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1.

DESIGN
of
AXIALLY AND ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMN
1.1. Introduction
Columns are defined as members that carry loads chiefly in compression, even though the
bending action may produce tensile forces over part of their cross section.
On the basis of construction and lateral ties, three types of reinforced concretes
compression members are in use.
(i) Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

(iii) Composite compression members reinforced longitudinally with structural steel

shapes, pipe, or tubing, with or without additional longitudinal bars, and various
types of lateral reinforcement.
Types 1 and 2 are by far the most common.
On the basis of the slenderness ratio columns may be classified as short or long (slender).
- For isolate columns, the slenderness ratio is defined by

Le
i

where Le is the effective buckling length

i - is the minimum radius of gyration of the concrete section only.

_ For multistory sway frames comprising rectangular sub frames, the following
expression may be used to calculate the slenderness ration of the columns in the
same storey

12 A
Ki L

Where; A= the sum of the cross-sectional areas of all the columns of the story.
Ki=the total lateral stiffness of the columns of the story (story rigidity)
With modulus of elasticity taken as unity,
L=the story height.
The effective height (length) of a column is the distance between the two
consecutive points of contra flexure or zero bending moments. The figure shown
below may serve this purpose.

0.7L

0.5L

e 0.65L

e L

e 0.8 L

1.2L 0.8L

e 1.2 L

e 0.8 L

e 1.5 L

However in accordance with EBCS-2, 1995, the effective length Le for an RC

Column is given as,
a. Non-sway mode

Le m 0.4

0.7
L m 0.8

7.5 41 2 1.61 2
1.15
7.5 1 2
Le
1 0.8 m 1.15.
Or Conservatively
L
For the theoretical model shown below.
b. Sway mode

k1 kc
k11 k12

k 2 kc
k21 k22

2
m 1
2

Le

Lc2

Ic2

Ib22

Ib21
Lc

Ic

Ib12
Lc1

Ib11
Ic1

Where K1 and K2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/L) for the lower and the upper
column respectively. Kc is the stiffness coefficient (EI/L) of the column being designed.

Kij is the effective beam stiffness coefficient (EI/6)

= 1.0 (EI/L) for opposite end elastically or rigidly restrained.
= 0.5 (EI/L) for opposite end free to rotate.
= 0.0 (EI/L) for a cantilever beam.
For the purpose of design calculations, structures or structural members may be classified
as braced or unbraced depending on the provision or not of bracing elements and as sway
or non- sway depending on their sensitivity to second-order effects due to lateral
displacements.
In a sway frame, additional internal forces or moments due to the effects of the horizontal
displacements of its nodes shall be taken into account for design. Additional internal
forces or moments are neglected in a non-sway frame since its response to in-plane
horizontal forces is sufficiently stiff.
N sd
0.1
N cr
Where: Nsd the design value of the total vertical load.
Ncr critical vertical load for failure in a sway mode given as
2 EI e
N cr
L2e

Ec

1100 f cd

(or EIe =

Curvature

M bal
o.4 E2 )
1 rbal

rbal

5 103
d

I c= Moment of inertia of the concrete sections

Is = Moment of inertia of reinforcement sections

of the substitute column w.r.to centre

of the conc. section

A frame may be classified as braced if its sway resistance is supplied by a bracing system
which is sufficiently stiff to assume that all horizontal loads are resisted by the bracing
system. (Not more than 10% of the horizontal loads are attracted by the frame)
Generally, the slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall not exceed 140.
Second-order effects in compressive members need not be taken into account in the
following cases:
(a). For sway frames, the greater of the two
25

15

(b).For non sway frames

50 25

M1
M2

Where M1and M2 are the first-order (calculated) moments at the ends. M2 being always
positive and greater in magnitude than M1, and M1 being positive if member is bent in
single curvature and negative if bent in double curvature.

d N sd

f cd Ac

N sd

1.2. Reinforcement arrangement & Minimum Code Requirements.

Functions of Lateral Reinforcement.
- they hold the longitudinal bars in position in the forms while the concrete is
being placed
- they prevent the slender longitudinal bars from buckling out ward by
bursting the thin concrete cover.
Rules for the arrangement:
- Diameter of ties, t

t 6mm or 4

12 in l
- C/C spacing

300 .
mm

- Pitch of spiral 100mm

- Ties shall be arranged such that every bar or group of bars placed in a
corner and alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided by
the corner of a tie with an included angle of not more than 135o and no bar
shall be farther than 150mm clear on each side along the tie from such a
laterally supported bar.
Equal or less
than 150mm

At center
0

135
At center

May be greater than 150mm

No intermediate tie is required

15t 300mm

Main or Longitudinal
reinforcement
15t 300mm
- Area of longitudinal reinforcement, Ae.

