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Effects Of Changing The Water-To-Powder

Ratio On Jewelry Investments

Ralph Carter
Materials Engineer
Ransom & Randolph
Maumee, Ohio, USA

In any artistic endeavor or manufacturing process, different techniques are sometimes
tried in order to enhance certain results. Sometimes these techniques have predictable
results, while others are quite experimental. A good example of this is using higher
water-to-powder ratios for some castings and lower ratios for others. In fact, some
investment manufacturers provide for this flexibility by recommending a range of water
to powder ratios. Lower water to powder ratios are advised for large, heavy pieces and
higher ratios are recommended for smaller and more detailed pieces.
It is commonly known that the investment strength, working time and fluidity are
dependant on the water-to-powder ratio. However, the degree of dependence might not be
as well known. Also, while taking action to enhance one property, another lesser-known
property may be overlooked and changed undesirably. This may lead to casting defects.
Because of this, investments are designed to be robust enough to provide some stability,
despite changes in the water-to-powder ratio. But, in order to avoid large adverse
changes, the recommended water-to-powder ratio range is limited.
Some jewelers have used this technique of changing the water-to-powder ratio quite often
and from their experience can easily predict the results. Others may not have the luxury
of experience, thus this technique may be more experimental. For both the experienced
and novice caster, it would be helpful to understand what investment properties are
affected by the water-to-powder ratio and more importantly to what degree.
This paper explores how the various properties of a gypsum-bonded investment change
as a function of the water-to-powder ratio. This paper also discusses how these changes
can affect mold and casting attributes and reinforces the importance of using the water
to-powder ratio range set by investment manufacturers.

The ratio of the amount of water to the amount of investinent powder is commonly
expressed as the water-to-powder ratio (w:p), having units of milliliters of water per
100grams of powder. A w:p of 40ml water per 100 grams powder is sometimes written as
40/100 or simply as 40 or even 0040. Some investment manufacturers recommend that
their gypsum-bonded jewelry investments be used at a w:p in the range of39 to 42 [1].
Others may direct only a specific w:p like 38, instead of a range.
Gypsum-bonded investments contain various types of silica as well as plaster and many
controlling chemicals. The silicas act as a refractory material. Plaster, calcium sulfate
hemihydrate (CaS04.J 12H20), is used to produce a bonding material. Chemicals are used

to control the properties of working time and fluidity as well as to accentuate various
other investment properties.
plaster is an interesting component to investments in that it can be mixed with water to
create a fluid and will react with this water to harden into a solid mass. As a fluid it can
be poured in and around patterns to fill in detailed designs. As a solid it will hold its form
and withstand the rigors of metal casting. When mixed with the proper refractories and
chemicals, plaster retains these characteristics and is thus well suited for jewelry
The primary product of the reaction between plaster and water is gypsum, calcium sulfate
dihydrate (CaS04.2H20). Gypsum acts as the binding agent, holding the refractory
material together in the desired shape. This reaction is represented in the following
balanced chemical equation.

The double arrow indicates that this reaction is reversible. It is during the investment
burnout that this reaction is reversed. At about 262F (128C) [2] gypsum will liberate
some of the molecularly attached water to form plaster. Plaster can be forced to liberate
its molecular water by heating to about 325F (163C) [2]. The resulting compound is
calcium sulfate anhydrite (CaS04). It is important to remove all of the water prior to
casting, so that it does not escape during casting and cause defects or even splash molten
metal out of the mold.
Using the above chemical equation and the molecular weights of each species, it can be
shown that 18.6grams of water is needed to fully convert 100grams of plaster to gypsum.
This ratio can be converted to the common units ofw:p, by using the density of water,
which is O.9977grams/ml at 72.5F (22.5C) [3]. This results in a w:p of 18.7, which is
considerably lower than the recommended w:p for gypsum jewelry investments. This is
because this w:p only accounts for the water necessary to convert plaster to gypsum.
Additional water is always needed to create a mix fluid enough to pour.
The amount of additional water required depends on the type of plaster used, particle size
distribution ofthe plaster and silicas, adhesion between particles and the controlling
chemicals added to the investment [4]. Because of these factors, investment
manufacturers spend great effort to assure the raw materials are as consistent as possible.
Any remaining slight inconsistencies in the raw materials are compensated for by the use
of controlling chemicals, before investment material is sent out for use.
Investment manufacturers, as well as industry experts, have stressed measuring both the
water and powder accurately. Their reasons are many. One reason is to assure that the
mixed investment is not too thick. It has been suggested that if the mixed investment is
too thick, fine details may not be filled and air bubbles may not readily escape [5].
Another reason is to assure the proper mold strength. It is thought that a weak
investment causes a rough surface and possible :fins on the castings [5]. Other reasons
given are to

