DESIGN
of
AXIALLY AND ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMN
1.1. Introduction
Columns are defined as members that carry loads chiefly in compression, even though the
bending action may produce tensile forces over part of their cross section.
On the basis of construction and lateral ties, three types of reinforced concretes
compression members are in use.
(i) Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties.
Le
i
_ For multistory sway frames comprising rectangular sub frames, the following
expression may be used to calculate the slenderness ration of the columns in the
same storey
12 A
Ki L
Where; A= the sum of the crosssectional areas of all the columns of the story.
Ki=the total lateral stiffness of the columns of the story (story rigidity)
With modulus of elasticity taken as unity,
L=the story height.
The effective height (length) of a column is the distance between the two
consecutive points of contra flexure or zero bending moments. The figure shown
below may serve this purpose.
0.7L
0.5L
e 0.65L
e L
e 0.8 L
1.2L 0.8L
e 1.2 L
e 0.8 L
e 1.5 L
Le m 0.4
0.7
L m 0.8
7.5 41 2 1.61 2
1.15
7.5 1 2
Le
1 0.8 m 1.15.
Or Conservatively
L
For the theoretical model shown below.
b. Sway mode
k1 kc
k11 k12
k 2 kc
k21 k22
2
m 1
2
Le
Lc2
Ic2
Ib22
Ib21
Lc
Ic
Ib12
Lc1
Ib11
Ic1
Where K1 and K2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/L) for the lower and the upper
column respectively. Kc is the stiffness coefficient (EI/L) of the column being designed.
Ec
1100 f cd
(or EIe =
Curvature
M bal
o.4 E2 )
1 rbal
rbal
5 103
d
A frame may be classified as braced if its sway resistance is supplied by a bracing system
which is sufficiently stiff to assume that all horizontal loads are resisted by the bracing
system. (Not more than 10% of the horizontal loads are attracted by the frame)
Generally, the slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall not exceed 140.
Secondorder effects in compressive members need not be taken into account in the
following cases:
(a). For sway frames, the greater of the two
25
15
50 25
M1
M2
Where M1and M2 are the firstorder (calculated) moments at the ends. M2 being always
positive and greater in magnitude than M1, and M1 being positive if member is bent in
single curvature and negative if bent in double curvature.
d N sd
f cd Ac
N sd
t 6mm or 4
12 in l
 C/C spacing
 Ties shall be arranged such that every bar or group of bars placed in a
corner and alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided by
the corner of a tie with an included angle of not more than 135o and no bar
shall be farther than 150mm clear on each side along the tie from such a
laterally supported bar.
Equal or less
than 150mm
At center
0
135
At center
15t 300mm
Main or Longitudinal
reinforcement
15t 300mm
 Area of longitudinal reinforcement, Ae.
Ae
0.08
Ac
F
350
3.80 m
600
B
M2 = 45 KNm
D
9m
M1 = 30 KNm
300 x 400
A
300 x 350
E
400
3.80 m
525 KN
7.5 m
Solution:
Moments of inertia
3
300 x 600
54 x108 mm 4
12
300 x 400
16 x108 mm 4
Columns: I DE
12
300 x350 3
I EF
10.71875 x10 8 mm 4 .
12
Girders: I g
Stiffness Coefficients:
Girders : K g
EI g
Lg
K BE KcF
E 54x108 6x105 E.
9000
E 54 x108
5
K EH K FI 7500 7.2 x10 E.
K DE
E 16 x108
4.21 x105 E
K EF
E 10.71875 108
2.82 x105 E
EIc
Columns: K c
Lc
3.8 x103
3.8x103
Joint E:
Joint F:
EI col / L
I col / L
f EI g / Leff f I g / Leff
4.21x105 2.82 x105
E
0.53
6 x105 7.2 x105
2.82 x105
F
0.21
6 x105 7.2 x105
E F 0.53 0.21
0.37
2
2
0.66 0.7
L m 0.8 0.37 0.8
Le
Le
I A
24.82.
2508
30
50 25
66.66 ok!
45
The colum is short .
