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ANTIMATTER

What is it?
Every particle in existence has its own antiparticle of equal opposite
charge with identical mass. This means that for every quark there is
an antiquark, for every proton there is an antiproton and for every
hydrogen molecule there is an antihydrogen molecule. In theory this
could stretch to an anti-ant or even an anti-Mr Tober.

The problem with antimatter arises when you observe what happens
upon both the matter and the antimatter meeting eachother. As
there is opposite charge, they arent repelled in the same way two
atoms do. Upon meeting one another the particle and antiparticle
let out a burst of pure energy in the form of two photons. The
reason there are two photons is because photons have a minute
amount of mass. The law of conservation of momentum dictates
that there has to be an equal momentum after the collision. The
photons therefore are radians from eachother.

Particles can also be created as well as destroyed. Provided the right


wavelength of EM radiation is achieved, the photons will
spontaneously create two particles, the type of particle will be
determined by the energy equation
E = m * c2
Where E is energy, m is mass and c is the speed of light. The
reaction creates two oppositely charged particles of the same mass,

a particle and an antiparticle. These, once again are emitted at


radians from eachother to conserve momentum. This law can be
best understood if you consider the equation
X2 = 4
The answer is not just X = 2 but also X = -2, just as in particle
creation.
Antimatter has been speculated to have potential to be used in
spaceships or for a clean fuel. Unfortunately the concept is not
entirely accurate as to make antimatter we need to first create a lot
of energy. This means where with fossil fuels we harvest the energy
of decomposed life and in nuclear power we harvest the energy of
the sun forming particles, we cant harvest any natural energy in
antimatter as there seems to be none there to use.
There are many theories to this odd situation. One is that there is an
area of antimatter in the universe that is in the same position as we
are in that they will have very few particles of matter. This doesnt
quite work as for this to happen there would be a small amount of
cosmic rays indicatng the annihilations occurring from the distant
universe. Another more accurate theory is that of Baryogenesis. This
dictates that when the universe was in its infancy there was many,
many more particles than are currently present. The difference in
the numbers of antiparticles in relation to the particles was
incredibly small, down to millions of a percent. It then goes on to
detail that most of the matter annihilated with most of the
antimatter leaving a small percentage of matter left over, unannihilated. This is what we see today. There is an atom that can be
created called the positronium where instead of an electron orbiting
a proton, there is an electron orbiting a positron. The particle has
only been seen for nanoseconds at a time ut has been confirmed to
exist. The positron is one of the easier particles to detect as it plays
a part in beta decay, something that most radioactive sources
release. The way they do this is to indirectly monitor the positron by
monitoring the photons released. In theory there should be an
emission on both sides of the detector of a certain frequency using
an adapted E=mc2 equation.
e + e+ +

MESONS
Mesons are two particles, one anti, one matter. They orbit eachother
for fractions of a second before annihilating eachother.

HISTORY
Paul Dirac, a mathematician during the early 20th century predicted
the prescence of antimatter before it had been observed by
scientists. His famous Dirac Equation showing that there had to be
positrons in existence. Carl Anderson who first discovered positrons
through passing a photon near a nucleus later backed this up. The
effect was that two different trails of particles occurred, both curving
in opposite directions at equal rates. This showed that the positron
had equal mass but opposite charge to an electron.

USES
Antimatter is used in PET scans where the patient swallows a
radioactive source with a short half life. This source then emits
positrons after beta decay. These positrons collide with electrons in
the tissue and through careful monitoring of the gamma rays
produced after annihilation, the machine can build a tomography of
the body.

http://science.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-medicine1.htm
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Lo8NmoDL9T8&list=UUUHW94eEFW7hkUMVaZz4eDg
http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/ParticleAndNuclear/baryogen
esis.html
http://www.particleadventure.org/antimatter.html
http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/particles/hadron.html#c1
New scientists antimatter mysteries series
A2 Physics textbook
How to make antimatter by Frank Close Science Focus Magazine
October 2011

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