assure proper working time, permeability, setting expansion, thermal expansion, smooth
casting surface, no fins, no watermarks and ease of removing investment from casting
pieces [5, 6].
In this study, several investment properties were investigated, varying only the w:p from
34 to 46. Castings were also made and evaluated.

Ultra- Vest investment was chosen for this study simply because of it's familiarity and
convenience to the author. The instructions for this product recommend a w:p of 39 for
large castings and 42 for delicate castings [1]. This w:p is similar to other gypsum-based
jewelry investments.
The investment properties measured were pour time, set time, slump, set expansion, green
compressive strength, fired compressive strength and surface hardness. A brief description
of the procedures used to measure these properties is below. All tests were performed with
both the water and powder at 72-74P (22.2-23.3C). The water used was first de-ionized.
This was done because of the dependence that investment properties
have on temperature and water quality [7].

Pour Time
Pour time is similar to working time; but there is a subtle difference. The working time is
the amount of time from when all the powder is added to the water until the investor feels
that the mixture is too viscous to continue to work or manipulate [4 J. It is easy to
understand how this will depend on the user's preference and the application. On the
other hand, the pour time, as it is described in the Ransom & Randolph ISO 9002
procedures, is less subjective.
Pour time is measured by the following method. The amount of water and investment are
carefully measured. As soon as the powder is added to the water, a timer is started. The
powder is wet out by hand with a spatula and then mechanically mixed for 20seconds.
For repeatability, the mixing is done with a mixing head of a specific design and
specified rotations per minute. The mixed investment is poured from one bowl to another
every 15seconds. The timer is read when the investment becomes so thick it will not pour
out of the bowl. The elapsed time is recorded as the pour time.

Set Time
The R&R procedure for set time is the vicat set time. This is the amount oftime from
when the powder is completely added to the water until it reaches a well-defined ,
hardness. When the investment hardens enough to keep the vicat needle from penetrating
more than one millimeter, the elapsed time is read as the set time. The vicat needle has a
diameter of 1.0mm and has 300gm weight behind it. At this point in the setting process,

the investment strength is only approximately 22% of its fully cured strength [4]. The
investment would not be strong enough for further processing for another 1-2hours.

Slump (Fluidity)
The investment fluidity is measured using the R&R procedure for slump. The investment
is mixed in the same manner as it is for the pour time test. It is then poured into a cylinder

that is resting on a glass plate. The cylinder is 2" tall and has an inner diameter of 13/8".
Using a spatula, the investment is "struck-off' level with the top of the cylinder. At
exactly the 2-minute mark, the cylinder is lifted off the glass. The investment will spread
out on the glass plate in the shape of a disk. Very thin investments will result in a large
disk and conversely, thick investments result in a small disk. The diameter of the disk is
measured in inches and reported as the slump. Because jewelry investments exhibit
thixotropic characteristics, this test is measured after a specified amount of mixing and
at a specified time.
Set Expansion
As the investment sets, it will expand. This expansion is commonly referred to as the
set expansion, The mechanism for this stems from interfering outgrowths from the
many nuclei of crystallization of gypsum [4]. Set expansion can be controlled by
chemical additions to the investment. This property is important to those who are
concerned with dimensions. The actual set expansion realized is dependant on the
geometries of the investment's rigid boundaries, as alluded to by Ott [5]. In other
words, the investment will expand most in the direction of least resistance. This can
cause distortions in the pattern, particularly ifit is made of very soft wax [4].
There are a few ways to measure set expansion [4, 5]. For this study the set expansion
was measured according to the R&R ISO 9002 quality procedures. Figure 1 shows the set
expansion apparatus used. Each side ofthe apparatus is bound, except the side of the
dilatometer (left in Figure 1) and the top.