Ae
0.08
Ac

4 in rec tan gular arrangement

Min. # of bars
6 in Circular arrangement.

- The diameter of longitudinal bars, 12mm.

- The minimum lateral dimension of a column shall be at least 150mm and
the minimum diameter of a spiral column is 200mm.
- The Min. cover to reinforcement should never be less than
(a) or n ( 40mm), or
(b) 5mm Or n 5mm if d g 32mm.
dg the largest nominal maximum aggregate size.
Example 1.1. (Classification of columns).
The frame shown in figure below is composed of members with rectangular cross
sections. All members are constructed of the same strength concrete (E is the same for
both beams and columns). Considering bending in the plane of the frame only, classify
column EF as long or short if the frame is (a) braced and (b) unbraced. All girders are
300 x 600 mm.
600
C

F
350

3.80 m
600
B

M2 = 45 KNm

D
9m

M1 = 30 KNm

300 x 400
A

300 x 350
E
400

3.80 m

525 KN

7.5 m

Solution:
Moments of inertia
3

300 x 600
54 x108 mm 4
12
300 x 400
16 x108 mm 4
Columns: I DE
12
300 x350 3
I EF
10.71875 x10 8 mm 4 .
12

Girders: I g

Stiffness Coefficients:

Girders : K g

EI g
Lg

K BE KcF

E 54x108 6x105 E.

9000

E 54 x108
5
K EH K FI 7500 7.2 x10 E.

K DE

E 16 x108

4.21 x105 E

K EF

E 10.71875 108

2.82 x105 E

EIc

Columns: K c
Lc

3.8 x103

3.8x103

The column being considered is column EF.

Rotational stiffnesses at joints E and F.

Joint E:
Joint F:

EI col / L
I col / L

f EI g / Leff f I g / Leff
4.21x105 2.82 x105
E
0.53
6 x105 7.2 x105
2.82 x105
F
0.21
6 x105 7.2 x105

E F 0.53 0.21

0.37
2
2

(a) For a braced column (Non sway structure ) for design

Le m 0.4 0.37 0.4

0.66 0.7
L m 0.8 0.37 0.8

Le

Le

I A

24.82.

2508

10.71875 x10 300 x 350

8

30
50 25
66.66 ok!
45
The colum is short .

(b) For unbraced column (sway structure)

Le

7.5 4 E F 1.6 E F
1.15 for design
7 .5 E F

1.136
7.5 0.53 0.21

Le 1.136 3.8 4.32m

4320
42.76
101.036

25 or

15
525 x103
0.85 x 30 x300 x350
1.5

1.3.

Short Versus Long Columns in Axial Compression.

In Compression, both the longitudinal steel and concrete contribute to the
resistance of the applied axial force. For the design of short columns in pure
compression, EBCS-2 limits the strain in the concrete to 0.002, since generally
this is the strain at which the stress in the concretes is maximum. The capacity to
resist compressive force, Pult is approximately equal to:

f ck Ag As
f A
Pd=
c y s
s

Where = Coefficient, generally taken as 0.85.

fck = Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete
Ag= gross cross-sectional area (bh).

As = area of longitudinal reinforcement.

fy = yield strength of reinforcement.
c & s = Partial factors of safety for concrete and steel.
Short columns usually fail by crushing. Slender column is liable to fail by buckling. The
end moments on a slender column cause it to deflect sideways and thus bring into play an
additional moment. The additional moment causes a further lateral deflection and if the
axial load exceeds a critical value, this deflection and the additional moment become self
-propagating until the column buckles.
For Pin ended columns:
2 EI
2
A column is classified as short if both Lex/h and Ley/b are:

Pcr=

15 for a braced column

10 for an unbraced column

Example 1.2.1. The 300x400mm Column shown below is having eight 16mm diameter
bars. Calculate the ultimate capacity to resist compressive and tensile
force if (a) L=5.5m (b) L=7m
Take,
fy =460 N/mm2
fck =35N/mm2

Ec 9.5 f ck 8 3
1

Es= 200GPa
Solution:
(a)

The Column is braced.

