on the pipe bright enough to see clearly on the video image under
normal light conditions. Calibrating the video image allows measurement to be carried
out after the video has been recorded and does not slow the rate at which the video can be
recorded.
The software measurement tools provide the ability to accurately determine the amount
of flow loss caused by a wide variety of pipe faults. Combining the laser profiler and the
measurement tools makes obtaining the actual degradation of the pipe a reality.
Analysing this data determines whether pipe refurbishment is necessary.

3.2.5 Sonar pipe profiling:


The sonar system was specifically designed for the inspection of submerged and semisubmerged pipelines. It uses high resolution/short range sonar and only works
underwater. The system itself is capable of inspecting pipelines from 225 mm in diameter
to conduits in excess of 5 m in diameter.

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The head of the sonar, its transducer, looks sideways at right angles to the direction of the
motion through the pipe, resulting in a cross sectional view of the pipe in real time.
As the speed of inspection is critical for the longitudinal resolution, the general guideline
for the speed of inspection is approximately 100 mm per second. The sonar uses a color
display to indicate the type of surface the sonar is sweeping, denoted by red for a hard
surface and blue for a softer surface.
As with the CCTV system, the method of propulsion would either be self propelled or
floated, dependent upon known circumstances in the pipeline or the size of the pipe. If
heavy silt is expected then pipelines above 600 mm would be surveyed by floating the
sonar along the crown of the pipe.
If the pipeline were less than 600 mm then either the self-propelled or winch assisted selfpropelled method would be used. The level of deformation and/or silt levels can easily
and accurately be measured by the site software.

3.2.6 Visual:
The visual portion of the inspection consists of observing visible features and
cracks that indicate potential distress.
This inspection requires experienced staff to know which cracks are normal and
which are indicative of a problem. It also requires a thorough understanding of the
width and length of cracks that are normally produced during the production of
pipe as opposed to those that might indicate lack of prestressing, or distress, in the
pipe.
The visual inspection will also include an examination of the joints as well as the
width of joints or the amount of pull the pipeline was subjected to in order to
maintain line and grade. All anomalies will be noted with the distance and
location from known features. In many instances closure pieces, adapters, shorts,
and other specials are inserted in pipelines to make station on outlets and other
tie-in features.

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3.3 ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING PIPE INSPECTION ROBOTS


Although there have been many robots designed for the purpose of pipe
inspection, most of these focus on operation in empty pipes and do not take into account
the effects of pressurized fluid on the motion and stability of the robot. Existing pipe
inspection robots can be categorized by their different locomotion methods: wheeled,
inchworm, snake and legged.
3.3.1 Wheeled Robots
Wheeled robots are widely used in this application due to their simple design and
control methodologies, energy efficiency.The simplest of these behave similar to regular
wheeled vehicles in that they rely on their own weight to maintain contact between their
wheels and the pipe wall.
Although these robots have no theoretical upper limit on the diameter of pipe they
can navigate, they can only travel through horizontal or near horizontal pipe networks,
with limitations on the maximum incline that they can traverse. Such robots would not be
able to navigate vertical pipe sections and would not be capable of operating in pipes
with high rates of fluid flow as they would be swept away. In order to overcome these
problems, some wheeled pipe inspection robots have attempted to use an active method
of attracting the wheels to the pipe wall.
Although the design of both these robots means that they are not restricted by pipe
diameter, their use of magnets limits their operational environment to those which are
constructed primarily of ferrous materials. Other wheeled pipe inspection robots operate
by pressing their wheels against the pipe surface through passive means (e.g. springs), or
active means (e.g. linear Actuators), or a combination of both.
Although these robots each have distinctive designs, they all follow the same
general principle of pushing their wheels against the pipe wall and using them to propel
down the pipe. Of particular note is Explorer, a segmented robot that is used for the
inspection of gas pipelines. Unlike other pipe robots, Explorer was designed to operate in
pressurised, active gas pipes. Each segment of the robot is designed to protect the internal

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workings from the high pressure inside the pipe and the shape of the robot is designed to
provide minimum resistance to the flow of gas .Despite their mechanical simplicity, the
efficiency of wheeled robots whilst climbing is not optimal, as the force used to push the
wheels against the pipe wall acts against the actuators trying to drive the wheels.
3.3.2 Inchworm Robots
Inchworm-type robots, like wheeled robots, are relatively simple to control and
allow the robot to navigate the various features inside the pipe
Each of these robots uses a vibration source as the main driving force, coupled
with a passive mechanical system pressing against the pipe wall. The simple nature of
these robots means that they are easy to control and usually have very few parts, but are
incapable of navigating junctions. Other inchworm robots have used an active method of
pressing against the pipe wall. Although they are more complex than their passive
variants, they have more control over their movement and can more easily change
direction.
These robots all use a form of linear actuation for propulsion, coupled with full
control over the extension and retraction of their limbs, which allows them to easily move
forwards and backwards along the pipe. Examples of such robots have been demonstrated
to navigate straight Pipe sections and bends. Unlike wheeled robots, inchworm robots
cannot continuously move forwards, but rather move forward in steps, which can make
them slower than their wheeled counterparts. However, they are likely to be more
efficient during climbing as the force pushing the robots feet against the pipe wall acts
perpendicular to the robots direction of motion and thus does not hinder it.
3.3.3 Snake and Legged Robots
Snake and legged robots both have many degrees of freedom, which permit them
a wide range of different motions. However, these results in robots using more actuators
and having more complex control systems than those found in robots using other
locomotion types.

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These capable of navigating bends and junctions in a pipe. Similarly, snake robots used
for pipe inspection can be seen. These robots consist of several modules connected
together using actuated joints.
Movement is primarily achieved through the use of travelling wave locomotion.
The serial nature of both these locomotion types means that they require high power
actuators and have limited payload capacity .The nature of travelling wave locomotion in
snake robots can make it difficult for sensors to take stable readings of their environment
.As pipelines are generally uniform and structured environments, the complexity of
legged and snake robots may not be required for this application, especially since robots
with simpler locomotion methods have demonstrated their ability to navigate the various
features in pipelines.

3.4 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we discussed about the different technology used for pipe inspection &
different types of robot used in pipe inspection.

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CHAPTER 04
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT

4.1 MECHANICAL WORKING PRINCIPLE


Refer given figure
Note: Here we decide about only one set of links. In project there are 3 set of links
situated at an interval of 120 0. Also there is a similar part which is connected by
plate joint.
4.1.1DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PARTS:
4.1.1.1 Wheel:
Wheels are used for the purpose for to run travel the whole mechanism.

4.1.1.2Motor:
Motor is used for them to give motion to the wheel and to open and close the robot
position to adjust the self position according to inner diameter of pipe.
There are total 8 motors. Out of which 6 motors are used for to travel the
mechanism and remaining two motors are used for to maintain open and closed position
with the help of screw.

4.1.1.3 Screw or shaft:


Screw or shaft is run by motor and collar is mounted on it and it works as a nut.

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4.1.1.4 Collar no 1:
Collar is moves horizontally as shown in figure and link no 1 is welded on it.

4.1.1.5 Link no 1
This one part of the mechanism and it welded to the collar as shown in figure and it
moves with collar in horizontal position. It joins with link no 2. The joint is not fixed. It
is movable for the purpose of open and close motion.

4.1.1.6 Link no 2
This is one part of the mechanism which joints between link no 1 & 3.

4.1.1.7 Link no 3
This is one part of the mechanism which is supported by the link no 2 & 4. This is
important link because motor and wheel are mounted on it as shown in figure.

4.1.1.8 Link no 4
This is fixing link on collar no 2 by welding. During motion transfer it is in fixed
position. It supports to the link no 3.

4.1.1.9 Collar no 2:
This is only used for to support the screw and link no 4

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4.1.1.10 Round ring:
Round ring is used for to support C channel, collar no 2 and link no 4. It also supports
to the motor.

4.1.1 .11 C channel


C channel is important part because it supports almost whole assembly. The purpose of
this is to make a connection between second similar part of the assembly.

4.1.1.12 Plate joint:


It works a knuckle joint to join two parts.

4.1.1.13 Nut bolts joints:


Nut bolted joints are used in to make a joint between links.

4.1.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ROBOT (MECHANICAL)


1. Consider first the robot is totally in closed position means it has minimum pipe
diameter inspection range.
2. When we insert it in pipe for the purpose of inspection then by rotating motor
which is fixed in C channel we adjust the pipe inner diameter surface range.
3. At that time when motor rotates the collar no 1 works as a nut and it moves
horizontally as shown in figure.
4. When it moves that time link 1 also moves it results link 2 & 3 moves or change
its original position.
5. When link 1 moves horizontally the motion transfers to the link 2 which is in
between link 1 & 3.
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6. The movement of link 2 causes the movement of link 3 up or down as motion
direction of collar.
7. If collar moves towards right link 3 go up and vice versa.
8. The wheel and motor are mounted at the end of the link no 3. When this motor
runs it causes the forward or reverse motion of robot.
9. The electrical system is provided to run the motors and camera with LED lights,
temperature sensor and poisons gas sensor.
10. Camera or cam system provided live pictures to the inspector.
11. Temperature sensor give live reading of temperature present inside the pipe and
gas sensor measures the PPM of pipe inside air.