7.5 4 E F 1.6 E F
1.15 for design
7 .5 E F
4320
42.76
101.036
25 or
15
525 x103
0.85 x 30 x300 x350
1.5
1.3.
f ck Ag As
f A
Pd=
c y s
s
Pcr=
Example 1.2.1. The 300x400mm Column shown below is having eight 16mm diameter
bars. Calculate the ultimate capacity to resist compressive and tensile
force if (a) L=5.5m (b) L=7m
Take,
fy =460 N/mm2
fck =35N/mm2
Ec 9.5 f ck 8 3
1
Es= 200GPa
Solution:
(a)
For L = 5.5m
Le= 0.7L (for one end fixed the other pinned nomograph)
Le = (0.7) (5.5) = 3.85.
Lex
3.85
9.625 15 short .
n
0.4
Ley
3.85
12.83 15 short.
b
0.3
N sd
0.85 f ck
c
fy
As
Nsd=
Taking c = 1.5
s =1.15
As
1.5
= 2991308 N = 2991.308 kN
1.15
460
y
Nsd = r As 1.15 1608 N 643.2kN
(b)
For
L=7m.
Le= 0.7 7 4.9m.
Lex
4.90
12.25 15 short
n
0.4
Ley
4.90
16.33 15 Long .
b
0.3
Ncr =
2 EI e
L2e
EI e 0.2 E c I c E s I s .
16
Ic
400 300 3
9 x10 8 mm 4
12
4 16 2 110 2 9.73x10 6 mm 4 .
Is
4
..
400 mm
300 mm
N cr
1.4.
4900 2
General:
A column is subjected to uniaxial bending when the load applied to a column is eccentric
about one axis only. The presence of this form of bending in axially loaded members can
reduce the axial load capacity of the member. It is the combined effect of axial
compression and bending at the ultimate limit state that tends to govern the design.
Design load for axially loaded columns (ideal columns)
No moment considered.
Pod
fy
Fs
Concrete
Section AA
0
Pod
fy
fc
Stress
Steel
fy
fc
Pod Fs Fc
0.001
Ast f y
0.002
0.003
Strain
Ast f y
rs
In practice column loads will have eccentricities at least due to imperfect constructions.
Design Eccentricity
ed = ec + ea + e2
Where ee =equivalent constant firstorder eccentricity of the design axial load.
ee = eo for eo equal at both ends of a column
Higher of ee= 0.6 eo2+0.4eo1
ee=0.4eo2
For moments varying linearly along the length.
eo1 and eo2 are first order eccentricities at the ends with eo2 being positive and greater in
magnitude than eo1.
ea=additional eccentricity in account of geometric imperfections.
ea=
Le
20mm
300
10
e2 = Secondorder eccentricity .
For non sway frames,
K1
20
K 1.0
0.75
e2=
K 1 L2e 1 r
10
for 15 35
for 35.
K2
Where d = the Column dimension in the buckling plane less the cover to the center of the
longitudinal reinforcement.
K2 =
Md
M bal
Provided
1
1 N sd / N cr
N sd
0.25
N cr
11
C
s
0.01
B 3
d
sy A
0.002 0.0035
0.002
Idealized Diagram
fs
fc
Idealized Diagram
Design Diagram
Design Diagram f yd
0.85 f ck
f cd
c
f c 1000 c 250 c 1 f cd , for c 0.002
0.001
0.002
(a)
0.0035
f yk
0.01
(b)
Consider the rectangular section when subjected under an axial load Pd with large
eccentricity e, as shown below. For the purpose of stress calculation, the actual nonlinear
stress distribution shown can be replaced with equivalent rectangular stress distribution.
Pd
h
As
d
d
fcd
e
e
As
b
Applying
Cross
sectionforce equilibrium.
Actual stress
Pd
Ns2
Nc
Ns1
fcd
Pd
Ns2
Nc
a 0.8x
s
Strain
Ns1
Simplified stress
12
FH 0 Pd N c N s 2 N si
N c f cd ab A' s
1
N s 2 As f s
(1)
( 2)
N s1 As f s .
For very small eccentricity, the stress distribution along the crosssection is as shown
below.
d
As
cu = 0.0035 0.75cb
Ns2
Ns2
s
P
d
Pd
Pd
Nc
Nc
e
e
h
x
e
x
x
x
As
Ns1
s
Ns1
cb
Crosssection
Simplified stress
Actual Stress
Strain
N 51
Pd = Nc+Ns2+Nsi
O
Hence

(3)
1
Pde = Nc d x 2 N 52 d d 4
Nc = fcd (b x x Ast)
N52 = Asfs
Nsi = Asfs
h, when0.8x h
x
0.8x, when0.8x h.