For L = 5.5m
Le= 0.7L (for one end fixed the other pinned nomograph)
Le = (0.7) (5.5) = 3.85.
Lex
3.85

9.625 15 short .
n
0.4
Ley
3.85

12.83 15 short.
b
0.3

The Column with this length and restrain Conditions is a

short column.
Ag=300x400= 120000 mm2 (gross area).
As = (8 *162)/4= 1608mm2 (reinforcement area).

N sd

0.85 f ck
c

fy

As

Nsd=

0.85 35 120000 1608 4601608.

Taking c = 1.5
s =1.15

As

1.5
= 2991308 N = 2991.308 kN

1.15

In tension, the design axial load is:

f

460

y
Nsd = r As 1.15 1608 N 643.2kN

(b)

For

L=7m.
Le= 0.7 7 4.9m.
Lex
4.90

12.25 15 short
n
0.4
Ley
4.90

16.33 15 Long .
b
0.3

Ncr =

2 EI e
L2e

The column is slender .

EI e 0.2 E c I c E s I s .
16

Ic

400 300 3

9 x10 8 mm 4
12
4 16 2 110 2 9.73x10 6 mm 4 .
Is
4
..

400 mm

300 mm

EI e 0.2 33 9 x108 200 9.73x106 .

59.4 x10 19.46 x10 78.86 x10 kN .mm 2
8

N cr

1.4.

2

4900 2

Design of Short Members for Axial Force and Uniaxial Bending

9

General:
A column is subjected to uniaxial bending when the load applied to a column is eccentric
about one axis only. The presence of this form of bending in axially loaded members can
reduce the axial load capacity of the member. It is the combined effect of axial
compression and bending at the ultimate limit state that tends to govern the design.
Design load for axially loaded columns (ideal columns)
-No moment considered.
Pod

fy
Fs

Concrete

Section A-A
0

Pod

fy

fc

Stress

Steel

fy

fc

Pod Fs Fc

0.001

Ast f y

0.002

0.003
Strain

Ast f y
rs

Fc Ag Ast O.85 f c '

In practice column loads will have eccentricities at least due to imperfect constructions.
Design Eccentricity
ed = ec + ea + e2
Where ee =equivalent constant first-order eccentricity of the design axial load.
ee = eo for eo equal at both ends of a column
Higher of ee= 0.6 eo2+0.4eo1
ee=0.4eo2
For moments varying linearly along the length.
eo1 and eo2 are first order eccentricities at the ends with eo2 being positive and greater in
magnitude than eo1.
ea=additional eccentricity in account of geometric imperfections.
ea=

Le
20mm
300

10

e2 = Second-order eccentricity .
For non sway frames,
K1

20
K 1.0

0.75

e2=

K 1 L2e 1 r
10

for 15 35
for 35.

Curvature at the critical sec tion

5 3
10
d

K2

Where d = the Column dimension in the buckling plane less the cover to the center of the
longitudinal reinforcement.
K2 =

Md

M bal

Md = design moment at the critical section including second-order effects.

Mbal = balanced moment capacity of the column.
The sway moments found by a first-order analysis shall be increased by multiplying
them by the moment magnification factor:
s

Provided

1
1 N sd / N cr

N sd
0.25
N cr

Ultimate Limit state

As a loading approaches the ULS, the following valid assumptions are made.
Non elastic redistribution of stresses take place

11

Failure of concrete is governed by the maximum strain criteria.
0.01

C
s

0.01

B 3

d
sy A

-0.002 -0.0035

-0.002

Strain Diagram at ULS

The maximum compressive strain in the concrete is taken to be: 0.0035 in
bending (simple or compound) 0.002 in axial compression.
The maximum tensile strain in the reinforcement is taken to be 0.01.
The strain diagram shall be assumed to pass through one of the three points A,B
Or C.
The design stress strain curve for concrete (fig. a) & steel (fig. b) are as shown
below.