4.2 ELECTRICAL WORKING PRINCIPLE


4.2.1 DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS PARTS:
1. Microcontroller 89s51
2. Relays
3. Analog to digital converter
4. DC motor
5. Battery
6. Transistor
7. Transformer
8. LCD
9. Crystal

4.2.2 WORKING PRINCIPAL OF ROBOT (ELECTRICAL)


1. 12 volts dc reduction gear motor
2. In front vga camera
3. Two sensors: gas sensor(MQ6), Temperature sensor/Thermistor (ntc)

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4. Sensors output will go to ADC (analog to digital convertor). ADC gives data to
microcontroller 89s51. Controller through serial cables will give data to computer.
5. computers trigger signal will be received by controller
6. Controller will give output to relay contactor.
7. Controller output is logic signal. Logic signal is received by transistor (namenpnvc 549) .signal is amplified and relay coil is magnetized.
8. Relay is electro mechanical switch. First relay is closed motor will move forward.
if second relay is close it will move reverse.
9. power supplyA. For power supply
B. Two lead acid battery. Battery output goes to filter capacitor than to voltage
regulator.
C. Battery output of 12v is converted to 5v. as voltage requirement for adc and
microcontroller is 5v.
D. Through regulator 5v is given to microcontroller and batteries 12v to motor
through relay.
E. We have LCD display to see the incoming outgoing data.
F. Temperature and gas value will be displayed in LCD.
10. Crystal clock: To execute the program in microcontroller.
11. IC 7414 is used to give signal to ADC. Thereby analog signal is converted to
digital.

4.3 CONCLUSION
Here we learned the different parts of robot their construction and working principal.

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CHAPTER 05
DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

5.1 MICROCONTROLLER 89S51


5.1.1 Description:
The AT89S51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller
with 4K bytes of In System Programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured
using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the
industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the
program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile
memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with In-System Programmable
Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S51 is a powerful microcontroller which
provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control
applications.
The AT89S51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash, 128
bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, two 16-bit
timer/counters, a Five-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, onchip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S51 is designed with static logic
for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving
modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial
port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the
RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next
external interrupt or hardware reset.
5.1.2 Features:
Compatible with MCS-51 Products
4K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles

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4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
Three-level Program Memory Lock
128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Two 16-bit Timer/Counters
Six Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Power-off Flag
Fast Programming Time
Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option

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5.1.3 Pin diagram:

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5.1.4 Block diagram

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5.1.5 Pin Description:

5.1.5.1 VCC
Supply voltage.

5.1.5.2GND
Ground.

5.1.5.3 Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink
eight TTL
Inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs.
Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during
accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.
Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes
during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.

5.1.5.4 Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers
can
Sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by
the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally
being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also
receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

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5.1.5.5 Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers
can
sink/ source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by
the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally
being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits
the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during
accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this
application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to
external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents
of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and
some control signals during Flash programming and verification.

5.1.5.6 Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers
can
sink/ source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by
the interPort Pin Alternate Functions
P1.5 MOSI (used for In-System Programming)
P1.6 MISO (used for In-System Programming)
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P1.7 SCK (used for In-System Programming)
nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being
pulled low
Will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.
Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S51, as shown in
the following
Table.

5.1.5.7 RST
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running
resets
the device. This pin drives High for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out.
The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the
default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.

5.1.5.8 ALE/PROG
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address
during
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Accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during
Flash
Programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that
one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE
operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is
active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled
high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external
execution mode.

5.1.5.9 PSEN
Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the
AT89S51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice
each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to
external data memory.

5.1.5.10 EA/VPP
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to
fetch
code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note,
however,
that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset.
EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions.
This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash
programming.

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5.1.5.11 XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

5.1.5.12 XTAL2
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier
Oscillator Characteristics
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that
can be
Configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 11-1. Either a quartz
crystal or
Ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source,
XTAL2
Should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven, as shown in Figure 11-2. There are
no
Requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal
clocking
Circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high
and low
Time specifications must be observed.
Figure shows Oscillator Connections

C2

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XTAL2
GND
XTAL1
C1
Basic Reset Ckt.

5.1.6 For 89c51 and 89s51 Memory Organization


MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. Up to
64K
Bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed.

Program Memory

If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to external memory.
On the AT89S51, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H
through FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 1000H through
FFFFH are directed to external memory.

Data Memory

The AT89S51 implements 128 bytes of on-chip RAM. The 128 bytes are accessible via
direct
and indirect addressing modes. Stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so
the 128 bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.
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5.2 RELAY
5.2.1 Introduction:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to
operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. Relays find
applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where
several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long
distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and retransmitting it to another. Relays found extensive use in telephone exchanges and early
computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power
required to directly drive an electric motor is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control
power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform
switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple
operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern
electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called
"protection relays

5.2.2 Basic design and operation:


A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron
core, an iron yoke, which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable
iron armature, and a set, or sets, of contacts; two in the relay pictured. The armature is
hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to a moving contact or contacts. It is held in
place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic
circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed,
and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending
on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the
yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature,
and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to
the PCB.
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When an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field
attracts the armature, and the consequent movement of the movable contact or contacts
either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed
when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the
connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is
switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the
magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but
gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured
to operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage
or high current application, this is to reduce arcing.
When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across the
coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which
would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to circuit components. Some
automotive relays already include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively a contact
protection network, consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series, may absorb the surge.
If the coil is designed to be energized with alternating current (AC), a small copper ring
can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading ring" creates a small out-ofphase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle.
By analogy with functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state
relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. To achieve electrical
isolation an optocoupler can be used which is a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with
a photo transistor.
5.2.3 Types:
5.2.3.1 Latching relay:
Latching relay, dust cover removed, showing pawl and ratchet mechanism. The
ratchet operates a cam, which raises and lowers the moving contact arm, seen edge-on
just below it. The moving and fixed contacts are visible at the left side of the image.

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A latching relay has two relaxed states (bistable). These are also called "impulse",
"keep", or "stay" relays. When the current is switched off, the relay remains in its last
state. This is achieved with a solenoid operating a ratchet and cam mechanism, or by
having two opposing coils with an over-center spring or permanent magnet to hold the
armature and contacts in position while the coil is relaxed, or with a remanent core. In the
ratchet and cam example, the first pulse to the coil turns the relay on and the second pulse
turns it off. In the two coil example, a pulse to one coil turns the relay on and a pulse to
the opposite coil turns the relay off. This type of relay has the advantage that it consumes
power only for an instant, while it is being switched, and it retains its last setting across a
power outage. A remanent core latching relay requires a current pulse of opposite polarity
to make it change state.
5.2.3.2 Reed relay:
A reed relay has a set of contacts inside a vacuum or inert gas filled glass tube,
which protects the contacts against atmospheric corrosion. The contacts are closed by a
magnetic field generated when current passes through a coil around the glass tube. Reed
relays are capable of faster switching speeds than larger types of relays, but have low
switch current and voltage ratings.
5.2.3.3 Mercury-wetted relay:
A mercury-wetted reed relay is a form of reed relay in which the contacts are
wetted with mercury. Such relays are used to switch low-voltage signals (one volt or less)
because of their low contact resistance, or for high-speed counting and timing
applications where the mercury eliminates contact bounce. Mercury wetted relays are
position-sensitive and must be mounted vertically to work properly. Because of the
toxicity and expense of liquid mercury, these relays are rarely specified for new
equipment. See also mercury switch.

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5.2.3.4 Polarized relay:
A polarized relay placed the armature between the poles of a permanent magnet to
increase sensitivity. Polarized relays were used in middle 20th Century telephone
exchanges to detect faint pulses and correct telegraphic distortion. The poles were on
screws, so a technician could first adjust them for maximum sensitivity and then apply a
bias spring to set the critical current that would operate the relay.
5.2.3.5 Machine tool relay:
A machine tool relay is a type standardized for industrial control of machine tools,
transfer machines, and other sequential control. They are characterized by a large number
of contacts (sometimes extendable in the field) which are easily converted from
normally-open to normally-closed status, easily replaceable coils, and a form factor that
allows compactly installing many relays in a control panel. Although such relays once
were the backbone of automation in such industries as automobile assembly, the
programmable logic controller (PLC) mostly displaced the machine tool relay from
sequential control applications.

