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Question 1.

How do you identify the training and development needs of an organisation?

Answer 1.
The organizational effective depends on the performance and excellence of their employees.
The employees may be inexperienced or lacking in some of skill/knowledge required to
perform the given task. These deficiencies need to be rectified and the employees morale to
be boosted to perform his task effectively. Today's work environment requires employees to
be skilled in performing complex tasks in an efficient, cost-effective, and safe manner.
Training (a performance improvement tool) is needed when employees are not performing
up to a certain standard or at an expected level of performance. The difference between actual
the actual level of job performance and the expected level of job performance indicates a
need for training.
Training needs assessment provides information on where training is needed, what content of
training is needed, what content of training should be, and who within organisation needs
training in certain kinds of skills and knowledge. A Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is a
systematic method for determining what caused performance to be less than expected or
required. Performance improvement is the focus of training. The trigger for doing needs
analysis occurs when actual organizational performance (AOP) is less than expected
organisational performance (EOP); this difference is the organisational performance gap
Training Needs Analysis (TNA) could accomplish several important things:

Increase chances that time and money spent on training is spent wisely,
Determine benchmark for evaluation of training,
Increase motivation of participants, and
Align her training activities with companys strategic plan.

A TNA will provide a benchmark of performance levels and KSAs that trainees possess prior
to training. These benchmarks will let you compare performance before and after training.
This will allow you to demonstrate cost savings or value added as a result of training.
Training Needs Analysis (TNA) has three critical and interrelated components;
Organisational analysis, Operational (task) analysis, and Person analysis.
1. Organizational analysis: It analyzes the effectiveness of the organization as a whole
and identifies any discrepancies. It is used to uncover the competencies, knowledge
and skills that are needed by the company to bridge any gaps. Organizational
assessments also take into account external factors such as the economy,








demographics. These assessments determine where training is needed, how it will be

conducted and when. Organizational assessments answer two critical development
planning questions:
Where in the organization is training required?
Will the training be effective if implemented (fill the gaps)?
2. Operational (Task) analysis: It gathers information about a particular job function or
occupational group. This analysis identifies the key tasks, competencies and skills
required to perform the job at the most efficient level. Using job descriptions, skill
analyses and job inventory questionnaires these assessments are used to discover
specific training needs. This type of analysis is particularly useful if an organization is
moving in a new direction or undergoing restructuring. Again, the assessment is used
to determine if there are any gaps between existing competencies and those needed
for improved performance. Task assessments answer the following planning question:
What skills and/or behaviours must be acquired in this job function?
3. Person (Individual) analysis: It focuses on a particular employee to discover how
well they are performing. This type of assessment determines the individuals existing
skills and competencies, their learning style and capacity for new work. The
individual analysis identifies who within the organization requires training and what
kind of training is needed. 360 degree evaluations are useful as individual assessments
as they identify the employees strengths and areas for improvement in regards to
competencies, skills and behaviours. The individual assessment forms the basis for
the creation of a customized training and development plan for the employee. These
assessments answer the following key development questions:
Does the employee have the necessary skills?
What training is required for the employee to acquire the necessary skills?

Question 4.
How do you design and conduct a specific training programme?

Answer 4.
The results of the needs assessment allows the training manager to set the training objectives
by answering two very basic questions: who, if anyone, needs training and what training is
needed. Sometimes training is not the solution. Some performance gaps can be reduced or
eliminated through other management solutions such as communicating expectations,
providing a supportive work environment, arranging consequences, removing obstacles and
checking job fit. Once the needs assessment is completed and training objectives are clearly
identified, the design phase of the training and development process is initiated:
Select the internal or external person or resource to design and develop the training.
Select and design the program content.
Select the techniques used to facilitate learning (lecture, role play, simulation, etc.).
Select the appropriate setting (on the job, classroom, etc.).
Select the materials to be used in delivering the training (work books, videos, etc.).
Identify and train instructors (if internal). After completing the design phase, the training is
ready for implementation: Schedule classes, facilities and participants. Schedule
instructors to teach. Prepare materials and deliver them to scheduled locations. Conduct
the training. The final phase in the training and development program is evaluation of the
program to determine whether the training objectives were met. The evaluation process
includes determining participant reaction to the training program, how much participants
learned and how well the participants transfer the training back on the job. The information
gathered from the training evaluation is then included in the next cycle of training needs
assessment. It is important to note that the training needs assessment, training objectives,
design, and implementation and evaluation process is a continual process for the
Designing a training programme- First decide the objectives taking note of program content
required, methodology, level of participants and duration.
Seven essential steps1

Moderate level of content- In this trainer has time to design activities that introduce,
present, apply and reflect upon what is being learned

Variety of learning approaches to keep interest alive

Opportunities for group participation.

Utilization of participants knowledge or skill in a particular subject.

Recycling of earlier learned concepts and skills.

Real life problem solving.

Allowance for re-entry planning- Transferring learning into course of job.

Tips to design training programme:

Assess participants
Define the objective
Match objectives with training needs
Set general learning goals
Specify Objectives
Design Training activities
Determine training methodology and location for training
Sequence training activities
Start detailed planning
Revise design details
Evaluate total result

Three major ingredients of design are:

1) Purpose- It specifies the need.
2) Method-Used to implement worker training and development program isa) On the job training
b) Planned program
c) Productivity measurement technique and feedback on performance.
d) Quality circle program.
3) Conduction of Training Programme
A) Preparing yourself mentally:
Preparation of materials and activities in advance.
Familiarize with participants.
Be comfortable with course contents.

