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Delegated Legislation - A-Level Law Revision & Exam Help by D.Hussain Publications

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DelegatedLegislation
WhatisDelegatedLegislationandhowitisauthorized?
DelegatedLegislationislawmadebyapersonorbodytowhomParliament
hasdelegatedlawmakingpowerhencethetermdelegatedlegislation.
Newlawsoftenneedtocompletemoredetailedrules.Parliamentdoesnot
haveenoughtimeorexpertisetomakeallthesemoredetailedlaws.
Thereasonsfordetailednewlawsmaybebecause:

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Anewlawmayberequiredforaspecificareaofthecountry,for
whichcasespecialistlocalknowledgemayberequired.
Alternately,anewlawonatechnicalmattersuchashealthor
agriculturewillrequirespecialisttechnicalknowledge.
Sometimes,anemergencyoranewsituationmayrequirenewlaw
tobemadeveryquickly.Parliamentoftendoesnotpossessthe
necessaryspecialistlocalortechnicalknowledgetomakelaws
quickly.Alsotheformallegislativeprocessrequiringreadingsinboth
HousesofParliament,isnotsuitablewherethereisanemergency.
Forthesereasonsitisnecessaryforparliamenttodelegatelawmaking
powertopeopleandbodieswhoarebetterequippedtomakethenecessary
detailedlegalreforms.

QuickLinks

SolicitorsinBristol
(PersonalInjuryClaims)
LoxfordLaw.co.uk (ALevel

LawDilwoarHussain)
OpenDisc.com
Parent(orenablingAct)
(OpenEducationDiscOfficial
Site)
http://englib.net/
Bythispieceofprimarylegislation,parliamentgivesauthoritytootherstomake
http://undergroundwritersnet.com/
law.
http://mid
michiganlawyers.net/
ALevelLaw.com(AsifTufal)
Theparentactwillenablefurtherlawstobemadeunderthisauthority.
Consilio(Degreematerial)
ContractLaw(MaxYoung)
Elawstudent(Professional
TheenablingActcontainstheoutlineframeworkofthenewlaw.
publisher)
HelpwithLawExams,(Clive
WithintheActtherewillbeauthorityforspecificperson(suchasaGovernment
Dunkley)
LawObserver(itemsoflegal
Minister)orbody(suchasalocalauthority)tomakefurthermoredetailedlaws.
interest)
LoretoCollegeBlog(Andrew
ThisActwillspecifytheareawithinwhichlawcanbemadeanyproceduresthatthe
Howells)
KentLawSchool(Profesor
delegatedpersonorbodymustfollowwhenmakingthedelegatedlaws.
SteveUglow)
NationalPolicingImprovement
Agency
Lawmakingpowerisonlygiventopersonorbodybestequippedwiththe
ResourcesforStudents(Delia
knowledgeandresourcestomakethetypeoflawrequired.
Venables)
StBrendan's
College(lateJohnDeft)
Ifpowerisgiventolocalauthoritythenthesepersonswillhavetherequired
Strode'sCollege(DrPeter
knowledge.
Jepson)
TheKZone(KevinBoone)
WikiCrimeLine(AcrimeWiki)
Ifpowerisgiventoanotherbody,suchasatrainorbuscompany,itwillbegivento
SixthFormLaw

makelawsinrespectoftheirproperty,(e.g.theenforcementforpaymentoffares).

OfficialExamDates
Checktheofficial

OrdersinCouncil

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timetablesforyourexams
byclickingonthelink
below.

OrdersincouncilarelawsmadebytheQueenandPrivyCouncilwhichare
enforceableinCourts.