5.2.3.6 Contactor relay:


A contactor is a very heavy-duty relay used for switching electric motors and
lighting loads, although contactors are not generally called relays. Continuous current
ratings for common contactors range from 10 amps to several hundred amps. Highcurrent contacts are made with alloys containing silver. The unavoidable arcing causes
the contacts to oxidize; however, silver oxide is still a good conductor.[2] Such devices are
often used for motor starters. A motor starter is a contactor with overload protection
devices attached. The overload sensing devices are a form of heat operated relay where a
coil heats a bi-metal strip, or where a solder pot melts, releasing a spring to operate
auxiliary contacts. These auxiliary contacts are in series with the coil. If the overload

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senses excess current in the load, the coil is de-energized. Contactor relays can be
extremely loud to operate, making them unfit for use where noise is a

5.2.3.7 Solid-state relay:


A solid state relay (SSR) is a solid state electronic component that provides a
similar function to an electromechanical relay but does not have any moving components,
increasing long-term reliability. With early SSR's, the tradeoff came from the fact that
every transistor has a small voltage drop across it. This voltage drop limited the amount
of current a given SSR could handle. As transistors improved, higher current SSR's, able
to handle 100 to 1,200 Amperes, have become commercially available. Compared to
electromagnetic relays, they may be falsely triggered by transients.
5.2.3.8 Solid state contactor relay:
A solid state contactor is a very heavy-duty solid state relay, including the
necessary heat sink, used for switching electric heaters, small electric motors and lighting
loads; where frequent on/off cycles are required. There are no moving parts to wear out
and there is no contact bounce due to vibration. They are activated by AC control signals
or DC control signals from Programmable logic controller (PLCs), PCs, Transistortransistor logic (TTL) sources, or other microprocessor and microcontroller controls.
5.2.3.9 Buchholz relay:
A Buchholz relay is a safety device sensing the accumulation of gas in large oilfilled transformers, which will alarm on slow accumulation of gas or shut down the
transformer if
5.2.3.10 Forced-guided contacts relay:
A forced-guided contacts relay has relay contacts that are mechanically linked
together, so that when the relay coil is energized or de-energized, all of the linked

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contacts move together. If one set of contacts in the relay becomes immobilized, no other
contact of the same relay will be able to move. The function of forced-guided contacts is
to enable the safety circuit to check the status of the relay. Forced-guided contacts are
also known as "positive-guided contacts", "captive contacts", "locked contacts", or
"safety relays".
5.2.3.11 Overload protection relay:
Electric motors need over current protection to prevent damage from over-loading
the motor, or to protect against short circuits in connecting cables or internal faults in the
motor windings.[3] One type of electric motor overload protection relay is operated by a
heating element in series with the electric motor. The heat generated by the motor current
heats a bimetallic strip or melts solder, releasing a spring to operate contacts. Where the
overload relay is exposed to the same environment as the motor, a useful though crude
compensation for motor ambient temperature is provided.

5.2.4 Applications:
Relays are used to and for:
Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of
modems or audio amplifiers,
Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter solenoid
of an automobile,
Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and
closing circuit breakers (protection relays),

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5.2.5 Selection of an appropriate relay for a particular application requires
evaluation of many different factors:

Number and type of contacts normally open, normally closed, (double-throw)

Contact sequence "Make before Break" or "Break before Make". For example,
the old style telephone exchanges required Make-before-break so that the
connection didn't get dropped while dialing the number.

Rating of contacts small relays switch a few amperes, large contactors are rated
for up to 3000 amperes, alternating or direct current

Voltage rating of contacts typical control relays rated 300 VAC or 600 VAC,
automotive types to 50 VDC, special high-voltage relays to about 15 000 V

Coil voltage machine-tool relays usually 24 VAC, 120 or 250 VAC, relays for
switchgear may have 125 V or 250 VDC coils, "sensitive" relays operate on a few
mill amperes

Coil current

Package/enclosure open, touch-safe, double-voltage for isolation between


circuits, explosion proof, outdoor, oil and splash resistant, washable for printed
circuit board assembly

Assembly Some relays feature a sticker that keeps the enclosure sealed to allow
PCB post soldering cleaning, which is removed once assembly is complete.

Mounting sockets, plug board, rail mount, panel mount, through-panel mount,
enclosure for mounting on walls or equipment

Switching time where high speed is required

"Dry" contacts when switching very low level signals, special contact materials
may be needed such as gold-plated contacts

Contact protection suppress arcing in very inductive circuits

Coil protection suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil
current

Isolation between coil circuit and contacts

Aerospace or radiation-resistant testing, special quality assurance

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Expected mechanical loads due to acceleration some relays used in aerospace


applications are designed to function in shock loads of 50 g or more

Accessories such as timers, auxiliary contacts, pilot lamps, test buttons

Regulatory approvals

Stray magnetic linkage between coils of adjacent relays on a printed circuit board.

5.3 DC MOTOR
5.3.1 Introduction & working principle:
A DC motor relies on the fact that like magnet poles repels and unlike magnetic
poles attracts each other. A coil of wire with a current running through it generates
a electromagnetic field aligned with the center of the coil. By switching the current on or
off in a coil its magnet field can be switched on or off or by switching the direction of the
current in the coil the direction of the generated magnetic field can be switched 180. A
simple DC motor typically has a stationary set of magnets in the stator and an
armature with a series of two or more windings of wire wrapped in insulated stack slots
around iron pole pieces (called stack teeth) with the ends of the wires terminating on
a commutator. The armature includes the mounting bearings that keep it in the center of
the motor and the power shaft of the motor and the commutator connections. The
winding in the armature continues to loop all the way around the armature and uses either
single or parallel conductors (wires), and can circle several times around the stack teeth.
The total amount of current sent to the coil, the coil's size and what it's wrapped around
dictate the strength of the electromagnetic field created.
The sequence of turning a particular coil on or off dictates what direction the
effective electromagnetic fields are pointed. By turning on and off coils in sequence a
rotating magnetic field can be created. These rotating magnetic fields interact with the
magnetic fields of the magnets (permanent or electromagnets) in the stationary part of the
motor (stator) to create a force on the armature which causes it to rotate. In some DC
motor designs the stator fields use electromagnets to create their magnetic fields which
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allow greater control over the motor. At high po wer levels, DC motors are almost always
cooled using forced air.
The commutator allows each armature coil to be activated in turn. The current in
the coil is typically supplied via two brushes that make moving contact with the
commutator. Now, some brushless DC motors have electronics that switch the DC
current to each coil on and off and have no brushes to wear out or create sparks.
Different number of stator and armature fields as well as how they are connected
provides different inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. The speed of a DC

motor can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the armature. The
introduction of variable resistance in the armature circuit or field circuit allowed speed
control. Modern DC motors are often controlled by power electronics systems which
adjust the voltage by "chopping" the DC current into on and off cycles which have an
effective lower voltage.
Since the series-wound DC motor develops its highest torque at low speed, it is
often used in traction applications such as electric. The DC motor was the mainstay of
electric traction drives on both electric and diesel-electric locomotives, street-cars/trams
and diesel electric drilling rigs for many years. The introduction of DC motors and
an electrical grid system to run machinery starting in the 1870s started a new second
Industrial Revolution. DC motors can operate directly from rechargeable batteries,
providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles and today's hybrid
cars and electric cars as well as driving a host of cordless tools. Today DC motors are still
found in applications as small as toys and disk drives, or in large sizes to operate steel
rolling mills and paper machines.
If external power is applied to a DC motor it acts as a DC generator, a dynamo.
This feature is used to slow down and recharge batteries on hybrid car and electric cars or
to return electricity back to the electric grid used on a street car or electric powered train
line when they slow down. This process is called regenerative braking on hybrid and
electric cars. In diesel electric locomotives they also use their DC motors as generators to

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slow down but dissipate the energy in resistor stacks. Newer designs are adding large
battery packs to recapture some of this energy.
5.3.2 Types of dc motor:
5.3.2.1 Brush type:
A brushed DC electric motor generating torque from DC power supply by using
an internal mechanical commutation. Stationary permanent magnets form the stator field.
Torque is produced by the principle that any current-carrying conductor placed within an
external magnetic field experiences a force, known as Lorentz force. In a motor, the
magnitude of this Lorentz force (a vector represented by the green arrow), and thus the
output torque, is a function for rotor angle, leading to a phenomenon known as torque
ripple) Since this is a single phase two-pole motor, the commutator consists of a split
ring, so that the current reverses each half turn ( 180 degrees).
The brushed DC electric motor generates torque directly from DC power supplied
to the motor by using internal commutation, stationary magnets
(permanent or electromagnets), and rotating electrical magnets.
Advantages of a brushed DC motor include low initial cost, high reliability, and
simple control of motor speed. Disadvantages are high maintenance and low life-span for
high intensity uses. Maintenance involves regularly replacing the carbon brushes and
springs which carry the electric current, as well as cleaning or replacing the commutator.
These components are necessary for transferring electrical power from outside the motor
to the spinning wire windings of the rotor inside the motor. Brushes consist of
conductors.
5.3.2.2 Brushless type:
Typical brushless DC motors use a rotating permanent magnet in the rotor, and
stationary electrical current/coil magnets on the motor housing for the stator, but the
symmetrical opposite is also possible. A motor controller converts DC to AC. This design
is simpler than that of brushed motors because it eliminates the complication of
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transferring power from outside the motor to the spinning rotor. Advantages of brushless
motors include long life span, little or no maintenance, and high efficiency.
Disadvantages include high initial cost, and more complicated motor speed controllers.
Some such brushless motors are sometimes referred to as "synchronous motors" although
they have no external power supply to be synchronized with, as would be the case with
normal AC synchronous motors.