13
Design Criteria
Balanced Condition :for a given Cross section a design axial force Pda acts at one
specific eccentricity e =eb (are = eb) to cause failure by simultaneous yielding of tension
steel and crushing of concrete. For simplification purpose symmetrical reinforcement is
considered and compressive steel is assumed to be its limiting stress level.
0.8 Ecu
p 5
Es Ecu
Fn O pd Pnb f cd bd
fyd
Es
ab 0.8x
in which
(6)
0.8cn .d
As
As
and P
bd
s cn
bd
cu xb d 1
cu
, xb
xb
s cu
fs =Es s1 fyd.
&
Where
As
bd
As
bd
e1
1
d
2
& m1
f ryd
e1
1
2
d
d1 1
m
2 p 1
d
fc d
14
pd
Pdo
Pdo ed
1
1
Pub ed
8 .
Hete ed & eb are design eccentricity & eccentricity for balanced condition
respectuxly.
When Pd = O
Md = fcd (0.86xAs1 ) (do4x) +As1fs1 (dd1).
1
X b1 b 21 4c
In which
2
As Es cu f yd f cd / 0.8b f cd
B=
C=
A d /0.8bf .
11
s cu s
cd
15
m'
f yd
f cd
0.8m 19.18
(a)
Balanced case: .d
X b cu
yd cu
0.0035
x 450 328mm
0.0035
260.87
2 x105
ab =0.8xb =262mm.
1
278
x 0.00350.002966 0.003 Yd . 0.0013
328
16
0.8 cu
Pnb fcd bd
p
yd cu
0.8 0.0035
0.00785
0.0013 0.0035
105687.4 N 1056kN
eb1
Pnb
=
1
262
1060 260.87 450.50
2
1056
450
423mm
(b)
Pdo
Pd
pdo ed
1
pub
eb
2273kN .
1
(c )
256
2564
20
1
1
1056
223
Pdo= 2564
Pdo
ed
pdo
1
pub
eb
2564
2564
150
1
1
1056
223
= 1308kN
(d)
1.33
d
450
450
M =19.18,
0.00785.
d1
600 0.00785
Pd 13.60 300 450 1
450
2
0.00785
600
1
450
2
50
2 0.00785 1
450
= 514679.03 N.
514.68 kN.
17
19.18
e D or Pd O
(e )
only flexure.
1060 200 x10 x0.0035 260.87 13.60 / 0.8 x300 x13.60.
= As Es cu f yd f cd / 0.8b f cd .
b1
A d /0.8bf .
= 138.19mm
11
s cu s
cd
1
138.19
2
x d1 57.97 50
5
f =
x
0
.
0035
x
2
x
10
x cu s 57.97
1
s
0.00
2564
0
0.020
2273
45.46
0.150
1308
196.20
0.223
1056
235.49
0.4
515
206.00
0
115.40
18
A
g st
Ag
Thus , the trial shall be repeated until the value of Pdn is close
enough and Pdn Pd
On the other hand , interaction chart are prepared using dimensional
parameters such that
vs is Plotted .

N f bh
cd
where N pd
Mh
f cd bh 2
Mh Md.
d 1 0.1
n
Mn

f cd
bh 2
Ast f yd
bhf cd
Find and
19
reinforcement.
Acbrh
Check min and max, provisions.
For such over lap, gmax=0.04.
wbhf cd
wAc f cd
Example 1.2.2.
Design a column to sustain a design axial load of 1100kN & design bending moment of
160kNm which includes all other effects, assume concrete c30, steel s 400 class I work .
Approximate b=0.6h.
Solution:
f ck 24,
Constants:
f ed
0.85 x 24
13.6
1.5
f yd 347.83
Md 160 x103
145mm.
Pda=1100kN, ed =
Pda
1100
Using Equations.
Assume 300x500mm & 4 26
g 0.014 g min 0.008
Trial 1:
As
bd
2*
530
0.00785.