Idealized Diagram

fs

fc
Idealized Diagram
Design Diagram

Design Diagram f yd

0.85 f ck
f cd
c
f c 1000 c 250 c 1 f cd , for c 0.002
-0.001

-0.002

(a)

-0.0035

f yk

0.01

(b)

Consider the rectangular section when subjected under an axial load Pd with large
eccentricity e, as shown below. For the purpose of stress calculation, the actual non-linear
stress distribution shown can be replaced with equivalent rectangular stress distribution.
Pd
h

As

d
d

fcd
e
e

As

b
Applying
Cross
sectionforce equilibrium.
Actual stress

Pd

Ns2
Nc
Ns1

fcd

Pd
Ns2
Nc

a 0.8x

s
Strain

Ns1
Simplified stress

12

FH 0 Pd N c N s 2 N si

M Ns1 O Pd e' N c d a 2 N s 2 d d '

N c f cd ab A' s
1

N s 2 As f s

(1)

( 2)

N s1 As f s .

For very small eccentricity, the stress distribution along the cross-section is as shown
below.

d
As
cu = 0.0035 0.75cb
Ns2
Ns2

s
P
d
Pd
Pd
Nc
Nc
e
e
h
x

e
x
x
x
As
Ns1
s
Ns1
cb
Cross-section
Simplified stress
Actual Stress

Strain

Applying force equilibrium.

FH=O

N 51

Pd = Nc+Ns2+Nsi

O
Hence

---------------

(3)

1
Pde = Nc d x 2 N 52 d d 4

Nc = fcd (b x x Ast)
N52 = Asfs
Nsi = Asfs

h, when0.8x h
x
0.8x, when0.8x h.

Note also e' e d d 1 / 2.

13

Design Criteria
Balanced Condition :-for a given Cross section a design axial force Pda acts at one
specific eccentricity e =eb (are = eb) to cause failure by simultaneous yielding of tension
steel and crushing of concrete. For simplification purpose symmetrical reinforcement is
considered and compressive steel is assumed to be its limiting stress level.
0.8 Ecu

p 5
Es Ecu

Fn O pd Pnb f cd bd

Since part of the concrete is under tension,

c = cn = 0.0035 ,and s = yd =

fyd

Es

2
MNsi O e eb
Pnb
1

ab 0.8x

in which

(6)

0.8cn .d
As
As
and P

bd
s cn
bd

s1

cu xb d 1
cu
, xb
xb
s cu

fs =Es s1 fyd.

&

Whenever, fs1 < fyd , a value of a force As (fyd fs1)

Shall be subtracted from pub of eqn (s) and fyd in (6) shall be replaced with fs1

Tension failure Controls.

Again As = As1 assumed & both steel are stressed to fyd. The two
equilibrum equations yield.
Pd = fcd bd

Where

As

bd

As

bd

e1

1
d
2

& m1

f ryd

e1

1
2
d

d1 1
m
2 p 1
d

fc d

Compression failure controls (very small eccentricity)

In this case fs < fyd & it is not known whether the steel furthest from the load is under
compression or tension. This situation makes the solution procedure more
complicated.
Column interaction diagrams can be used to simplify the design.

14

Column Interaction Diagram.

( dimensionless ) .
It is a plot of a column axial load capacity against the moment it
sustains.

combination.
Any combination of loading out side the curve represent a faibure
combination.
Any radial line from pt. O represents a vonstant ratio of moment to
The full line curve in compression failure range can be
conservatively replaced by the dashed line as shown. Knowing the
coordinates (O, Pdo) & ( Mnb, Pnb), the design capacity pd for a
known moment Md, [ Md = ed pd] can be obtained using the
straight line equation as :

pd

Pdo
Pdo ed
1
1
Pub ed

8 .

Hete ed & eb are design eccentricity & eccentricity for balanced condition
respectuxly.
When Pd = O
Md = fcd (0.86x-As1 ) (d-o-4x) +As1fs1 (d-d1).
1
X b1 b 21 4c
In which
2
As Es cu f yd f cd / 0.8b f cd
B=

C=

A d /0.8bf .
11
s cu s

cd

And X X max max md .

Example (Analysis) .

15

A rectangular column 300x500 (mm x mm) reinforced with 4 26 (As1=As =1060mm2)

one at each corner with d

eccentricity fron centerline of column x- section including all effects is

a) eb (balanced ) b) 20mm c) 150mm d) 400 mm e)Very large approaching .
Solution
D1=(0-1) (500) = 50 mm
D=500-50 =450mm
500
Constants :- fck=24,fcd=13.60
Fyd = 260.87
As
0.00785
bd
f yd
m
23.98.
0.8 f cd
p

m'

f yd
f cd

0.8m 19.18

As1 As 2 x530 1060.