5.4 BATTERY

(LEAD ACID BATTERY)

5.4.1 Introduction
The leadacid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston
Plant and is the oldest type of rechargeable. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight
ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents means
that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with
their low cost, make it attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current
required by automobile starter motors.
As they are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead-acid batteries are
widely used even when surge current is not important and other designs could provide
higher energy densities. Large-format lead-acid designs are widely used for storage in
backup power supplies in cell phone towers, high-availability settings like hospitals,
and stand-alone power systems. For these roles, modified versions of the standard cell
may be used to improve storage times and reduce maintenance requirements.
This battery provides 6V in our project. We want 12 volt requirement. So, we
connected two batteries in series.

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5.5 TRANSISTOR
A transistor is a semiconductor device used
to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of
semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.
A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current
through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher
than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some
transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated
circuits.
The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and
is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its development in 1947 by John
Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, the transistor revolutionized the field of
electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators,
and computers, among other things. The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in
electronics, and the inventors were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for
their achievement.

5.6 CRYSTAL
5.6.1 Description:
Crystals are commonly used to provide a stable clock source for microcontrollers. This has a freq. tolerance of +-50ppm, temperature stability of +-50ppm, and
load capacitance of 18pF. It's slightly more than 1/8" tall.
5.6.2 More information and instructions:
Spec sheet: here (ABL type)

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Here are 22pF ceramic disc capacitors commonly used with this crystal to provide a clock
source to micro-controllers.
When installing, be sure that the case does not make contact with any other conductors;
ie, don't push it all the way flush with the board.
+-5ppm (parts per million) per year aging drift.
About crystals: There are several different ways to provide a clock source, including
crystals, oscillators, RC circuits, and resonators; this article gives a good comparison.
Crystals offer a good compromise of low cost, high accuracy, good temperature stability,
and low power use.
They are typically used in what's called a "Pierce circuit" with microcontrollers that has
two other capacitors tied to ground on either side of the crystal. The value of the
capacitors affects the circuit's frequency. Crystals manufactured for use in this type of
circuit are parallel crystals and come pre-compensated for a certain "capacitive load." The
formula that relates the crystal's capacitive load and the capacitors used in the circuit is:
CL = (C1*C2)/(C1+C2) + Cs (stray capacitance in leads and circuit board). Many guides
suggest Cs is usually around 5 pF, but the Microchip spec sheets seem to assume it's
12.5pF.
PPM (Parts per Million): This is like a percent error (1000 PPM = .1% error), and is
convenient for calculating error with crystals. 5ppm on a 4MHz crystal = 5*4 = 20Hz
possible error. Most microcontroller applications don't require too much accuracy,
100ppm is fine. If the parallel capacitors don't match the crystal's capacitive load exactly,
they will pull the frequency, but not much. This offers more info about pullability and
crystals in general. It seems to indicate that on a 20pF CL crystal, you may get 16ppm/pF
error between the anticipated load and actual.
A Microchip application note that talks about crystal design considerations for
microcontrollers.

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5.7 TRANSFORMER
5.7.1 Working principal:
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two circuits
through electromagnetic induction. A transformer may be used as a safe and
efficient voltage converter to change the AC voltage at its input to a higher or lower
voltage at its output. Other uses include current conversion, isolation with or witho ut
changing voltage and impedance conversion.
A transformer most commonly consists of two windings of wire that are wound
around a common core to provide tight electromagnetic coupling between the windings.
The core material is often a laminated iron core. The coil that receives the electrical input
energy is referred to as the primary winding, while the output coil is called the secondary
winding.
An alternating electric current flowing through the primary winding (coil) of a
transformer generates a varying electromagnetic field in its surroundings which causes a
varying magnetic flux in the core of the transformer. The varying electromagnetic field in
the vicinity of the secondary winding induces an electromotive force in the secondary
winding, which appears a voltage across the output terminals. If a load impedance is
connected across the secondary winding, a current flows through the secondary winding
drawing power from the primary winding and its power source.
A transformer cannot operate with direct current; although, when it is connected
to a DC source, a transformer typically produces a short output pulse as the current rises.
5.7.2 Applications:
Transformers perform voltage conversion; isolation protection; and impedance
matching. In terms of voltage conversion, transformers can step-up voltage/step-down
current from generators to high-voltage transmission lines, and step-down voltage/step-up
current to local distribution circuits or industrial customers. The step-up transformer is
used to increase the secondary voltage relative to the primary voltage, whereas the stepdown transformer is used to decrease the secondary voltage relative to the primary
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voltage. Transformers range in size from thumbnail-sized used in microphones to units
weighing hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. A broad range of transformer
designs are used in electronic and electric power applications, including miniature, audio,
isolation, high-frequency, power conversion transformers, etc.
5.7.3 Basic principles:
The functioning of a transformer is based on two principles of the laws of
electromagnetic induction: An electric current through a conductor, such as a wire,
produces a magnetic field surrounding the wire, and a changing magnetic field in the
vicinity of a wire induces a voltage across the ends of that wire.
The magnetic field excited in the primary coil gives rise to self-induction as well
as mutual induction between coils. This self-induction counters the excited field to such a
degree that the resulting current through the primary winding is very small when no load
draws power from the secondary winding.
The physical principles of the inductive behavior of the transformer are most
readily understood and formalized when making some assumptions to construct a simple
model which is called the ideal transformer. This model differs from real transformers by
assuming that the transformer is perfectly constructed and by neglecting that electrical or
magnetic losses occur in the materials used to construct the device.

5.8 ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER


An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is a device that
converts a continuous physical quantity (usually voltage) to a digital number that
represents the quantity's amplitude.

5.9 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we discussed about different type of electrical components which we used
in our academic project.

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CHAPTER 06
SENSOR

6.1 INTRODUCTION
In our project we used two sensors for general purpose use of our robot. First one
is gas sensor and another is temperature sensor.
A sensor is a physical device or biological organ that detects, or senses, a signal or
physical condition and chemical compounds.

6.2 OVERVIEW
Most sensors are electrical or electronic, although other types exist. A sensor is a
type of transducer. Sensors are either direct indicating (e.g. a mercury thermometer or
electrical meter) or are paired with an indicator (perhaps indirectly through an analog to
digital converter, a computer and a display) so that the value sensed becomes human
readable. In addition to other applications, sensors are heavily used in medicine, industry
and robotics. Technical progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured with
MEMS technology. In most cases this offers the potential to reach a much higher
sensitivity. See also MEMS sensor generations.

6.3 TYPES OF SENSORS


Since a significant change involves an exchange of energy, sensors can be classified
according to the type of energy transfer that they detect.

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6.3.1 Thermal sensors:
Temperature sensors:
Thermometers, thermocouples, temperature sensitive resistors (thermistors and
resistance temperature detectors), bi-metal thermometers and thermostats
Heat sensors:
Bolometer, calorimeter
6.3.2 Electromagnetic sensors:

electrical resistance sensors: ohmmeter, multimeter

electrical current sensors: galvanometer, ammeter

electrical voltage sensors: leaf electroscope, voltmeter

electrical power sensors: watt-hour meters

magnetism sensors: magnetic compass, fluxgate compass, magnetometer, Hall


effect device,

metal detectors

6.3.3 Mechanical sensors:

pressure sensors: altimeter, barometer, barograph, pressure gauge, air speed


indicator, rate of climb indicator, variometer

gas and liquid flow sensors: flow sensor, anemometer, flow meter, gas meter,
water meter, mass flow sensor

mechanical sensors: acceleration sensor, position sensor, selsyn, switch, strain


gauge

6.3.4 Chemical sensors:


Chemical sensors detect the presence of specific chemicals or classes of
chemicals. Examples include oxygen sensors, also known as lambda sensors, ionselective electrodes, pH glass electrodes, and redox electrodes.
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6.3.5 Optical and radiation sensors:

Electromagnetic time-of-flight. Generate an electromagnetic impulse, broadcast it,


then measure the time a reflected pulse takes to return. Commonly known as RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) are now accompanied by the analogous
LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging. See following line), all being
electromagnetic waves. Acoustic sensors are a special case in that a pressure
transducer is used to generate a compression wave in a fluid medium (air or
water)

light time-of-flight. Used in modern surveying equipment, a short pulse of light is


emitted and returned by a retroreflector. The return time of the pulse is
proportional to the distance and is related to atmospheric density in a predictable
way.

6.4 TEMPERATURE SENSOR (THERMISTOR)


6.4.1 Introduction:
A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly
with temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is
a portmanteau of thermal and resistor. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current
limiters, temperature sensors, self-resetting over current protectors, and selfregulating heating elements.
Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the
material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use pure
metals. The temperature response is also different; RTDs are useful over larger
temperature ranges, while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a
limited temperature range, typically 90 C to 130 C.
Thermistors are thermally sensitive resistors produced with semiconducting
materials.