Figure 1

Mixed investment is poured into the apparatus, the dial is set to zero and one hour after
the investment sets the result is read. Since the length of the sample cavity is
lOOmmlong and the dial has O.Olmmdivisions, the dial can be read as percent linear
change or
percent linear set expansion.
Green Compressive Strength
Green compressive strength refers to the compressive strength 2hours after the mixed
investment is considered set by the vicat test method. Cylinders, with a cross sectional
area of Iirr', are made using the forms pictured in Figure 2. At the appropriate time, the
force required to destructively compress each cylinder is measured using the device
pictured in Figure 3. This device measures the force in pounds and given the cross
sectional area of the cylinders, a pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) is obtained.
The mean offive cylinders is reported.
Figure 2

Figure 6
Fired Compressive Strength
The fired compressive strength is measured similarly to the green compressive strength.
The only difference is that the cylinders are first fired using the burnout schedule
recommended for the investment. The samples are then cooled slowly to room
temperature before crushing.
The firing process tremendously weakens gypsum investments; therefore the fired
strength is lower than green strength. Some investments are weakened inore than others,

depending on controlling chemicals, particle sizes, raw material percentages and

plaster grades.
In order to obtain accurate and repeatable results. it is critical to closely adhere to the
procedures for preparing and testing samples for green and fired compressive strength.
Factors such as unparallel sample ends, air bubbles and disturbing the molds before they
are fully set can skew the results to be lower. The burnout schedule and cooling are also
important factors in getting consistent fired compressive strength results. Because of
these factors, the R&R procedures were closely followed.
Surface Hardness
Another strength test is to measure the surface hardness of fired investment. This is done
using a Durometer type A, which conforms to the American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) designation D 2240. This particular Durometer has an 822gm main
spring and a frustum cone indenter. It is pictured in Figure 4. Readings are taken by
pressing the frustum end onto the sample piece.
Durometer readings were taken from cylinders that have been fired according to the
recommended burnout schedule and cooled slowly to room temperature. The results will
fall on a scale from 0, the softest, to 100, the hardest. It is vital to this test that the
Durometer is pressed down slowly and evenly onto the sample. If it is pressed quickly,
the results can be skewed higher.
Generally, these three strength tests (green compressive, fired compressive and surface
hardness) trend together. If the green compressive strength is high, then the fired
compressive strength and Durometer are usually high. However, this is not always the
case due to several factors mentioned above (controlling chemicals, particle sizes, raw
material percentages and plaster grades). Some investments may exhibit a rather typical
green strength, but after firing they may not lose as much strength as other investments.
A mold with a high strength after firing will allow heavier pieces to be cast, but more
effort might be required to remove the investment from the castings. By using these three
strength tests instead of one, a more complete understanding of the strength of an
investment is gained.

Castings were made at several water-to-powder ratios. The investment was mixed until
the three-minute mark on a Hobart model C-l 00, with a wire whip attachment. The
investment was vacuumed for 20seconds. The 4" diameter by 5" high flasks were filled

Figure 7
to the top of the pattern and vacuumed for lminute. The flasks were then filled the rest of
the way and set aside for hardening. The recommended burnout cycle was used. The
flasks were 950F (5100C) when cast. A brass alloy 0[60% copper and 40% zinc was
centrifugally cast at 1995F (1091C). The same pattern was used for each w:p.