300 x500
1
d 500 50 450 so that d
0.1
Pub=fcd
0.8 cu
bd
967 kN.
yd cu
Ab=
0.8 cu
d 240mm.
yd cu
20
p do
ed
pdo
1
pub
eb
1412kN pd 1100 kN
Trial 2.
As bd
2 x 452
0.0083
270 x 450 45
782 x103
=
441mm.
Eb = 441 360/2 = 26 + mm > ed Compression controls.
Pd0 = [13.6 (270 4501808) + 347.83 1808] 103 = 2257kN
pd = 1
2257
2257
1
782
45
= 0.10
450
Vsd =
N
1100 x103
=
= 0.67
f ed bh
13.6 x 270 x 450
Nsd =
M
160 x106
=
= 0.22
f ed bh 2 13.6 270 450 2
21
Ast = w
wAcfed
0.35 270 450 13.6
= 1662.71mm2
f rd
347.83
24 = 3.7 use 4 24
Example 1.2.3
Design a column to sustain a design axial load of 55kN acting with a design bending
moment of 200kNm including all other effects. Use the same materials example 1.2.2.
Solution :
200 x103
Md
ed
mm = 364mm.
Pd
550
Fed = 13.6 Mpa , fyd = 347. 83 Mp
270 x 450 with 4 26
Trial 1:
4 530
450
405mm
g 270 450 0.017, d 450
10
As
bd
2 530
0.0097
270 405
f yd
f cd
25.58 , d
0.11, e
1.343
Nd
o.33.
f cd bh
w=0.40.
Ast
Use 4 20
d ' 0.1
h
d= 405.
M 2
bh 0.27.
f ed
wAc f cd
0.40 270 450 13.60
1900mm 2
f yd
347.83
& 4 16.
A= 314+4x201=2060mm2 >1900mm2
Circular Columns.
22
Consider the cross section shown reinforced with 6 longitudinal bars (the No of bars
can vary from 6 to 10).
a B , B1 0.5.
1
2. Evaluates the stress fs or fyd assuming
cu .0 0035orcu .0 0035 .0 75 cb
3. Determine Pd and then a (or x) , using the two unknown equilibrium equation.
First evaluate Pd using the moment equation about extreme tension steel as.
Pde1 = Nc(da1)+ Ns1(dd11)+Ns2(dd31)
Where a1 is the distance from extreme compression face to the centroid of
the compression force Nc.
Using the force equation recomputed a and of course a =
a , a as pd N c N s1 N s 2 N 53 N 54 1 here is to be computed from the
area of the soction Note that during computation, if the value of x obtained is
larger than d, or over all diameter of the crosssection, tension steel can be under
compression very small eccentricity or nearly concentric loading. In such
circumstances the equation developed should be reexamined to account for such
effect.
4. Repeat step 3 until pd k+1 and 1 or ak+1 and ak are nearly equal or until certain
convergence criteria are satisfied. The subseript k stands for iteration #
To simplify this , on approximate empirical formula modified to confirm 15D of
the local standard, for circular column of diameter h failing in compression is given
[Whitney].
23
Pd
As f yd
3e
1
h 2d 1
Ag f cd
9.6he
0.8h 0.67 h 2d
' 2
1.18.
180 103
147mm
1225
eb 0.2 0.9g m ' h 219mm ed c.controls .
e ed
2712 260.87
3 145
1
500 2 50
Pd=
10 3
24
1
103 ; mm2 ; d h
Pda
1225 103
0.46
f ed Ag 13.6 196.35 x103
Md
f ed Ag h
= 0.10
180 106
0.135
13.6 196.35 103 500
1945mm 2
25
0 Pd N c N sc N st
N c Aci f ci , resul tan t force inconcrete
where
N sc Asci
N st Asti
The procedure using the expressions developed so far is tedious as the determination of
the neutral axis requires several trials. Thus the two commonly used methods proposed
by Breseles shall be discussed below.
A) Inverse load us eccentricities gives bowel shaped failure surface.
Consider the 1 p U s edi surface in the region of interest at Pt.Q where edx & edy for the
respective uniaxial eccentricities are approximated using pt.A&B. Let pt.c represent the
reciprocal of the concentric design load capacity.
The pt. Q on the interaction surface is approximated by a point of which generally
gives a conservative estimate of the strength. On this basis the strength may be obtained
from
1
pd
pdx
pdy
pd 0
pd
Where Pd = design axial force capacity under biaxial bending edy & edx .