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Although RTDs and thermistors are both resistive devices, they differ substantially in
operation and usage, as thermistors are passive semiconductor devices.

6.4.2 Types of thermistors:


Two types of thermistors are available
1. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC), which decreases its resistance as its
temperature increases, and
2. Positive temperature coefficient (PTC), which increases its resistance as its
temperature decreases.

6.4.3 Advantage:
From the point of view of temperature measurement applications, NTC types are used far
more than PTC ones. Due to its characteristics, PTC types are more frequently used as
thermostats to sense and regulate temperatures (inside ovens, for instance).
Main advantages of (NTC) thermistors are:

Large change in resistance versus temperature

Fast time response

High resistance eliminates the need for four wire measurement

Small size

Inexpensive

High stability

6.4.4 Disadvantage:
Main disadvantages of thermistors are:

Non-linear

Operating temperature limited to approximately -60 to +300 Celsius

Current source required

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6.4.5 Operating principles of Thermistors:
Thermistors can be encapsulated in glass or epoxy considering a big variety of
mechanical models. Most (NTC) thermistors have high resistivitys and high negative
coefficients, allowing the NTC thermistor to detect changes in temperature that could
not be observable with RTDs or thermocouples.
For example, it is common to have an NTC thermistor exhibiting a negative
temperature coefficient with a change in resistance of about 4.5%/C at 30C, and about
1.6%/C at 155C. Common base values can be in the range of a few ohms to megaohms. Normally, high-R thermistors are used for high temperatures (lower than
300C), and low-R thermistors for low temperatures (higher than -60C).
Considering the range of some kilo-ohms to mega-ohms, we can conclude that the
resistance of the wires connecting the instrumentation to the thermistor is insignificant (in
this sense, the three- or four-wire measurement configuration referred for RTDs are not
necessary for NTC thermistors with high-R base values).
Figure 1 and Figure 2 present typical configurations for two- and four-wire
thermistor circuits (RL stands for the lead resistances); in cases where the series
resistance of the lead configuration is significant, the four-wire circuit can be used. As far
as one current source is used, the calculation of the thermistors resistance is a
straightforward task according to Ohms Law.

Figure 1 Two-wire thermistor configurations (most common).

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Figure 2 Four-wire thermistor configurations.


As usually, for each benefit, we should be ready to pay a price; in this case, the price for
increasing sensitivity is loss of linearity.
In this sense, the resistance versus temperature characteristic of NTC thermistors is nonlinear. The following expression describes the resistance versus temperature
characteristic of a thermistor

(2.3)
where:
1. RT is the zero-power R at T(K),
2. R0 is the zero-power R at a known temperature T0,
3. is the material constant for the thermistor.
Note: zero-power resistance is the resistance of a thermistor at a temperature measured
when there is negligible self-heating (due to Joules effect).
Alternatively, the following Steinhart-Hart equation can be used for computation of
temperature, giving relatively accurate thermistor curves:

(2.4)
where:
1. T is the temperature in K;

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2. RT is the resistance of the thermistor,
3. A, B, and C are constants specific for a given thermistor.
If not provided, constants A, B, and C can be found by solving three equations with
known R and Ts, and considering:
-40C < T1, T2, T3 < 150C, and
|T2 T1| < 50C
|T3 T2| < 50C

6.5 GAS SENSOR (MQ 6)


6.5.1 Description:
This is a simple-to-use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)sensor, suitable for sensing
LPG (composed of mostly propane and butane) concentrations in the air. The MQ-6 can
detect gas concentrations anywhere from 200 to 10000ppm.
This sensor has a high sensitivity and fast response time. The sensor's output is an
analog resistance. The drive circuit is very simple; all you need to do is power the heater
coil with 5V, add a load resistance, and connect the output to an ADC.

6.5.2 LPG Gas Sensor (MQ6) Features:


1. High Sensitivity to LPG, iso-butane, propane
2. Small sensitivity to alcohol, smoke
3. Detection Range: 100 - 10,000 ppm iso-butane propane
4. Fast Response Time: <10s
5. Simple drive circuit
6. Heater Voltage: 5.0V
7. Dimensions: 18mm Diameter, 17mm High excluding pins, Pins - 6mm High

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6.5.3 Applications:
1. Gas leak detection system
2. Fire/Safety detection system
3. Gas leak alarm
4. Gas detector

6.6 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we discussed about different type of sensors and deeply learned
temperature and gas sensor.

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CHAPTER 07
DESIGN

7.1 DEFINITION
Machine Design or Mechanical Design can be defined as the process by which
resources or energy is converted into useful mechanical forms, or the mechanisms so
as to obtain useful output from the machines in the desired form as per the needs of
the human beings.
Machine Design is the application of: mathematics, kinematics, statics, dynamics,
mechanics of materials, engineering materials, mechanical technology of metals and
engineering drawing.
Machine design can lead to the formation of the entirely new machine or it can lead
to up-gradation or improvement of the existing machine.
It also involves application of other subjects like thermodynamics, electrical
theory, hydraulics, engines, turbines, pumps etc. Machine drawing is the integral
part of the machine design, since all the components or the machines that have
been designed should be drawn to manufacture them as per the specifications.
Without machine drawing the subject of machine design is incomplete.

7.2 PURPOSE OF DESIGN


1. To select proper materials and best suited shapes.
2. To calculate the dimensions based on the loads on machines and strength of the
material.
3. Specify the manufacturing process for the manufacture of the designed
component of the machine or the whole machine.

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7.3 CONSIDERATION IN DESIGN


Type of load and stresses causes by the load
Motion of parts
Selection of material
Form and size of parts
Convenient and economical features
Use of standard parts like motor, frames, nut, bolts etc
Workshop facilities
Safety in operation
Cost of machine
Assembling must be easy and quick

7.4 OUR STEPS OF DESIGN OF PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT


1. First we decide the range of Pipe inspection robot
It can inspect following range of diameters of pipe
Minimum diameter of pipe

8 inch

maximum diameter of pipe

12 inch

2. After that we make a rough simulation model on paper and take idea about perfect
dimension and material available in market.
3. We did a market survey and check availability.
4. We make another simulation model which is more perfect than previous one and
check it for our inspection range.
5. After confirms the inspection range we did force and motion analysis.
6. Check out whole assembly for different type of stresses.
7. Change the model where require as per assembly and durability point of view.
8. Decide the clearance where require.
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Here, it is noticeable that there is no standard design in the world for Pipe
inspection robot.
So first we create model as per availability of material in market and after that we
check it by different standard formulas for different type of failure.

7.5 DESIGN CONTAINS


1. Analysis of forces on frame
2. Design of screw
3. Motor power calculation
4. Design of welding
5. Design of c channel and its analysis
6. Design of plate joint
7. Design of sliding contact bearing
8. Motion and angle analysis

7.6 DESIGN CONSTRAINS


Wheel diameter

70mm

Thickness of plate

3mm

Height of plate

18mm

Frame raw material

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Weight of different parts of machine:
SR No

PARTS

MASS

WEIGHT

Gram

Link 1

110

1.1

Link 2

150

1.5

Link 3

280

2.8

Link 4

210

2.1

Motor

150

1.5

Wheel

70

0.7

Nut & Bolt Other accessories

25

0.25

Collar 1

150

1.5

Screw

250

2.5

10

camera (web cam) and sensors

150

1.5

7.7 ANALYSIS OF FORCES ON FRAME


As per simulation model by common sense when the robot is fully open in 12 inch pipe
diameter that time link no 1 & 2 in collinear position and it work as a support and another
support is link no 4 to link no 3.
At this position the angle created by link no 3 is 24 0 to its original position as shown in
fig.
We are going to do force analysis at this position only.
Weight act at the end of link no 3 is as follows
Weight

= Weight of motor + weight of nut, bolt & other accessories + weight of

wheel
= 1.5 + 0.25 + 0.7

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= 2.45 N
According to self weight of link no 3 the UDL = 0.03 N/mm 2

We provide the FACTOR OF SAFTEY = 2.5


Reasons:
1. We convert the whole beam in horizontal position
2. We neglect the axial force in X direction

Finally weight act at the corner

= calculated weight FOS


= 2.45 2.5
= 6.125 N

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Indication
+ve

-ve

Clockwise +ve

Anticlockwise

-ve

RASIN66 + RBSIN66 = -6.125 2.31 0.9


= -9.335 N
Taking moment about A is zero.
MA = 0
(0.9 15) (RBSIN66 30) + (2.31 68.5) + (6.125 107) = 0
RBSIN66 = 27.57 N
RB = 30.17N
RASIN66 = -36.905N
RA = -40.39N

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PARAMETER

ANS (N)

RASIN66

-36.905

RBSIN66

27.57

RA

-40.39

RB

30.1

By calculation we know that RB is maximum, so bolt will fail due to shear.