Results and Discussion

It should not be assumed that all gypsum investments behave in the exact same manner as
the one used here. Other gypsum investments should, however, trend in at least a similar

Pour Time
Chart 1 shows the dependence of pour time on w:p. In almost a linear fashion, the pour
time is increased as the w:p is increased. In the recommended w:p range of39 to 42~ the
pour time changed about 1.25minutes. This should be enough flexibility for the investor,
without risking other properties, by going outside the recommended w:p range.

In applications where this range of pour times is not enough, then possibly other process
parameters should be looked into. These include mixing time, vacuum times and the
number of flasks invested at a time. The pour time can also be slightly increased by
decreasing the temperature of the investment and water [7].

Set Time
The set time results are shown in Chart 2. This relationship is almost linear as well. The
slope is a little greater than the pour time's. Therefore, as the w:p increases, the
difference between the set time and pour time increases slightly.

After the flasks are set aside for hardening, it is desirable to have the set time occur as
quickly as possible. This is for the purpose of decreasing the chance of water separating
from the investment and causing watermarks. This data shows that if the w:p is increased,
the set time will be delayed. Thus, the probability of water separating is increased. It is
important to note that some investments will not cause watermarks regardless ofthe set

Chart 3 shows the slump versus w:p. As expected, the investment gets thinner with
increased w:p's. What is more interesting is the magnitude of change within the
recommended w:p range. In the recommended range of39 to 42, the slump changes by
more than %". This is certainly more than enough flexibility to satisfy the investor's
preferences in fluidity.
Below the recommended w:p range, the investment becomes thick and is not easy to
work with. It is easy to see how air could become trapped next to the wax patterns and
cause casting defects. Above the recommended w:p range, the investment becomes so

thin it is difficult to mix without it splashing out of the mixer. Thinner mixes can

also lead to weaker molds, as will be discussed later.

Set Expansion

Chart 4 shows the dependence of the set expansion on w:p. The chart demonstrates that
set expansion is inversely proportional to w:p. At higher w:p's, there is less set
expansion, because the nuclei of crystallization are more spread out. This allows for the
crystals to progress through much of its growth before pushing against a neighboring
crystaL In contrast, at lower w:p' s there are more nuclei of crystallization per unit
volume, resulting in more growth interaction. This in turn results in greater net set
expansion [4].
As mentioned earlier, this property is important for the dimensional precision of the
casting. When contemplating changing the w:p, it may be prudent to consider that
the dimensions of the finished piece could be adversely affected.
Green Compressive Strength
As shown in Chart 5, the green compressive strength measured at two hours is inversely
proportional to w:p. In the recommended w:p range of39 to 42, there is modest change in
the green strength, in fact about 37psi. This stability can be helpful ifa higher w:p is
desired for something like fluidity, but losing mold strength is a concern. Outside the
recommended range, the strength changes more dramatically. A high w:p could weaken
the investment too much. This increases the probability of small cracks forming in the
mold, which could result in fins on the casting. A rough surface may also be observed
if the investment is weakened too much [5].

Fired Compressive


Chart 6 shows the fired compressive strength as a function ofw:p. Because fired
compressive strength is measured after firing and cooling, it is more of an indication
of the strength after casting. Therefore, it may impart some information on the ease of
removing the casting from the mold. As the w:p is increased, the fired compressive
strength decreases.
The slope ofthis relationship is fairly consistent, except for the lower fringe w:p, where
there is a large increase in fired strength. This will result in more energy being required
to remove the casting. This is, of course, not the only factor affecting the ease of casting
removal. There are formulation factors as well as raw material quality factors, for the
investment manufacturers to consider, which affect the casting removal process and / or
ability to quench.


Type A

As with fired compressive strength, the Durometer readings may indicate ease of casting
removal. Chart 7 shows how the Durometer relates to changing w:p's. It has a fairly
linear dependence on the w:p, at least in the range studied. This does not show a large
increase in strength at 34, as did the fired compressive strength. This shows the
limitations of the Durometer reading. For harder materials there are other types of
Durometers. Perhaps a Durometer type C would have revealed the upswing that fired
compressive strength showed.