Ast 2120

(a)

Balanced case: .d
X b cu
yd cu

0.0035
x 450 328mm
0.0035

260.87
2 x105

ab =0.8xb =262mm.
1

278
x 0.00350.002966 0.003 Yd . 0.0013
328

Compression steel is yielding

16

0.8 cu
Pnb fcd bd
p
yd cu

0.8 0.0035

0.00785
0.0013 0.0035

105687.4 N 1056kN

eb1

Pnb

=
1

13.60 262 300 1060

262
1060 260.87 450.50
2
1056

450

423mm

eb = eb -(d-d1)/2 =223mm.(from Centerline).

e=ed =20mm < eb Comp.failure controls.
Pdo = fcd (bh Ast)+fyd Ast.
= (13.60) ((300) (500) 2120)+(260.87) (2120)
= 2564212.4N + 2564kN.

(b)

Pdo

Pd

pdo ed
1
pub
eb
2273kN .
1

(c )

256
2564

20
1
1

1056
223

Pd = 1

Pdo= 2564

Pdo

ed
pdo
1
pub
eb

2564
2564
150
1
1

1056
223

= 1308kN
(d)

e=ed =400mm > eb = 223mm Tension controls.

E1=e+(d-d1)/2 =400+(450 50)/2 =600.
1
50
600
0.111, e

1.33
d
450
450
M =19.18,
0.00785.

d1

600 0.00785
Pd 13.60 300 450 1

450
2

0.00785
600
1

450
2

50

2 0.00785 1
450

= 514679.03 N.
514.68 kN.

17

19.18

e D or Pd O

(e )

only flexure.

1060 200 x10 x0.0035 260.87 13.60 / 0.8 x300 x13.60.

= As Es cu f yd f cd / 0.8b f cd .

b1

A d /0.8bf .

= 138.19mm

11
s cu s

cd

= 11366.42.
x

1
138.19
2

x d1 57.97 50
5
f =

x
0
.
0035
x
2
x
10
x cu s 57.97

1
s

= 96.24Mpa. > fyd.

Md = fcd (0.8bx-As1)(d-0.4x)+As1fs1(d-d1)
=(13-6) (0.830057.97-1060)(450-0.4x57.97)
+ 106096.24(450-50)=115411678 Nmm.
= 115.4 kNm.
Ed (m)
Pd (kN)
Md (kNm)

0.00
2564
0

0.020
2273
45.46

0.150
1308
196.20

0.223
1056
235.49

0.4
515
206.00

0
115.40

If compression member is subjected to Pd 0.1 fcd Ac, it may be designed as a

beam using flexural equation, provided min. steel is placed on the
compression face of the member.
Design of Columns for uniaxial Bending
Given pd and ed, the design requires the following procedure.
A hial cross section and steel area g are selected.
-

18

The section in question is investigated which load combination it

can sustain. More suitably, for a fixed value of ed, determine Pdn(its
capacity) such that .

If PdN Pd , safe but is it economical ?

If PdN Pd , Unsafe , choose new cross section and /or

A
g st

Ag

Thus , the trial shall be repeated until the value of Pdn is close
enough and Pdn Pd
On the other hand , interaction chart are prepared using dimensional
parameters such that
vs is Plotted .
-

N f bh
cd

where N pd

Mh
f cd bh 2

Mh Md.

d 1 0.1
n
Mn
-

f cd

bh 2

Families of curves are drawn for fixed ratio [ ranges 0.5 to

0.25] each curve representing a particular mechanical steel
ratio.

Ast f yd
bhf cd

The cover to reinforcement should not be too large [ problem

of spalling concrete cover falling off ] & slso not too small to
prevent corrosion /fire. usually for column, cover 25mm.
In using the chart for design the following procedure can be used .
Given Pd and ed such that Md = Pded.
Assume a cross section, d1 and evaluate

N
-

Find and

19

If the coordinates ( , ) lies with in the families of the curve,

the assumed cross section is feasible, which otherwise need
to choose new large section.
The coordinate (,) gives the value of w.