Double shear failure due to load 40.39 N


Shear stress = s
Major diameter of bolt

6mm

Minor or core diameter of bolt

5.82mm

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The failure will take place at core diameter only
s

P/A

40.39 / 2 (/4) 5.822

0.75 N/mm2

Calculation of bending stress in frame


Bending stress = b
First calculate maximum bending moment
As shown in figure let us take moment at point B
From right side

= 36.905 30
= 1107.15 N-mm

From left side

= 6.125 77
= 471.625 N-mm

So, M = 1107.15 N-mm


M/I
=b/Y
(1)

Y = 18/2 = 9mm

I = bd3 /12

(b= 3mm,

d=18mm)
= 1485 mm4

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By putting above values in equation no 1
b = 6.71 N/mm2

7.8 DESIGN OF SCREW


Basic assumption
1. We assume that the robot work against gravity
2. Type of thread = square thread
Reasons for selecting square thread

It has high efficiency

Easy for manufacturing

3. Pitch = 2mm (as per standard)


4. Diameter of screw

12mm

5. No of starts

6. Coefficient of friction

tan = 0.1

7. Collar or nut dimension

Diameter

30mm

Bore diameter

M12

Length

18mm

1 N/mm2

8. Bearing pressure on nut


There are three set of link

Total weight lift by screw = ( (Weight of motor + weight of nut, bolt & other
accessories + weight of wheel + weight of link 1 + weight of link 2 + weight of link 3
+ weight of link 4 ) 3) + weight of round nut and collar
= ((1.5 + 0.25 + 0.7 + 1.1 + 1.5 +2.8 +2.1) 3) + 1.5
= 31.35 N

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= do pitch / 2............. (do =

Pitch diameter (d)


12mm)
d

= 11 mm

Lead of screw = 2 pitch


=22
= 4 mm
tan

= Lead / ( / d)
= 0.1157

Tangential force required at the circumference of the screw (Ft )


Ft

= W ((tan + tan ) / (1 tantan))


= 6.84 N

Torque required rotating the screw


T

= Ft (d / 2)
= 37.62 N-mm = 37.62 10 -3 N-m

Calculation of stress in screw


Inner diameter or core diameter of screw (dc)
dc

=do pitch
= 10 mm

Corresponding cross sectional area of screw = ( / 4) dc2


=78.53 mm2

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Direct stress (c)
c

=W/A
= 31.35 / 78.53
= 0.39 N/mm2

Shear stress (s)


s

= (16 T) / ( dc3)
= 0.91 N/mm2

Maximum shear stress in the screw (smax)


smax

= 0.5 ( c2 + 4 s2)
= 0.93 N/mm2

No of threads required to collar to engage with screw


Let, thickness of thread (t)
t

= Pitch / 2
= 1 mm

Check for bearing pressure (P b)


Height of nut = 18 mm (it is for good welding support & look & appearance)
No of thread in contact (n)

= height of nut / pitch


=9

Pb

= w / (dtn)
= 0.1 N/mm2

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7.9 MOTOR POWER CALCULATION


P = (2NT) / 60
N (rpm of motor) = 30
P = 0.118 watt

7.10 DESIGN OF WELDING

Design of welding at the junction where 20 mm diameter sliding contact bearing is weld
to 45 mm diameter circular plate.
Basic assumption
1. The weld portion is subjected to bending moment when the total load act at the
end point of section.
2. S = 5mm
So throat thickness (t)
t

= 0.707 S

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= 3.535 mm
Throat area for a circular weld = t D.. (D = 20mm)
= 222.11 mm2
Direct shear stress (ds)
ds

=P/A

P = weight act at the corner = calculated weight + weight of screw


= 31.35 + 2.5
= 33.85 N
ds = 0.152 N/mm2
Bending moment
M

= P e (e = 88mm)
= 2978.8 N-mm

Section modulus of circular section


Z

= (tD2) / 4
= 1110.553 mm3

Bending stress (b)


b

=M/Z
= 2.68 N/mm2

Maximum normal stress (tmax)


tmax

= 0.5 b + 0.5( b2 + 4 ds2)


= 2.688 N/mm2

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Maximum shear stress (s(max))
s(max)) = 0.5( b2 + 4 ds2)
= 1.34 N/mm2

7.11 DESIGN OF C CHANNEL AND ITS ANALYSIS

Moment of inertia of above C channel


The given section is symmetrical about X axis.
a1 = a3 = 65 3 = 195 mm2
a2 = 46 3 = 138 mm2
A = a1 + a2 + a3 = 528 mm2
Distance of center of gravity from the left face
X1 = X3 = 65/2 = 32.5 mm

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X2 = 3/2 = 1.5 mm
X

= (a1X1 + a2X2 + a3X3 ) / A


= 24.39 mm

Ixx

= MI of ABCD MI of EFGH
= ((65 523) / 12) ((62 463 ) / 12)
= 258724 mm4

Iyy = Iyy1 + Iyy2 + Iyy3


Iyy1 = Iyy3

= IG1 2 + a1h12
= ((3 65 3) /12) + (195 8.112)
= 81481.8095 mm4

Iyy2

= IG2 2 + a2h2 2
= ((46 3 3) /12) + (138 22.89 2)
= 72408.8898 mm4

Iyy

= Iyy1 + Iyy2 + Iyy3


= 235372.5088 mm4

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7.12 DESIGN OF PLATE JOINT

Normally the major failure in this assembly is as follows


Failure of pin due to shear
Shear stress (s)
s

=P/A

= ( / 4) d2. (d = 6 mm)
=28.27 mm2

= load act in X direction


= weight of load of one set of assembly 2
= (calculated weight + weight of screw + weight of motor + weight of other

remaining accessories) 2
Weight of other remaining accessories = 5N assume
= (31.35 + 2.5 + 1.5 + 5) 2
= 80.7 N
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Let us take P = 100 N
= 3.53 N/mm2

Crushing failure of pin


Crushing stress (c)
c

=P/A
= P / (d 6)
= 2.77 N/mm2

7.13 DESIGN OF SLIDING CONTACT BEARING


Assumption
1. Type = Hydrodynamic journal bearing.
2. Design totally depend upon minimum friction
3. Design base on average clearance
4. We neglect the effect due to temperature because its function is not critical
Length of bearing (L)

18 mm

Diameter of bearing (D) =

12 mm

L/D = 1.5
So consider infinity range from PSG design data book
Load = P = (weight of link 4 3) + weight of motor
Note: the weight of motor is added for additional factor of safety
P

= (2.1 3) + 1.5
= 7.8 N

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Let, bearing pressure (P b)
P b = p / (L D)
= 0.036 N/mm2
By selecting normal running fit & hence
12H8e8
Hole size
Upper limit = +0.054mm
Lower limit = +0.000mm
Maximum hole size = 12.054 mm
Minimum hole size = 12mm
Shaft size
Upper limit = -0.072 mm
Lower limit = -0.126 mm
Maximum shaft size = 11.928 mm
Minimum shaft size = 11.874 mm

Maximum clearance

= max hole size min shaft size


= 0.18 mm

Minimum clearance

= min hole size max shaft size


= 0.126 mm

Average clearance (Cavg)

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Cavg

= (max clearance + min clearance) / 2


= 0.153 mm

Clearance ratio

= Cavg / D
= 0.1275

Minimum oil film thickness (ho)


(2ho) / Cavg............................................ (2ho) / Cavg = 0.3 for min friction
ho = 0.022 mm
To avoid metal to metal contact due to breakage of hydrodynamic film
ho > 0.00001 D =0.00001 12 = 0.00012 mm
Hence safe, oil film will not break
Viscosity of oil (Z)
S = ((Z n) / P b) (D/ Cavg) 2 (2)
n = rps = 30 / 60 = 0.5 rps
S = 0.029
By substituting above values in equation no 2
Z = 3.394 10-7 NS/mm2
Coefficient of friction ()
( D) / Cavg = 1.08
= 0.013
Friction power loss
Loss = Ff V

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Ff = P
=0.1014
V = (DN) /60
= 0.0188
Loss = 0.0019 watt

7.14 MOTION AND ANGLE ANALYSIS


This analysis gives facility for numerical calculation and force analysis at various
positions. Here with the help of simulation model by using interpolation formula we
generate formula.

Let
Calculation of collar no 1 in X direction
X = Angle of link no 3 with respect to its original position
Y = Distance in X direction (from point A as shown in simulation model

Values from simulation model


X1 = 24 0

Y1 = 38 mm

X0 = 110

Y0 = 9.5 mm

By using interpolation concept

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Example
Find Y when X = 100
Ans
By using above formula Y = 7.30 mm

7.15 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we totally derive the forces on the linkages and try to make perfect design
for manufacturing purpose. We design here different parts of robot with specific standard
assumption and in next chapter we evaluate the material selection for robot.

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CHAPTER 08
MATERIAL SELECTION

8.1 INTRODUCTION
The proper selection of material for the different part of a machine is the main
objective in the fabrication of machine. For a design engineer it is must that he be
familiar with the effect, which the manufacturing process and heat treatment have on the
properties of materials. The Choice of material for engineering purposes depends upon
the following factors
1. Availability of the materials.
2. Suitability of materials for the working condition in service.
3. The cost of materials.
4. Physical and chemical properties of material.
5. Mechanical properties of material.