OfficialExamDates

ThePrivyCouncilisabodymadeupofseniorcurrentandformerpoliticians,
seniorjudgesandmembersoftheRoyalFamily.
Therearecurrently420membersofthePrivyCouncil;howeveronlythreeorfour
currentGovernmentMinistersattendmeetingsatwhichOrdersinCouncilaremade.
AppointmentismadebytheQueenontheadviceoftheGovernmentandisforlife.
OrdersinCouncilareusedinmanysituations,including:
TransferringresponsibilitybetweenGovernmentdepartmentsorfrom
WestminsterdepartmentstoScottishParliamentsandtheWelshassembly;
thiswasdonebytheScotlandAct1998Order1999andtheNational
AssemblyofWalesOrder1999.
Dissolvingparliamentbeforeanelection.
BringinginActofParliamentintoforce.
CompliancewithEUDirectives,forexampletheConsumerProtectionAct
1987Order2000.
Dealingwithforeignaffairs,forexample,theAfghanistan(unitedNations
Sanctions)Order2001,whichmakesitanoffencetomakefundsavailableto
OsamaBinLadenortheTalibanoranypersonorbodyconnectedwithOsama
BinLadenortheTaliban.
Intimesofnationalemergency,whenParliamentisnotsitting.An
exampleofanemergencysituationiswhichanorderincouncilwasmade,isas
aresultoftheterroristattackson11 thSeptember2001wherethere
AfghanistanOrder2001waspassed.

StatutoryInstruments
StatutoryInstrumentsarelawmadebyGovernmentMinisterswithintheareaof
theirresponsibility.
Theyareenforceableincourts.
TheycanonlyactundertheauthorityoutlinedbyaParent/EnablingAct.
StatutoryInstrumentsaredraftedbythelegaldepartmentoftherelevant
Governmentdepartment.
StatutoryInstrumentsareoftenusedtoupdatelaw.E.g.theregularincreaseinthe
amountofthenationalminimumwageundertheNationalMinimumWageAct1998.
SometimeswiderpowersaregiventotheGovernmentMinistertofillinthe
necessarydetailswhicharetoocomplextobeincorporatedintotheAct.
StatutoryInstrumentsareoftenreferredtoasRegulationsorOrders.
StatutoryInstrumentsareoftenmadeintheformofCommencementOrders.
TheseareordersmadebyaGovernmentMinisterspecifyingwhenanactorpartofan
actmustcomeintoforce.
SometimestheremaybeseveralCommencementOrdersmadeinrespectofthe
sameAct,i.e.theTownandCountryPlanningAct1971wasbroughtintoforceby75
Orders.

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ThereisnotimelimitwithinwhichCommencementordermustbemadeafterthe
Acthasbeenpassed.ThismeansthatsomeActsareneveractuallybroughtintoforce,
e.g.theEasterAct1928whichspecifiesafixeddateforEaster,buttheActhasnever
beenbroughtintoforce.
LawthatismadetocomplywithEUdirectivesisoftenmadeinStatutory
Instruments.E.g.theUnfairTermsinConsumerContractsRegulations1999weremade
inordertocomplywiththeUnfairTermsinConsumerContractDirective1993.
Approximately3000SIsareissuedeachyear,makingupthebulkof
delegatedlegislation.
AbouttwothirdsofSIsarenotactivelyconsideredbeforeParliamentand
simplybecomelawonaspecifieddateinthefuture.

ByLaws
Bylawsaremadebylocalauthoritiesandpubliccorporationsor
companies.
TheymustbeapprovedbytherelevantGovernmentMinistersbeforethey
areenforceableintheCourts.
Localauthoritiescanmakelawswhichapplyjustwithintheirgeographicalarea.A
CountryCouncilcanpasslawsaffectingawholecountry,whileaCity,TownorDistrict
Councilmaypasslawsaffectingthatcity,townordistrict.
Theselawsmaydealwithissues,forexampledrinkingalcoholinpublicplacesor
thefoulingofpublicareasbydogs.
AparentActinrespectofdogfoulingistheDogs(FoulingofLand)Act1996.Under
thisActalocalauthoritycandesignateareasoflandaspoopscoopareas.Thismeans
dogsthatfoulindesignatedareasanddonocleanitup;theirownerswillbeasubject
toafixedpenaltyof50.
ManybylawsaremadeundertheauthorityoftheLocalGovernmentAct1972.
Areashavesignsonlamppoststosupporttheprohibition.
Pubicbodiesandsomecompaniescanmakelawsregulatingthebehaviorofthe
publicwhileontheirproperty,i.e.theTransportAct1993whereitwasmadeillegalto
smokeontrains.(BoddingtonvBritishTransportPolice(1998).