Obtain or Ast using Ast =

reinforcement.
Acbrh
Check min and max, provisions.
For such over lap, gmax=0.04.

wbhf cd
wAc f cd

and arrange the

f yd
f yd

Example 1.2.2.
Design a column to sustain a design axial load of 1100kN & design bending moment of
160kNm which includes all other effects, assume concrete c-30, steel s- 400 class I work .
Approximate b=0.6h.
Solution:
f ck 24,

Constants:

f ed

0.85 x 24
13.6
1.5

f yd 347.83

Md 160 x103

145mm.
Pda=1100kN, ed =
Pda
1100

Using Equations.
Assume 300x500mm & 4 26
g 0.014 g min 0.008

Trial 1:

As

bd

2*

530
0.00785.
300 x500

1
d 500 50 450 so that d

0.1

Pub=fcd

0.8 cu
bd
967 kN.

yd cu
Ab=

0.8 cu
d 240mm.
yd cu
20

2
eb
482mm
Pub
1

pdo = fcd
Pd= 1

Ast f yd Ast 2749kN .

p do
ed
pdo
1
pub
eb

1412kN pd 1100 kN

-

For ductility requirement, it would be better to go for low steel ratio.

Trial procedure:- Change cross section fixing reinforcements or vice- versa.
For offshore structures large tie bars due to corrosion action.

Trial 2.

As bd

2 x 452
0.0083
270 x 450 45

Pub = 13.60270405[0.534438 0.0083] 10-3=782kN.

Ab = 0.534438405 = 216mm
216

13.6 270 216 904 405

904 347.83 405 45.
1
Eb =
2

782 x103
=
441mm.
Eb = 441 360/2 = 26 + mm > ed Compression controls.
Pd0 = [13.6 (270 450-1808) + 347.83 1808] 10-3 = 2257kN
pd = 1

2257
2257

1
782

Using interaction charts:- [ uniaxial chart No 2 ].

Assume 270 x 450 d1/h =

45
= 0.10
450

Vsd =

N
1100 x103
=
= 0.67
f ed bh
13.6 x 270 x 450

Nsd =

M
160 x106
=
= 0.22
f ed bh 2 13.6 270 450 2

21

Ast = w

wAcfed
0.35 270 450 13.6

= 1662.71mm2
f rd
347.83

24 = 3.7 use 4 24
Example 1.2.3
Design a column to sustain a design axial load of 55kN acting with a design bending
moment of 200kNm including all other effects. Use the same materials example 1.2.2.
Solution :
200 x103
Md
ed

mm = 364mm.
Pd
550
Fed = 13.6 Mpa , fyd = 347. 83 Mp
270 x 450 with 4 26

Trial 1:

4 530
450
405mm
g 270 450 0.017, d 450
10

As

bd

2 530
0.0097
270 405

pnb = 780kN , ab = 216mm, eb = 467mm

eb = 287 < ed Tension controls.
m1

f yd
f cd

25.58 , d

0.11, e

1.343

Pd=598kN.> Pda=550 safe It is possible to stop at this.

Trial 2:
Lets use 4 20 +4 16
pd=584 ok
Using interaction chart : [ Uniaxial Chart No 2 ]
270x450

Nd
o.33.
f cd bh

w=0.40.
Ast
Use 4 20

d ' 0.1
h

d= 405.

M 2
bh 0.27.
f ed

wAc f cd
0.40 270 450 13.60

1900mm 2
f yd
347.83

& 4 16.
A= 314+4x201=2060mm2 >1900mm2

Circular Columns.

22

Consider the cross section shown reinforced with 6 longitudinal bars (the No of bars
can vary from 6 to 10).

For bars with strains in excess of yield strain yd , f s f yd .

For the cross section with tension crack, cu 0.0035.
For bars with smaller strains the stress is found using f s ss in which the
strain s is obtained from the strain geometry.
For analysis or design, the iterative procedure involves the following.

1. Assume a, equivalent stress block depth and compute

a B , B1 0.5.
1
2. Evaluates the stress fs or fyd assuming

cu .0 0035orcu .0 0035 .0 75 cb

3. Determine Pd and then a (or x) , using the two unknown equilibrium equation.
First evaluate Pd using the moment equation about extreme tension steel as.
Pde1 = Nc(d-a1)+ Ns1(d-d11)+Ns2(d-d31)
Where a1 is the distance from extreme compression face to the centroid of
the compression force Nc.
Using the force equation recomputed a and of course a =
a , a as pd N c N s1 N s 2 N 53 N 54 1 here is to be computed from the
area of the soction Note that during computation, if the value of x obtained is
larger than d, or over all diameter of the cross-section, tension steel can be under
compression very small eccentricity or nearly concentric loading. In such
circumstances the equation developed should be reexamined to account for such
effect.
4. Repeat step 3 until pd k+1 and 1 or ak+1 and ak are nearly equal or until certain
convergence criteria are satisfied. The subseript k stands for iteration #
To simplify this , on approximate empirical formula modified to confirm 15D of
the local standard, for circular column of diameter h failing in compression is given
[Whitney].