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8.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL


1. Strength : It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied
Forces
2. Stress: Without breaking or yielding. The internal resistance offered by a part to
an externally applied force is called stress.
3. Stiffness: It is the ability of material to resist deformation under stresses. The
modules of elasticity of the measure of stiffness.
4. Elasticity: It is the property of a material to regain its original shape after
deformation when the external forces are removed. This property is desirable for
material used in tools and machines. It may be noted that steel is more elastic than
rubber.
5. Plasticity: It is the property of a material, which retain the deformation produced
under load permanently. This property of material is necessary for forging, in
stamping images on coins and in ornamental work.
6. Ductility: It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn into wire with the
application of a tensile force. A ductile material must be both strong and plastic.
The ductility is usually measured by the terms, percentage elongation and percent
reduction in area. The ductile materials commonly used in engineering practice
are mild steel, copper, aluminum, nickel, zinc, tin and lead.
7. Brittleness: It is the property of material opposite to ductile. It is the Property of
breaking of a material with little permanent distortion. Brittle materials when
subjected to tensile loads snap off without giving any sensible elongation. Cast
iron is a brittle material.
8. Malleability: It is a special case of ductility, which permits material to be rolled
or hammered into thin sheets, a malleable material should be plastic but it is not
essential to be so strong. The malleable materials commonly used in engineering
practice are lead, soft steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminum.
9. Toughness: It is the property of a material to resist the fracture due to high impact
loads like hammer blows. The toughness of the material decreases when it is
heated. It is measured by the amount of absorbed after being stressed up to the

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point of fracture. This property is desirable in parts subjected to shock an impact
loads.
10. Resilience: It is the property of a material to absorb energy and to resist rock and
impact loads. It is measured by amount of energy absorbed per unit volume within
elastic limit. This property is essential for spring material.
11. Creep: When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for long
period of time, it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation called creep.
This property is considered in designing internal combustion engines, boilers and
turbines.
12. Hardness: It is a very important property of the metals and has a wide
Verity of meanings. It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear
scratching, deformation and mach inability etc. It also means the ability of the metal
to cut another metal. The hardness is usually expressed in numbers, which are
dependent on the method of making the test. The hardness of a metal may be
determined by the following test.
a) Brinell hardness test
b) Rockwell hardness test
c) Vickers hardness (also called diamond pyramid) test and
d) Share scaleroscope.

8.3 DESIGN RESULTS


By design we try to evaluate different type of stresses accurately. After find values of all
stress related with different type of forces we know that none of stress value is beyond 10
N/mm2 . So we can conclude that select any type of mild steel available in market because
the minimum tensile strength of mild steel is 200 N/mm2 (from design data book PSG).
By standard (considering factor of safety = 2.5)
Tensile stress = 80 N/mm2
Compressive stress = 1.5 tensile stress = 120 N/mm2
Shear stress = 0.5 tensile stress = 40 N/mm 2

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So, above all values show all values are above 10 N/mm 2 . So our material selection is
perfect.

8.4 ADVANTAGE OF MILD STEEL


1. Mild steel is readily available in market
2. It is economical to use
3. It is available in standard sizes
4. It has good mechanical properties i.e. it can be easily machined
5. It has moderate factor of safety, because factor of safety results in unnecessary wastage
of material and heavy selection. Low factor of safety results in unnecessary risk of failure
6. It has high tensile strength

8.5 PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL


Mild steel has carbon content from 0.15% to 0.30%.
They are easily wieldable thus can be hardened only. they are similar to wrought
iron in properties.
Both ultimate tensile and compressive strength of these steel increases with
increasing carbon content.
They can be easily gas welded or electric or arc welded.
With increase in the carbon percentage weld ability decreases.

8.6 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we learned different type of material properties and with the help of this
properties how to select the material as per availability. Finally we select the MILD
STEEL with the help of design chapter.

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CHAPTER 09
MANUFACTURING

9.1 INTRODUCTION
Manufacturing involved in conversion of race material into the finished product
used for some useful purpose
To understand the manufacturing system in better way, it is divided into three
parts.

1. input
2. process
3. output

Mean
Process

Material
machined

Product

Service

Input: man, machine, material & energy


Process: related to design, the product and production management
Output: Finished product or service

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9.2 PART LIST


1. Link 1
2. Link 2
3. Link 3
4. Link 4
5. Collar 1
6. Collar 2
7. C channel
8. Circular plate

9.3 RAW MATERIAL SPECIFICATION CHART


SR

PART NAME

RAW MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

Link 1

3 18 mm plate

Link 2

3 18 mm plate

Link 3

3 18 mm plate

Link 4

3 18 mm plate

Collar 1

32 mm diameter rod

Collar 2

20 mm diameter rod

C channel

3 18 mm plate

Circular plate

48 mm diameter rod

Screw

14 mm diameter rod

NO

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9.4 FABRICATION AND OPERATION SHEET


9.4.1 Part name = Link 1
Quantity = 6

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Cutting

Bench vice

Hacksaw

Filing

Bench vice

File

Marking

Sr no

Drilling

Grinding

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Tool used

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Steel rule

30
24

Punch,

Vernier

hammer

caliper

Vertical

Drill of

Vernier

drilling

6mm

caliper

machine

diameter

Grinding

Grinding

machine

wheel

18

12

12

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9.4.2 Part name = Link 2


Quantity = 6

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Cutting

Bench vice

Hacksaw

Filing

Bench vice

File

Marking

Sr no

Drilling

Grinding

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Tool used

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Steel rule

30
24

Punch,

Vernier

hammer

caliper

Vertical

Drill of

Vernier

drilling

6mm

caliper

machine

diameter

Grinding

Grinding

machine

wheel

18

24

24

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9.4.3 Part name = Link no 3


Quantity = 6

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Cutting

Bench vice

Hacksaw

Filing

Bench vice

File

Marking

Sr no

Drilling

Grinding

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Tool used

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Steel rule

30
24

Punch,

Vernier

hammer

caliper

Vertical

Drill of

Vernier

drilling

6mm

caliper

machine

diameter

Grinding

Grinding

machine

wheel

18

24

24

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9.4.4 Part name = Link 4
Quantity = 6

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Cutting

Bench vice

Hacksaw

Filing

Bench vice

File

Marking

Sr no

Drilling

Grinding

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Tool used

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Steel rule

30
24

Punch,

Vernier

hammer

caliper

Vertical

Drill of

Vernier

drilling

6mm

caliper

machine

diameter

Grinding

Grinding

machine

wheel

18

12

12

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9.4.5 Part name = Collar 1
Quantity = 2

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Facing

Lathe

Turning

Drilling

Sr no

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Carbide tool

Lathe

Carbide tool

Lathe

Center drill

Tool used

of 12mm
diameter
4

Parting

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Lathe

Parting

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9.4.6 Part name = Collar 2
Quantity = 2

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Facing

Lathe

Turning

Drilling

Sr no

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Carbide tool

Lathe

Carbide tool

Lathe

Center drill

Tool used

of 12mm
diameter
4

Parting

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Lathe

Parting

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9.4.7 Part name = C channel


Quantity = 2

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Cutting

Bench vice

Bending

Bench vice

Sr no

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Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Hacksaw

Steel rule

Hammer

Steel rule

Tool used

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9.4.8 Part name = Circular plate


Quantity = 2

Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Facing

Lathe

Turning

Drilling

Sr no

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Carbide tool

Lathe

Carbide tool

Lathe

Center drill

Tool used

of 12mm
diameter
4

Parting

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Lathe

Parting

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9.4.9 Part name = Screw
Quantity = 2
Description

Machine

of Operation

used

Facing

Lathe

Turning

Threading

Sr no

Measuring

Time

instrument

(minute)

Carbide tool

Lathe

Carbide tool

10

Lathe

Outer

16

Tool used

threading
tool
(square
thread)
2mm pitch
4

Parting

Lathe

Parting

9.5 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we studied different parts of robot, their manufacturing process with
proper sequence.

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CHAPTER 10
BUDGET ESTIMATION

10.1 INTRODUCTION
Cost estimation may be defined as the process of forecasting the expenses that
must be incurred to manufacture a product. These expenses take into a consideration all
expenditure involved in a design and manufacturing with all related services facilities
such as pattern making, tool, making as well as a portion of the general administrative
and selling costs.

10.2 PURPOSE OF COST ESTIMATING


1. To determine the selling price of a product for a quotation or contract so as to
ensure a reasonable profit to the company.
2. Check the quotation supplied by vendors.
3. Determine the most economical process or material to manufacture the product.
4. To determine standards of production performance that may be used to control the
cost.