Investing I Casting
At w:p's above the recommended range, the investment was so fluid it splashed out of the
Hobart mixer, when mixed at normal speed. During the vacuuming steps, the investment
rose much higher than normal. After the flask was set aside for hardening, water did not
separate out or pool. The mold withstood the forces of centrifugal casting. The castings
looked fine. The surface appeared to be as smooth as the other castings. Because the
water did not separate, there were no watermarks. There were no fins. However, there
were a few air bubbles.
At w:p's below the recommended range, the investment was very thick, It was even
difficult to pour into the flask. During vacuuming, the investment did not rise up much
at all. These castings looked fine as well. They filled completely and there were no air
bubbles. The lack of air bubbles is contrary to what was expected. Conventional wisdom
suggested that at lower w:p's there would be more air bubbles [5]. However, air
entrapment is also influenced by the quality of vacuum.
The castings did not have the defects that investment manufacturers and industry experts
associate with exceedingly high or exceedingly low w:p' s [1, 4, 5, 6]. A rush to
conclude that a w:p outside the recommended range will not result in defects is simply
not warranted here. Outside the designed w:p range, the probability of certain defects

be increased. These castings simply show that in a carefully controlled environment it

might be possible to avoid defects.
Two possible explanations for the success of the castings outside the recommended w:p
range are as follows. The pattern used was not large and heavy enough to really stress the
mold. See Figure 5. If a larger, more full tree was used, then possibly the mold would fail
at the higher w:p's. Another possible reason could be this brand of premium investment
is fairly robust and as these results show, it is capable of withstanding some mishandling.

Figure 5
To confirm this, a non-premium brand of investment was used to make castings and
compare. This second brand of investment was used in the same manner and with the
same patterns. At w:p's above the recommended range severe watermarks resulted. It
might be possible to see them on the casting on the right in Figure 5. The molds held up
for the most part, except for the watermarks. Air bubbles were present to about the same
degree on each casting made with this investment.
These results show that there is some difference in stability between the two investments.
However, the fact that there were no fins on the castings indicates that the pattern used
may not have stressed the molds.

There are several variables that have to be considered during the manufacturing of
jewelry. Having a clear understanding of what affects these variables and to what degree
is important. This knowledge can save time having to salvage poor castings or even
having to remanufacture them. To help investors obtain consistent results, investment
manufacturers stress the importance of using a w:p in a specified range. Within this
range, some properties are fairly stable. Other properties change, thus giving the jeweler
some flexibility.

It has been shown that the pour time, set time and slump each increase with increasing
w:p. The slump is more responsive than the others. This allows the investor to change the

fluidity without changing the other properties as much. The set expansion and strength
decreased with increasing w:p.
According to investment manufacturers and industry experts, the changes realized in
these properties are, at times, the cause of certain defects. A long pour time and set time
increase the probability of watermarks in some investments, especially if they are not
mixed long enough. The set expansion can cause changes in dimensions. A weak
investment can cause fins to form and as well as a rough surface to result on heavy
castings. Because these properties are dependent on w:p and they affect casting results,
the w:p is very important to control.











































5 3/8





















1. Ransom & Randolph, "Application Instructions Ultra-Vest Jewelry Investment",
Ransom & Randolph, July 1999
2. Petersen, Donald 1., Kaleta, Norbert W., Kingston, Larry W., "Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology," Kirk-Othmer, 4th ed., vol. 4, pg. 813
3. Dean, John A., "Lange's Handbook Of Chemistry," McGraw-Hill, Inc., 14thedition
1992, pg 5.87
4. Phillips, Ralph W., "Skinner's Science of Dental Materials," WB. Saunders Co., 9th
ed., 1991, pg. 70-78 & 393-411

5. Ott, Dieter, "The Santa Fe Symposium On Jewelry Manufacturing Technology

1988," Met-Chem Research Inc., 1989, pg. 47-62

6. Ransom & Randolph, "Ransom & Randolph Setting Jewelry Standards Worldwide,"
Ransom & Randolph, section on Casting Defects: Potential Causes and section on
Questions & Answers.
7. Carter, Ralph, "The Santa Fe Symposium On Jewelry Manufacturing Technology