Pdx & Pdy = Capacities for uniaxial bending with eccentricities edy & edx respectively.
26
Assume the cross Sectional dimensions, area of steel and its distribution.
Pdo
Compute concentric load Capacity Pdo and
Pdo
Determine uniaxial moment capacities Mdxo and Mdyo of the section combined
with given axial load Pda with the use of interaction curves for axial load and
unixial moment.
Then the adequacy of the column section can be checked either with the
interaction (EQ) of interaction curves. For checking the adequacy of column
section with interaction equation, determine n 0.667 1.667
M dx
M dxo
M dy
Pd
M dyo
Pd
1,
otherwise the section is unsafe. Then the section is modified and checked
again, for checking the adequacy of section with interaction curves, the values
of Mdx/ Mdxo and Mdy/Mdy are plotted as Px and Py respectively. If the plot is
within the intraction curve for
Pd
M dx
M dxo
M dy
dyo
1.0
for a circle and ranges b/n 1.15 to 1.55 for most general cases.
However interaction charts prepared for this purpose can be used for actual design using
the following procedure.
Mb
h1
b1
0.1 0 range
h
b
h1
Mh
values of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15,..0.25
are available
b1
b1
1
& b ratio
h
b
28
Compute
Atot = w
Ac f cd
f yd
M dy
Pda
300mm
edy
M dx
200mm
Pda
Steel ratio for top use < 0.02 for comp/ tension steel of a raw
Inner columns larger dimension than outer ones.
Trial 1: Assume 600 x 400 with 8 28 arranged as shown.
As
dd
0.00554
Pdx = bd fed
1
1
1 e d e 2 1 e d 2
2 m1 1 d
1
d
= 1560.kN
If Pdx is near 900 or less, you should change the X section immediately without
further check for Pdy b/c for even a uniaxial case it hasnt satisfied to be 900.
Y direction;
edy = 200mm, d = 40040 = 360mm , b = 600mm.
Pnb = 1687kN, eb = 187mm < edy = 200 Tcontrols.
Pdy = 1560kN
P P P
dx dy
do
Pd= P ( P P ) P P 944kN Pda 900 kN .
do
dx
dy
dx dy
b
1.4
180 106
0.138.
13.6 4002 600
Slender Columns
A
defined as g = e
such a way that the concentric design axial load capacity may be obtained as
Pdw cr Pdo in which Cr=1.25
Le
48b
Slender Columns.
Summary
30
2. In Columns that are braced against sidesway or that are parts of frames braced
against sidesway, the effective length k, i.e. , the distance b/n inflection
points , falls b/n and ,depending on the degree of end rostraint.
3. The effective lengths of Columns that are not braced against sidesway or that
are parts of frames not so braced are always larger than , the more so the
smaller the end restraint .In consequence, the buckling load of a frame not
braced against sidesway is always substantially smaller than that of the same
frame when braced.
Summary.
1. In flexural members the presence of axial Compression causes additional
deflections and additional moments py. other things being equal, the
additional moments increase with increasing slenderness ratio k .
2. In members braced against sidesway and bent in single curvature, the maxima
of both types of moments, Mo and Py, occur at the same or at nearby locations
and are fully additive, this leads to large moment magnifications. In the Mo
moments result in double curvature (i.e., in the occurance of an inflection
point). The opposite is true and less or no moment magnification occurs.
3. In members of frames not braced against sidesway the maximum moments of
both kinds, Mo and Py, almost always occur at the same locations, the ends of
the colums, they are fully additive, regardless of the presence or absence of an
inflection point. Here, too, other things being equal, the additional deflections
and the corresponding moments increase with increasing k
Moment Magnification.
Non sway: (According to ACI).
Mc= ns M 2 .
Cm
ns
1 pu 0.75 pc
Where
Pu=Factored Load.
1.
Pc=Critical Load
r.
2 EI
ku 2
Cm=0.6+0.4
M1
o.4.
M2
31
For members braced against sidesway and without transverse loads between supports.
Here M2 is larger of the two end moments, and M 1 M 2 is positive when the end
moments produce single curvature and negative when they Produce double curvature.
Unbrace frame, cm=1.0.
32