ControlofDelegatedLegislation

ParliamentaryControl
LimitsDelegatedLegislationthroughtheParent/EnablingAct.
Onlythepeopleorbodyspecifiedintheparentacthavepowertomakelaw,and
extendofthatpowerisalsospecified.
Theparentactwillsetouthowthedelegatedlegislationmustbemadeandmayset
outcertainprocedures,suchasconsultation,tobefollowed.
ParliamentSupremacyisnotcompromisedasParliamentultimatelyremainsin
controlofwhatlawismadeandhowitismade.
Parliamentmayrepealoramendthepieceofdelegatedlegislation,thisallows
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parliamenttomakeorunmakelaws.
Theeffectivenessofthiscontrolislimitedbecause,duetovolumeofdelegated
legislationmadeeachyear,Parliamentwillnotbeabletocheckitall.
JointSelectCommitteeonStatutoryInstruments,alsoknownastheScrutiny
CommitteewhichismadeupofMPsandPeerschecktheStatutoryInstrumentsand
referbacktotheHousesofParliament.
MaingroundsforreferringaSisbacktoHouseofParliamentarebecause:
Itappearstohavegonebeyondoroutsidethepowersgivenunderthe
Parent/EnablingAct.
IthasnotbeenmadeaccordingtothemethodwrittenintheParentAct.
Unexpectedusehasbeenmadeofthedelegatedpower.
Ifitunclearordefective.
Ifitimposesataxorchargeonlyparliamenthastherighttodothis.
Ifitisretrospectiveinitseffects,andtheParent/EnablingActdidnot
allowforthis.
ThisismoreeffectivecontrolasmanyStatutoryInstrumentsaresubjecttosome
scrutiny.
Howeverimpossibletolookatallasover3000arecreatedeachyear.
ScrutinycommitteesarelimitedinthatithasnopowertoamendtheStatutory
Instruments,merelytoreportitsfindingbacktotheHouseofCommonsorLords.
However,researchbytheHansardSociety,reportedin1992,revealedmany
findingsoftheScrutinyCommitteewereignored.
TheHouseofLordsDelegatedPowerScrutinyCommittee(setupin1993)
considerswhethertheprovisionsofBillsgiveinappropriatedelegatedlegislativepower.
ItreportstotheHouseofLordsbeforetheCommitteestageontheBill.

AffirmativeResolutionProcedure
StatutoryInstrumentsmustbeapprovedbyoneorbothHousesofParliament
withinaspecifiedtime,usuallybetween28and40days,beforeitcanbecomelaw.
Disadvantages:
TimeconsumingcontradictingoneofthemainaimsofDelegated
Legislation.
StatutoryInstrumentscannotbeamendedbyParliament,onlyapproved,
annulledorwithdrawn.
AstheGovernmentMinisterispartoftheGovernment,theywillnormally
getmostofthevotes.
Asaresultofthesedisadvantagestheaffirmativeresolutionisnotused
veryoften.
HoweverwithaffirmativeresolutiontheStatutoryInstrumentsmustalwaysbe
debatedbyparliamentanditisthereforemoreeffectivethansomeoftheother
controls.

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NegativeResolutionProcedure
TheStatutoryInstrumentsislawbeforeParliament,usuallyfor40days,and
becomeslawunlesseitherhousesvotestoannulit.
AllmembersofbothHousescanputdownamotionknownasaprayercallingfor
annulment.
Thereisthenadebateandvote.
IfeitherHousevotetopasstheannulmentmotion,theStatutoryInstrumentsdoes
notbecomelaw.
Moreoftenhowever,theStatutoryInstrumentsisnotannulledduringthe40day
periodandsoautomaticallybecomeslaw.
Disadvantages:
Limitedeffect,asthereisnorequirementforMPstolookattheStatutory
Instrument.
MostDelegatedLegislationisnotchallengedandautomaticallybecomes
lawafter40days.
However,thismethodofcontroldoesgiveopportunityforanymemberofeither
Housetoraiseobjections.
Thisinturnmayprovideformoredebateandconsiderationtobegiventothe
provisionsoftheStatutoryInstrument.

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