Flexible with lesser plans and designs.

Vary location and event.
Watch others train the same program.
B) Arranging physical environment
C) Greeting participants and establishing friendly relationships
D) Acquiring best from first 30 minutes of training
E) Reviewing the agenda:
Content outline
Description of all training activities designed
Requests you will make to participants
House keeping information (eating arrangements)
Getting feedback
Control at time and pace
Making smooth transition from one topic to other


Question NO. 1. What are the cross culture issues in HRD and how do you
manage such issues?
Ans. No. 1

In multinational Organizations, various business operations require

transfers, promotions and hiring of officials to a host country where the business is
being run. Thus, in such a scenario cross culture issues arise in the HR Department.
Some of these issues can be:
1. Gender In acceptability: There are countries (usually in Middle East and South
East Region) which are not open to the thought of women department or women staff
working in powerful positions. Due to this reason, female candidates are not selected,
promoted and transferred. They do not zest acceptability and co-operation in working
place and in living as well.

Language Barrier:

Even though English is a globally accepted business

language, still there are countries, where the usage of local language is dominant.
Moreover, even if it is not than too it becomes difficult for an expatriate to interact
with local business partners or employees, if he/she does not know the local language
at all and not English but the local language is preferred to speak specially for
professional interaction.
3. Cultural/Regional Differences: What may be a regular practice for one region
may not be so widely seen in another culture or region. Even the local region and
culture of a place affects the working style of a MNCs office in that region.
Somewhere, those offices timings would be from 8.00 AM in the morning or
somewhere it may start at 9.30 or 10.00.
4. Values and Ethical differences: What may be ethically right for a region may not
be accepted in another. Thus, influencing the working thought process of the local
business partner, e.g. in our country, the morning would be to leave office exactly at
the decided closing hours of the office whereas, in some places a flexible or extended
office hours is a regular practice.

5. Family issues: Either employees leave their families back home or incase they
take them along there lot of problems come in their adjustments, like spouses job
settlement, childrens education etc. In case, they leave their facilities back home,
chances of loneliness and emotional imbalance arise too often wanting to go back as
soon as possible.
However, irrespective of the problems arising, businesses do need to be
carried out and managed. This can be solved as followed:1. Pre-departure Training: A detailed training on the various issues, that may come
in the way of an employees settlement may be arranged. Like providing training and
information on immigration, housing, medical facilities, shopping nuances, children
school/college education, if admissible, general living and working conditions of the
country, Remuneration and Tax Policy etc.
2. Administrative Services:

Knowledge on Policies and Procedures should be

3. Host Governmental Relations: This depends a lot on host and home countrys
good relationship. In case, the ties are strained all formalities of VISA, Work permit
etc. should be sorted out well in advance.
4. Premium to be received: All PCN employees should receive an annual premium
for foreign assignments apart from their salary and performance.

This can be

reasoned as, been given in order to remove any differentiation between the localities
and PCNs, in term of what salaries, houses are being received by the two, which
should be based on original work bases.
5. Family Responsibilities: HRD needs to take care of the family by helping in
searching jobs for spouse, admissions for children, accommodation and medical
facilities etc.

Question 4. What steps are needed to prepare a training calendar for one year
for your organization and the steps for its implementation?
Ans. No. 4. A yearly training program calendar is a possible list of the possible
training program that would be conducted in that year, with their dates and timing
listed. For a successful TP calendar the following steps should be kept in mind:
1. Training Need Identification: The following points helps in taking the training
plan forward better:
a) Identifying why the training should be conducted.
b) Is the season valid enough to conduct training or even not.
c) Help in assessing the question like the duration of the training
program, technical or non-technical.
d) What levels of employees are to be targeted for training?
e) Training Planner should interact with the HODs.
f) Performance Appraisal of an employee or complete department can
also help in TNI.

Training Content Development:

As a part of the Training Planner, it is

important to set the rules of the games or simply draw at least a broader layout of the
content that would be delivered as per the TNI.
3. Faculty Identification: Whether training would be conducted in in-house team or
an outside training team is hired.
4. Budget of the Training Program: What is the budget of the training program, Is
it in compliance with the usual annual budget decided for the organization or some
more needs to be sanctioned.
5. Decision on number of training program: A bifurcation needs to be done about
in a month on the following:

How many in-house or out-training or combination of both, or

Once in week, or

2-3 days of regular workshop


Communication with HODs for approval:

It is necessary to inform the

concerned HODs and take their approval for conducted the training so that there
should not be any hindrance in important/priority works.
7. Inform the trainees about the Training: This needs to be done well in advance
so that they can also be well prepared and their presence is approved by their
managers easily. It lets the team be better prepared to tackle the absence.
8. Float regular mails regarding training programs.
9. Keep check about nay short-term changes, update them and make any changes if required.
10. Attendance and Feedback
11. Assess the participants Once over a regular period of time.
12. If satisfied, training successful else eased the participants for re-training.
Training calendar can easily be implemented by
1. Being in regular touch with HODs, Managers, and Supervisors to make
any changes if required.
2. By making everyone understand the importance of training, the changes it
can be buy in.
3. By giving examples of organizations that implement training and the
success, they have achieved from the same.
4. By creating a B-Plan of the existing training Calendar
5. By interacting with employees to create interest in them and let training be
more interesting and yet need amended.