23

Pd

As f yd
3e
1
h 2d 1

Ag f cd
9.6he

0.8h 0.67 h 2d

' 2

1.18.

This approximate formula holds, for e eb &

eb
for this purpose may be approximated as
eb
=(0.2+0.9 pg m1)h.
For practical problems interaction charts are available for use .
Example 1.2.4.
Design a circular column for design axial load of Pda=1225 kN & design
bending moment of
Md=180kN.m. use c-30,5-300, class I work.
Solution.
Pda = 1225kN, Md= 180kNm, c-30, 5-300, class I.
Required: Design a circular column.
Constants: fcd=13.6 ,fyd=260.87 m=19.18.
Assume D=h= 500mm & 6 24 As=2712
h 2
196.35 103
4
g 0.0138 maxOk !
Ag

180 103
147mm
1225
eb 0.2 0.9g m ' h 219mm ed c.controls .
e ed

2712 260.87

3 145

1
500 2 50

Pd=

10 3

1.18
9.6 500 145

24

Using Interaction Chart

-Assume D =500mm; Ag = 196.35

1
103 ; mm2 ; d h

Pda
1225 103

0.46
f ed Ag 13.6 196.35 x103

Md
f ed Ag h

= 0.10

180 106
0.135
13.6 196.35 103 500

As

260.87

1945mm 2

use 6 22 this shows 6 26 is conservative

1.3. Short columns under Biaxial Bending.
Consider an RC Column section shown when subjected to design axial force pd acting
with eccentricities edx & edy, such that edx =
M dy
M
& edy dx , fromc centroidal axis.
Pd
Pd

Computation commences ( begins) with an assumed neutral axis depth and:

25

0 Pd N c N sc N st
N c Aci f ci , resul tan t force inconcrete

where

N sc Asci

N st Asti

M dx Aci f ci yci Asti fsti Ysti

M dy Aci fci Xci Asci Asti fsti Xsti

The procedure using the expressions developed so far is tedious as the determination of
the neutral axis requires several trials. Thus the two commonly used methods proposed
by Breseles shall be discussed below.
A) Inverse load us eccentricities gives bowel shaped failure surface.

Consider the 1 p U s edi surface in the region of interest at Pt.Q where edx & edy for the
respective uniaxial eccentricities are approximated using pt.A&B. Let pt.c represent the
reciprocal of the concentric design load capacity.
The pt. Q on the interaction surface is approximated by a point of which generally
gives a conservative estimate of the strength. On this basis the strength may be obtained
from
1

pd

pdx

pdy

pd 0

pdx pd 0 pdy pdo pdx pdy

pd

Where Pd = design axial force capacity under biaxial bending edy & edx .
Pdx & Pdy = Capacities for uniaxial bending with eccentricities edy & edx respectively.

26

Pdo = concentric axial force capacity.

B) Breslers Method II
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Assume the cross- Sectional dimensions, area of steel and its distribution.
Pdo
Compute concentric load Capacity Pdo and
Pdo
Determine uniaxial moment capacities Mdxo and Mdyo of the section combined
with given axial load Pda with the use of interaction curves for axial load and
unixial moment.
Then the adequacy of the column section can be checked either with the
interaction (EQ) of interaction curves. For checking the adequacy of column
section with interaction equation, determine n 0.667 1.667

M dx

which shall be 1< n <2. then compute

M dxo

M dy

Pd

M dyo

Pd

1,

otherwise the section is unsafe. Then the section is modified and checked
again, for checking the adequacy of section with interaction curves, the values
of Mdx/ Mdxo and Mdy/Mdy are plotted as Px and Py respectively. If the plot is
within the intraction curve for

Pd

27

M dx

M dxo

M dy

dyo

1.0

n 0.667 1.667 Pda P , n 2.0

do

for a circle and ranges b/n 1.15 to 1.55 for most general cases.

for > 1; problem: susceplible for buckling keep it as low as possible

1
1
max = 1.4 0.7 for ductility
2
2

However interaction charts prepared for this purpose can be used for actual design using
the following procedure.
Mb
h1
b1

