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LEARNING AREA : TOPIC 5: CELL DIVISION

5.1 Understanding Mitosis

a) State the necessity for the production of new cells in organisms


-to increase the number of cells(for growth and development)
-to replace the old and damage cells

b) Explain the necessity for the production of new cells identical to parent cells
- They have exact copies of the genetic code as the parent cell. If part of the
code is missing or copied incorrectly the cell would not be able to function
properly.

c) State the significance () of mitosis


1. To replaces dead or damaged cells and tissues.(e.g. red blood cells)
2. To repairs damaged cells or regenerate (lizard is able to generate
the lost part of body)
3. Ensure new cells are genetically identical() to the parents
4. Asexual reproduction in unicellular cells (amoeba)

d)* Identify the phases in the cell cycle

Interphase
G1

G2

Events
-organelles are formed
-preparation of DNA replication
-protein are synthesis
-metabolism rate is high
-DNA replication occurs
-a duplicate chromosome consist of two
identical sister chromatid
-ATP synthesis occurs
-growth of cell
-Protein are synthesis
-metabolic rate is high

e) Explain the process of mitosis and cytokinesis


- Mitosis is the cell divisions that produce daughter cells with the SAME number
of chromosome as parents cell
- Cytokinesis is the division of cytoplasm at the end of mitosis or meiosis,
bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.

f)*** Arrange the various stages of mitosis in the correct sequence


Interphase

Prophase

Metaphase (line up phase)

Anaphase (separation phase)

Telophase(back to interphase)

-new organelles are formed


-ATP is synthesis
-two pair of centrioles exists
-DNA replication occur
-nuclear membrane are present
-chromosome are invisible
-nucleolus visible
-centrioles move to opposite poles of
the cells
-nuclear membrane break down
-nucleolus disappears
-chromosome become shorter and
thicker
-chromosome coil up
-the spindle fibre fully formed
-chromosomes line up along the
equator of the cells
-each chromosome attached to spindle
fibre at the centromere
-centromere splits into two
-spindle fibre contract pulling sister
chromatids apart to opposite poles
-separated chromatid known as
daughter chromosome
-spindle fibre disappear
-chromosome reach their respective
poles
-chromosome become fine and long
and invisible
- cytokinesis occur

g)*** Compare and contrast mitosis and cytokinesis in animal cell and plant cell

Cytokinesis
Plant cell
Animal cell
-Membrane enclosed vesicles
-Actin filaments () in the
collect at the equator between the
cytoplasm contract to pull a ring of
two nuclei.
plasma membrane inwards, forming
- Then the vesicle joins to form a
a groove () called the cleavage
cell plate.
furrow ().
-The cell plate grows outwards until
its edges() fuse with the plasma
membrane
- new cell walls are form
-The cell plate divides the cell into
two daughter cells.
-Cellulose fibres are produced by
the cells to strengthen the new cell
wall

-The cleavage furrow pinches () at


the equator () of the cell

-The cleavage furrow deepens


progressively until the cell
separates into two daughter cells.

h) Explain the importance of controlled mitosis


- controlled mitosis is the ABILITY of cell to divide at its own rate and timing
- cell must divide in a controlled and orderly manner and precise () in
distributing an exact () copy of each their chromosome to the new cell.
- replace the damaged tissue and organ
- for growth
- maintain optimum function of cells in living organism

i) Explain the effects of uncontrolled mitosis in living things

- cell divide VERY FAST to produce many cells and form a TUMOUR(e.g. benign
tumour {} and malignant tumour{} )
- ( it will cause by chemical in food ,certain virus)

j) *Describe the application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning


- cloning is the process of producing genetically identical copies of cell or
organelle through asexual reproduction.
a. A frog egg is selected and the nucleus is destroyed using ultraviolet rays
b. A diploid nucleus of a somatic cell of the frog to be cloned is then
transferred into the egg.
c. The egg is CULTURED () in a culture medium. The egg will divide
mitotically into an embryo () and later into differentiate into tadpole
and a frog.
d.

k)** Explain the advantages and disadvantages of cloning


Advantage
Increase quantity of clone (new
individual) in a SHORT TIME
Increase the rate of reproduction and
quality of the product
It ensure the continuity of hereditary
traits () from the parent to the
clones
Cloned organ could REPLACED
damaged organ