2000," Met-Chem Research, 2000, pg. 1-27

8. Ransom & Randolph, ISO 9002, Tier II Quality Procedures.

9. Schwartz, Carl, "The Santa Fe Symposium On Jewelry Manufacturing Technology

1987," Met-Chem Research, 1988, pg 99-105

Pengaruh Mengubah Air-To-Powder Rasio On Investasi Perhiasan

Ralph Carter Materials Engineer Ransom &

Randolph Maumee, Ohio, USA
Dalam setiap upaya artistik atau proses manufaktur, teknik yang berbeda kadang-kadang mencoba untuk meningkatkan hasil tertentu.
Kadang-kadang teknik ini memiliki hasil yang bisa diprediksi, sementara yang lain cukup eksperimental. Sebuah contoh yang baik dari ini
adalah menggunakan lebih tinggi rasio air-to-powder untuk beberapa coran dan rasio yang lebih rendah bagi orang lain. Bahkan, beberapa
produsen investasi menyediakan fleksibilitas ini dengan merekomendasikan berbagai air
rasio bubuk. Air yang lebih rendah untuk rasio bubuk disarankan untuk besar, potongan berat dan rasio yang lebih tinggi yang
direkomendasikan untuk yang lebih kecil dan lebih rinci potongan.
Hal ini umumnya dikenal bahwa kekuatan investasi, waktu kerja dan fluiditas yang
tergantung pada rasio air-to-powder. Namun, tingkat ketergantungan mungkin tidak dikenal. Juga, saat mengambil tindakan untuk
meningkatkan satu properti, properti kurang terkenal lain dapat diabaikan dan berubah tidak diinginkan. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan cacat
pengecoran. Karena itu, investasi yang dirancang untuk menjadi cukup kuat untuk memberikan stabilitas, meskipun perubahan dalam rasio airto-powder. Namun, untuk menghindari besar yang merugikan
perubahan, kisaran rasio air-to-powder yang direkomendasikan terbatas.
Beberapa perhiasan telah menggunakan teknik ini untuk mengubah rasio air-to-powder cukup sering dan dari pengalaman mereka
dapat dengan mudah memprediksi hasil. Orang lain mungkin tidak memiliki kemewahan
pengalaman, sehingga teknik ini mungkin lebih eksperimental. Untuk kedua kastor berpengalaman dan pemula, itu akan sangat
membantu untuk memahami apa investasi properti dipengaruhi oleh rasio air-to-powder dan yang lebih penting untuk apa gelar.
Makalah ini membahas bagaimana berbagai sifat dari perubahan investasi gipsum ikatan sebagai fungsi dari rasio air-to-powder.
Makalah ini juga membahas bagaimana perubahan ini dapat mempengaruhi atribut cetakan dan casting dan memperkuat pentingnya
menggunakan air kisaran rasio-bubuk yang ditetapkan oleh produsen investasi.
latar belakang
Rasio jumlah air dengan jumlah bubuk investinent umumnya dinyatakan sebagai rasio air-to-powder (w: p), memiliki unit mililiter air
100grams bubuk. A w: p air 40ml per 100 gram bubuk kadang-kadang ditulis sebagai
. 40/100 atau hanya 40 atau bahkan 0040 Beberapa produsen investasi menyarankan investasi gipsum ikatan perhiasan mereka
digunakan pada aw: p di kisaran of39 menjadi 42 [1]. Orang lain mungkin langsung hanya tertentu w: p seperti 38, bukannya kisaran.
Investasi Gypsum-berikat mengandung berbagai jenis silika serta plester dan bahan kimia pengendalian. Silika bertindak sebagai
bahan tahan api. Plester, kalsium sulfat hemihydrate (CaS04.J 12H20), digunakan untuk menghasilkan bahan pengikat. Bahan kimia yang
untuk mengendalikan sifat dari waktu kerja dan fluiditas serta untuk menonjolkan berbagai properti investasi lainnya.
plester merupakan komponen menarik untuk investasi di bahwa hal itu dapat dicampur dengan air untuk membuat cairan dan akan
bereaksi dengan air ini mengeras menjadi massa padat. Sebagai cairan itu bisa
dituangkan di dalam dan sekitar pola untuk mengisi dalam desain rinci. Sebagai padat itu akan terus bentuknya
dan menahan kerasnya pengecoran logam. Ketika dicampur dengan refraktori yang tepat dan bahan kimia, plester mempertahankan
karakteristik ini dan dengan demikian sangat cocok untuk investasi perhiasan.
Produk utama dari reaksi antara plester dan air gypsum, kalsium sulfat dihidrat (CaS04.2H20). Gypsum bertindak sebagai agen
pengikat, memegang bahan tahan api bersama-sama dalam bentuk yang diinginkan. Reaksi ini diwakili dalam persamaan kimia seimbang
Panah ganda menunjukkan bahwa reaksi ini adalah reversibel. Ini adalah selama burnout investasi yang reaksi ini dibalik. Pada sekitar
262 F (128 C) [2] gypsum akan membebaskan beberapa air yang melekat molekuler untuk membentuk plester. Plaster dapat dipaksa untuk
membebaskan molekul air dengan pemanasan sampai sekitar 325 F (163 C) [2]. Senyawa yang dihasilkan adalah kalsium sulfat anhidrit
(CaS04). Hal ini penting untuk menghapus semua air sebelum pengecoran, sehingga tidak luput selama casting dan menyebabkan cacat atau
bahkan percikan logam cair dari cetakan.
Menggunakan persamaan kimia di atas dan berat molekul dari masing-masing spesies, dapat ditunjukkan bahwa 18.6grams air yang
dibutuhkan untuk sepenuhnya mengubah 100grams plester untuk gypsum. Rasio ini dapat dikonversi ke unit umum ofw: p, dengan
menggunakan densitas air, yang O.9977grams/ml pada 72,5 F (22,5 C) [3]. Hal ini menyebabkan aw: p 18,7, yang jauh lebih rendah dari
yang disarankan w: p untuk investasi perhiasan gipsum. Hal ini karena w ini: p hanya menyumbang air yang diperlukan untuk mengkonversi
plester untuk gypsum. Air tambahan selalu diperlukan untuk membuat cairan campuran yang cukup untuk menuangkan.