10.3 TYPES OF COST ESTIMATION


1. Material cost
2. Machining cost

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10.3.1 Material cost estimation
Material cost estimation gives the total amount required to collect the raw material which
has to be processed or fabricated to desired size and functioning of the components.
These materials are divided into two categories.
1. Material for fabrication:
In this the material in obtained in raw condition and is manufactured or processed to
finished size for proper functioning of the component.
1. Standard purchased parts:
This includes the parts which was readily available in the market like Allen screws etc. A
list in for chard by the estimation stating the quality, size and standard parts, the weigh of
raw material and cost per kg. For the fabricated parts.
10.3.2 Machining Cost Estimation
This cost estimation is an attempt to forecast the total expenses that may include
to manufacture apart from material cost. Cost estimation of manufactured parts can be
considered as judgment on and after careful consideration which includes labour, material
and factory services required to produce the required part.

10.4 PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATION OF MATERIAL COST


10.4.1 The general procedure for calculation of material cost estimation
1. After designing a project a bill of material is prepared which is divided into two
categories.
1. Fabricated components
2. Standard purchased components
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2. The rates of all standard items are taken and added up.
3. Cost of raw material purchased taken and added up.
10.4.2 Labor cost
It is the cost of remuneration (wages, salaries, commission, bonus etc.) of the employees
of a concern or enterprise
. Labor cost is classifies as:
1. Direct labour cost
2. Indirect labour cost
10.4.3 Direct labor cost:
The direct labor cost is the cost of labor that can be indentified directly with the
manufacture of the product and allocated to cost centers or cost units. The direct labor is
one who counters the direct material into saleable product; the wages etc. of such
employees constitute direct labor cost. Direct labor cost may be apportioned to the unit
cost of job or either on the basis of time spend by a worker on the job or as a price for
some physical measurement of product.
10.4.4 Indirect labor cost:
It is that labor cost which cannot be allocated but which can be apportioned to or
absorbed by cost centers or cost units. This is the cost of labor that doesnt alters the
construction, confirmation, composition or condition of direct material but is necessary
for the progressive movement and handling of product to the point of dispatch e.g.
maintenance, men, helpers, machine setters, supervisors and foremen etc. The total labor
cost is calculated on the basis of wages paid to the labor for 8 hours per day. Cost
estimation is done as under
Cost of project = (A) material cost + (B) Machining cost + (C) labour cost

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Material cost is calculated as under:
i) Raw material cost
ii) Finished product cost

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10.5 COSTING OF DIFFERENT PARTS

COMPONENT

QTY.

COST/UNIT

TOTAL

Motor

250

2000

Battery

500

1000

Camera

2000

2000

Crystal

20

20

Pipe

2000

2000

LCD

200

200

89s51

100

100

Gas sensor MQ6

350

350

Relay

18

72

Wheel

80

480

Material

10m

IC base

10

10

Ic-adc0808

100

100

Thermistor

20

20

Switch

15

15

TOTAL

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10.6 COSTING OF DIFFERENT MACHINE


SR.
NO.

MACHINE

TIME IN

RATE

HOURS

IN RS.

OPERATION

RUPEES

Welding machine

120

Fixing the linkages

240

Drilling machine

80

Making holes

80

Grinding machine

80

Cutting machine

80

Finishing the
components
Parting off objects

TOTAL

80
80
480

10.7 LABOR COST ESTIMATION


It is calculated considering the labor to be a skilled worker.
SR.

AMOUNT

OPERATION

HOURS

RATE/HOUR

Welding

75

150

Drilling

50

50

Grinding

50

50

Cutting

50

50

Assembly and painting

100

300

NO.

TOTAL

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PAID

600

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10.8 TOTAL COST


SR NO

TYPE OF COST

COST (RS)

Different parts

9497

Machine cost

480

Labor cost

600

Other cost (cost of wires, wireman works,


sleeve for wires, paint, circuit box)
TOTAL

1500
12077

10.9 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we discussed about different type of costing and evaluate the final cost of
product.

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CHAPTER 11
ADVANTAGE & LIMITATION OF PROJECT AND ITS
FUTURE SCOPE

11.1 ADVANTAGES
The pipe inspection robot inspects situation inside the pipe which will be recorded
and displayed on the monitor screen, it also facilitates working personnel for
effective observation, detection, quick analysis and diagnosis.
Save comprehensive investment, improve work efficiency, more accurate
detection.
Reduce the frequency of entering into the testing environment.
Operating cost related to other method is low.
Cost of manufacturing of this robot is relatively low.

11.2 LIMITATION
Pipe inspection robots have such limitations as their ability to turn in a T-shaped
pipe or move in a plug valve.
Another drawback of earlier robots is that the friction between the pipe and the
cables for communication and power supply makes it difficult to move a long
distance. A fiber optic communication system can reduce the friction.
This robot does not work in water.
This robot works only in empty pipe.

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11.3 FUTURE SCOPE


11.3.1 Nuclear power plants:
Nuclear power plants must place safety concerns on the highest level of priority before
other interests such as their business interests. Regular inspections of pipe systems need
to be carried out and robots from INSPECTOR SYSTEMS are widely used.

11.3.2 Conventional power plants:


By taking advantage of the NDT inspection methods that our robots offer, defects and
faults can be avoided increasing the 'up and running' operational time of all kinds of pipe
systems. Worldwide, many power plants already use our robots to do just this.

11.3.3 Refineries:
The mineral oil industry can benefit from improved supply, transportation, processing
and distribution of mineral oil as well as improved environmental protection. Our robots
are helping to do just this.

11.3.4 Chemical and petrochemical plant:


It is of course vital to continually reduce the risks brought about by the manufacture,
transport and storage of chemicals. This means that the possible dangers need to be
examined and the necessary testing and inspections carried out in order to avoid or at
least lessen and contain them. The use of our robots has become obligatory in many well
known companies.

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11.3.5 Offshore:
The technical demands of offshore rigs as well as safety and environmental requirements
are very high and strongly controlled. This means that there is an enormous amount of
required Non Destructive Testing inspections. Our robots are used worldwide in offshore
applications.

11.3.6 Long distance city heating pipelines:


Leakages in long distance heat conduits, caused through external corrosion, cause energy
and water losses resulting in damage to, among others, subterranean constructions.
Minimizing energy loss during the transport of heat from source to end user is one of the
most important requirements in order to exclude danger to people and the environment.
Our robots help in this important duty.

11.3.7 Food and drinks industries:


The hygiene standard in the food and drinks industries is very high. The condition of the
individual pipe networks is therefore decidedly important. Inspection robots from
INSPECTOR SYSTEMS help to maintain and ensure this high level of hygiene.

11.3.8 Communal waste water pipe systems:


Subterranean sewer systems have been responsible for the collection and transport of
waste water since planning and construction began in 1842. With the Republic of
Germany most of these sewage systems are owned by the cities and community districts.
Regular inspection of the roughly 445 km of public sewage systems is therefore a
complex and cost intensive process.
11.3.9 Gas pipelines:

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Within Germany the total length of the natural gas pipeline network is something like 335
km. At the moment it is run by 18 national companies and around 730 local ones. Robots
from inspector systems are deployed for inspection and maintenance these flexible robots
are well suited for carrying out inspections on pipe systems, especially those that have a
lot of bends, vertical sections and pipe branches. These robots are mainly used in the
nuclear power industry, refineries, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, the offshore
industry, gas pipelines, the beverage industry and all types of pipe lines up to 500m long.
Three drive elements provide a speed of up to 200 m/h in both horizontal and vertical
directions and allow for effortless bend taking.

11.4 CONCLUSION
Robots play an important role in inside pipe-network maintenance and their
repairing. Some of them were designed to realize specific tasks for pipes with constant
diameters, and other may adapt the structure function of the variation of the inspected
pipe.
In this project inside pipe modular robotic system are proposed. An
important design goal of these robotic systems is the adaptability to the inner diameters of
the pipes. The given prototype permits the usage of a mini-cam for visualization of the inpipe inspection or other devices needed for failure detection that appear in the inner part
of pipes (measuring systems with laser, sensors etc).
The major advantage is that it could be used in case of pipe diameter
variation with the simple mechanism. We developed a pipe inspection robot that can be
applied to 203mm-304mm pipeline. A real prototype was developed to test the feasibility
of this robot for inspection of in-house pipelines.
The types of inspection tasks are very different. A modular design was
considered for easily adapted to new environments with small changes. Presence of
obstacles within the pipelines is a difficult issue. In the proposed mechanism the problem
is solved by a spring actuation and increasing the flexibility of the mechanism. The robot
is designed to be able to traverse horizontal and vertical pipes. Several types of modules
for pipe inspection mini robot have been presented. Many of the design goals of the Pipe
inspection robot have been completely fulfilled.
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CHAPTER 12
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Following different references we have taken to make our project success one:
MACHINE DESIGN-------------------------------------------------------R S KHURMI

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY-----------------------------HAZRA CHUDHARY

STRENGTH OF MATERIAL---------------------------------------------R S KHURMI

STRENGTH OF MATERIAL----------------------------------------------SUNIL DEO

THEORY OF MACHINE --------------------------------------------------RS KHURMI

PSG DESIGN DATA BOOK

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