Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

Weather

&
Climate and Climate Change
(Study guide for test)
Words to know:
Meteorology- The study of weather
Weather- The state or condition of the atmosphere at a
particular location for a short period of time
Climate- Average of weather conditions in a region over
a long period of time
Atmospheric Variables- Ever-changing factors that
affect and change weather
Humidity- The amount of moisture in the air (water
vapor)
o Absolute Humidity- The total mass of water vapor
in a given volume of air. Depends on temperature.
The higher the temperature, the more water vapor
the air can hold.
o Relative Humidity- The amount of water vapor in
the air relative to the amount of water vapor that
the air can hold.
o Instrument: Sling Psychomotor
Temperature- The average kinetic energy of particles in
a substance. Instrument: thermometer.
o Adiabatic Cooling- Air is forced up by the mountain
and expands because of less pressure and it cools
off. *Cools due to Expansion*
Air Pressure- The pressure of the air pushing down on a
surface
o High Pressure Center- dry, clear and cooler (air)
weather.
o Low Pressure Center- Wet, cloudy, warmer (air)
weather.
Regional Winds- Winds that extend over a large area

Local Winds- Winds that extend only for a few miles


Pressure gradient- A difference in air pressure between
2 places
Winds cause ocean currents

Meteorology
Atmospheric Variables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Temperature
Pressure
Humidity
Wind
Precipitation
Cloud Cover
Dew Point Temperature

Station Models
(*Found on pg. 13 of ESRT*)
Tells you
where the
wind is

In F

Convert
Barometric
Pressure:
000-499, add
10 in front
EX:
138=1013.
8

500-999, add 9
in front
Put a decimal
between last
two digits

Tendency:
/

Increase
Steady
Decreasing

Humidity
*Humidity increases as air temperature approaches
dew point temperature
*The Drier the air, the more evaporation, the more
cooling
(Dew point and Relative Humidity chart pg. 12)

Temperature
Dry
Bulb
Temp.
In C

Factors that Affect Temperature:


Latitude: **The lower the latitude = the higher the
temperature**
COLD

Differenc
e
between
Wet Bulb
and Dry
Bulb
In C

HOT

= 0 latitude,
Hottest

COLD

Duration of
Isolation:
**The longer the sun is
out = the higher the temperature**

Dry
Bulb
Temp.
In C

Time of Day: **Hottest temperatures occur between 24 pm**


Season: ** The hottest temperatures occur between
July-Aug.**
Hottest in July and
August

Altitude: **Higher altitude = Lower temperature**

Differenc
e
between
Wet Bulb
and Dry
Bulb
In C

Surface where air exists: **Color & Texture and Specific


heat of substance**
Particulate Matter: **More aerosols = Cooler
Temperature**
Clouds: **Clouds- Day = Cooler Temperature & CloudsNight = Warmer Temperature**
Air Pressure
Factors that affect air pressure:
Density: the greater the density the greater the
air pressure because there are more air molecules
in a given space
Temperature: Colder the Temp, the higher the air
pressure because the air is denser
Humidity: Moist air has a low air pressure
because the mass of moist air is less than the
mass of dry air
High Pressure Center: pressure increases as you
move into the pressure center.
Low Pressure Center: Pressure decreases as you
move into the pressure center.
THE CLOSER THE ISOBARS THE FASTER THE WIND
Northern Hemisphere

Outwards and
Clockwise

Inward and
Counterclockwi
se

Outwards and
Counterclockwis
e

Inward and
Clockwise

Southern Hemisphere

Wind
Wind blows from High pressure to low pressure
Steep pressure gradient- changes quickly, isobars are
close together, and wind speeds are high
Gentle pressure gradient- changes slowly, isobars are
widely spaced and wind speeds are low
Anemometer- used to measure wind speed
Weather Vane- used to measure wind direction
Sea Breeze
Breeze

Prevailing Winds (found on pg. 14 of ESRT)

Land

Monsoons: Seasonal changes in the direction of the


prevailing winds. Similar to land and sea breezes but can last
for months and move over a greater distance.

Jet Streams: Narrow bands of fast moving, high-altitude


wind which separates the cold polar air from the warmer air
in the South. They blow from WEST to EAST at about 200
mph.

Clouds
Cloud- a collection of tiny droplets of water or ice
To form, water must evaporate from the ocean or from
other bodies of water
Factors that affect the rate at which a substance
evaporates:
1. Degree of Saturation- if air is saturated, not much
evaporation
2. Surface Area- if water is spread out
3. Wind Speed- faster winds evaporate water faster
Cloud Formation
1. Moist air is less dense so it rises
2. Rising air expands and cools
3. When rising air cools down to the dew point
temperature, the air becomes saturated and
condensation occurs if condensation nuclei are
present.
Air Masses
Air Mass- a large body of air with similar conditions
of temperature, moisture, pressure, and winds
throughout
Characteristics are determined by the
geographical region of origin, its temperature and
moisture

o Maritime (m): air that forms over water and is


moist
o Continental (c): air that forms over land and
is dry
Polar (p): forms over cold regions
Arctic (a): forms over very cold regions
Tropical (t): forms over warm regions

An air mass generally moves toward the east over the


U.S. because the U.S. is located in the Southwest wind
belt
Fronts
Cold Front

Faster than warm fronts


Brief, heavy precipitation followed by cooler temp.
o At the leading edge of the cold front

Warm Front

Light, steady rain and warmer temperatures

Stationary Front

A cold front and warm front are stuck at a standstill, can


remain for days
Gentle, steady rain with lots of clouds that could last for
days
Occluded Front

A cold front overtakes a warm front


o Because cold fronts move faster than warm
fronts
Warm air is wedged between two cooler air
masses and is forced up, cools due to expansion
and it reaches its dew point and precipitation
occurs
Long periods of gentle to heavy rain