Jumlah air tambahan yang dibutuhkan tergantung pada jenis plester digunakan, distribusi ukuran partikel tersebut yang plester dan
silika, adhesi antara partikel dan bahan kimia pengendalian ditambahkan ke investasi [4]. Karena faktor-faktor ini, investasi
produsen menghabiskan upaya besar untuk menjamin bahan baku adalah sebagai konsisten mungkin. Tersisa sedikit inkonsistensi
dalam bahan baku dikompensasikan dengan penggunaan pengendalian bahan kimia, sebelum bahan investasi dikirim keluar untuk digunakan.
Produsen investasi, serta pakar industri, telah menekankan mengukur baik air dan bubuk akurat. Alasan mereka banyak. Salah satu
alasannya adalah untuk memastikan bahwa investasi campuran tidak terlalu tebal. Ia telah mengemukakan bahwa jika investasi campuran
terlalu tebal, rincian halus tidak dapat diisi dan gelembung udara mungkin tidak mudah melarikan diri [5].
Alasan lain adalah untuk menjamin kekuatan cetakan yang tepat. Diperkirakan bahwa investasi yang lemah menyebabkan permukaan
kasar dan mungkin: sirip pada coran [5]. Alasan lain yang diberikan adalah untuk
menjamin waktu kerja yang tepat, permeabilitas, pengaturan ekspansi, ekspansi termal, permukaan pengecoran halus, tidak ada sirip,
tidak ada tanda air dan kemudahan menghapus investasi dari pengecoran potongan [5, 6].
Dalam studi ini, beberapa properti investasi diselidiki, hanya berbeda w: p dari
34-46. Tuang juga dibuat dan dievaluasi.