0.1 0 range
h
b

h1

Mh
values of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15,..0.25
are available
b1

b1

Compute:
N

ed
c
Mh
, M h M dy .
f cd Ac h
Moment ratio
h =
Mb
b
, M b M dx
f ed Ac b

1
& b ratio
h
b

28

Compute

Atot = w

Ac f cd
f yd

Check Atot satisfies the max. & min provisions

Select suitable bass
Example 1.3.1
Design a column to sustain a factored design load of 900kN and biaxial
moments of Mdx = 180kNm Mdy = 270kNm including all other effects Assume
materials of concrete c-30, steel s-300, class I work.
Solution:
Constants fck = 24, fcd = 13.6, fyd = 260.87
m1 = 19.18
edx =

M dy
Pda

300mm

edy

M dx
200mm
Pda

Steel ratio for top use < 0.02 for comp/ tension steel of a raw
Inner columns larger dimension than outer ones.
Trial 1: Assume 600 x 400 with 8 28 arranged as shown.

Ast = 8 615 = 4920; g 0.0205

Pd0 = fed (Ag-Ast) + fyd Ast = 4480kN
As = As1 = 3* 615
[ The two bass on the controidal axis have negligible moment for both caves of
direction ]
-X- direction:
edx =300mm, Pda 900kN, d = 600-60 = 540mm
b = 400mm =

As

dd

0.00554

Pnb = 1678kN , e1b = 520mm, eb = 280mm < edx = 300

T-controls
29

Pdx = bd fed

1
1

1 e d e 2 1 e d 2

2 m1 1 d

1
d

= 1560.kN
If Pdx is near 900 or less, you should change the X- section immediately without
further check for Pdy b/c for even a uniaxial case it hasnt satisfied to be 900.
Y- direction;
edy = 200mm, d = 400-40 = 360mm , b = 600mm.
Pnb = 1687kN, eb = 187mm < edy = 200 T-controls.
Pdy = 1560kN
P P P

dx dy
do
Pd= P ( P P ) P P 944kN Pda 900 kN .
do
dx
dy
dx dy

Using interaction chart.

400x600 same section.
900 103
0.28
13.6 400 600
270 106

0.138
13.6 400 600 2

b
1.4

180 106
0.138.
13.6 4002 600

Slender Columns
A

defined as g = e

12.For such Columns a load reduction factor er is introduced in

such a way that the concentric design axial load capacity may be obtained as
Pdw cr Pdo in which Cr=1.25

Le

48b

Slender Columns.
Summary

30

1. The strength of Concentrically loaded Columns decreases with increasing

slenderness ratio k .

2. In Columns that are braced against sidesway or that are parts of frames braced
against sidesway, the effective length k, i.e. , the distance b/n inflection
points , falls b/n and ,depending on the degree of end rostraint.

3. The effective lengths of Columns that are not braced against sidesway or that
are parts of frames not so braced are always larger than , the more so the
smaller the end restraint .In consequence, the buckling load of a frame not
braced against sidesway is always substantially smaller than that of the same
frame when braced.
Summary.
1. In flexural members the presence of axial Compression causes additional
deflections and additional moments py. other things being equal, the
additional moments increase with increasing slenderness ratio k .

2. In members braced against sidesway and bent in single curvature, the maxima
of both types of moments, Mo and Py, occur at the same or at nearby locations
and are fully additive, this leads to large moment magnifications. In the Mo
moments result in double curvature (i.e., in the occurance of an inflection
point). The opposite is true and less or no moment magnification occurs.
3. In members of frames not braced against sidesway the maximum moments of
both kinds, Mo and Py, almost always occur at the same locations, the ends of
the colums, they are fully additive, regardless of the presence or absence of an
inflection point. Here, too, other things being equal, the additional deflections
and the corresponding moments increase with increasing k
Moment Magnification.
Non sway: (According to ACI).
Mc= ns M 2 .
Cm
ns
1 pu 0.75 pc
Where

1.

r.

2 EI
ku 2

effective length factor

Cm=0.6+0.4

M1
o.4.
M2

31

For members braced against sidesway and without transverse loads between supports.
Here M2 is larger of the two end moments, and M 1 M 2 is positive when the end
moments produce single curvature and negative when they Produce double curvature.
Unbrace frame, cm=1.0.

32