Disadvantage
If a clone is INFECTED a DESEASE ,
then all the clones will also be
AFFECTED and die
Cloning prevents natural selection
Change in the external environment
might destroy all the clone
Inbreeding()

5.2 Understanding Meiosis

a) State the necessity of trait () inheritance () in offspring () for


continuation of life

- They are uniquely adapted () to enable survival in the environment.

b) State the necessity to maintain diploid chromosomal number from generation to


generation

c) State the necessity for production of haploid gametes in sexual reproduction


- The process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in
new cells to half the number of chromosomes in the parent cell. Each daughter
cell receives 1 set of chromosome from each pair of homologous chromosomes
haploid cell

d) State the significance of meiosis


-produce haploid gametes
-maintain diploid chromosome number from generation to generation

e) Identify the type of cell that undergoes meiosis


-reproduction cells (e.g. testis of animal)

f) Explain the process of meiosis


g) Arrange the various stages of meiosis in the correct order
(f+g) MEIOSIS 1
Interphase

Prophase 1

-new organelles are formed


-ATP is synthesis
- Two pair of centrioles exists
-DNA replication occur
-nuclear membrane is intact ()
-chromosome are invisible
-chromosome become shorter and
thicker
-chromosome PAIR UP( synapsis
occur)
-double chromatid chromosome
VISIBLE
- non sister chromatid crossing

over occurs

Metaphase 1 (line up phase)

Anaphase 1 (separation phase)

Telophase 1

-nuclear membrane break down


-nucleolus disappears
-TWO PAIRS centrioles move to
opposite poles of the cells
- spindle fibre form
-chromosomes line up along the
equator of the cells
-each chromosome attached to spindle
fibre at the centromere
-spindle fibre contract pulling apart
homologous chromosomes to opposite
poles
-spindle fibre disappear
-chromosome reach their respective
poles
-chromosome become fine and long
and invisible
- cytokinesis occur
-nucleoli and nuclear membrane
REform

MEIOSIS 2
Prophase 2

- centrioles move to opposite poles of


the cells
-chromosome become visible as double
chromatid chromosome
-nuclear membrane break down
-nucleolus disappears
- spindle fibre form reform

Metaphase 2 (line up phase)

-chromosomes line up along the


equator of the cells
-each chromosome attached to spindle
fibre at the centromere
-the centromere of each
chromosome splits into two
-spindle fibre contract pulling apart
SISTER CHROMATIDS to opposite poles

Anaphase 2 (separation phase)

Telophase 2

-spindle fibre disappear


-chromosome reach their respective
poles
-chromosome become fine and long

and invisible
-nucleoli and nuclear membrane
Reform
- cytokinesis occur

h) Compare and contrast meiosis I and meiosis II


Meiosis1

Meiosis2
Similarities
-both are involve NUCLEAR DIVISION and CYTOPLASMIC DIVISION
-both process consist of four stages (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, Telophase)
Differences
Pa -DNA replication
- NO DNA replication
k
-Diploid
-Haploid
-crossing over occur
-crossing over DOES NOT occur
M
-Bivalents(a pair of homologous
-Individual chromosome line up at the
chromosome) line up at the
equator
equator
A
-centromeres do not divide
- centromeres separate
-homologous chromosome
- sister chromatids separate and move
separate and move to opposite
to opposite poles of the spindle
poles of the spindle
T
TWO haploid daughter are form
FOUR haploid daughter are form

i)

Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis

Mitosis

Meiosis
Similarities

DNA replication only once


Occur at
Synapsis &
crossing
over
Number of
division
Number of
daughter
cells at the

All somatic cells


Does not occur

Differences
Reproductive organs
occur

2 daughter cells

4 daughter cells

end of the
division
Genetic
content
Chromosom
al number of
daughter
cells

Genetically identical to the


parent cell
-Diploid(2n)
-same the number of
chromosome as the parent
cells

Different from the parent cell


Haploid(n)
-half of the number of
chromosome as the parent cells

5.3 Appreciating the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis

a) Describe what will happen when the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and
meiosis do not occur in an orderly manner
- The homologous chromosome fail to separate is called non-disconjunction (
), it cause gamete to have abnormal number of chromosomes.

b) Know and avoid things that maybe harmful


- Ultraviolet rays
- X-rays