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Republic of the Philippines

Dominican College of Tarlac


College of Education

Written Report
in
Curriculum Development

Submitted to:
Dr. ______Fhox paki kabi namu

Submitted by:
Rhufa D. Paras
Abel P. Sacatani

Psychological Foundation
The psychological foundation of curriculum only stresses the need for curriculum
development to be firmly anchored on the nature and characteristics of the learners

for whom the curriculum is crafted as well as on the desirable conditions for and
principles of learning and teaching-learning styles.
Psychological Bases:
Learners

Level of development
Nature or characteristics
Needs/interest/ability level
Motivation to learn

Conditions and Principles of Learning

Motivation
Transfer
Retention
Reinforcement
Exercise
Practice
Effect
Feedback
Active participation
Socialization
Use of meaningful materials

Teaching and Learning Styles

Tradition (prescriptive)
Task-orientated
Cooperative
Child learner-centered
Subject-centered
Conducive to learning atmosphere
Problem focused
Inquiry-based
Humane/humanistic.

Psychology provides an indispensable base for carefully identifying types of


curricular arrangement that will most benefit the learners growth and
development. Also, it provides basis for the teaching and learning process
and unifies elements of the learning process and some of the questions
which can be addressed by psychological foundations
The learner is a person who has feelings, attitudes and emotions. Emotions
such as self-efficacy, self-assurance, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
determine how a student approaches learning. Establish a warm, democratic,
positive and non-threatening learning environment in which learners selfconcept and self-esteem are considered essentials factors in learning.
The center of any education is the learner. Without the learner, there would
be no need for teaching.
The teachers success to guide the learner in the learning process will
depend greatly upon his insights into the various factors basic to growth and
development and his knowledge of the developmental characteristics of the
learner.
No two individuals can be exactly alike in their resulting development and
adjustments. The unique characteristics and traits emerge as children pass
from one stage to another.
Learning is a process that involves change in behavior resulting from
experience. Learning, being the core of the teaching learning process, has to
be well understood by a teacher.
The most effective learning takes place where there is maximum mental
activity through strong motivation.
Motivation is process in which the individual attention and interest are
aroused and directed toward definite goals to be extent that his needs,

whether basic or acquired are involved and become motivators of the


individuals attention and interest.
An important aspect of the educative process is the learning situation. The
learning situation refers to the conditions outside the learner which affects
the learning.
Although it was said that the learner in the classroom may occur in spite of
the teacher, it cannot be denied that the teacher is still the key in classroom
learning.
The teacher: as a key factor in the classroom learning situation.
o
o
o
o

-as model
-as a manager of the classroom learning situation
-as facilitator of learning
-as evaluator of student learning

Psychological Foundation in Curriculum


-Psychology as a foundation of curriculum development is essential in order to
identify the types of curricular arrangement that suits the different levels of the
learner's growth and development. Psychology basically deals with how people
learn, and arrangement of every discipline must be in accordance to the different
psychological needs of every learner.
-The curriculum should definitely in congruent with the trend of the society.
-"The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing.
-The foundations should come together to make the curriculum a success. And that
curriculum must match the learning needs of the 21st Century learner that is why
there is a need for this Curriculum to be understood by the developers.
-The foundations of curriculum development have a great impact with what
curriculum we have. It must be established well a good teaching-learning process
that will gave way in todays educational context.

-Indeed, curriculum must be developed in such a fashion that it will be responsive


to the needs of every individual, thus bringing out their best potentials.
-Its vital to understand the three foundations of curriculum development in order
to establish a well-directed and relevant curriculum. Moreover, knowing the three
most important bases of curriculum development (society, learner and knowledge),
we could immediately go into conclusion on why do we need to understand the
three foundations
-In psychological foundation, old concept and ideas are replaced with new
concepts of psychology. Role of the teacher is defined. Teacher is now better aware
about new methodologies of teaching, individual differences, intelligence, growth
and development of learners, learner personality, their attitude and aptitude.
Teacher can take guidance from learning theories for the effectiveness of his
instruction.
-Psychology will provide the right basis for the teaching and learning process.
Each of these foundations (sociological, philosophical, and psychological) should
be well understood and utilized in order to attain the goal of providing a better
education for future intellectual or educational progress.
1.
http://slucurdevcit1st.blogspot.com/2013/01/understanding-foundations-ofcurriculum.html
2.http://www.slideshare.net/flexbytes_domain/psychological-foundation-ofeducation-19022155
3.
http://www.studymode.com/essays/Importance-Of-Curriculum-Foundations474124.html
4. http://oer.avu.org/bitstream/handle/123456789/73/Curriculum%20Studies.pdf
5. http://www.slideshare.net/annebelievable/foundations-of-curriculum
6.
http://olga-curriculum.blogspot.com/2009/02/major-foundations-ofcurriculum.html
7. Allan C. Orstein. Philosophy as Basis for Curriculum Decisions.
Chaube et. al, 1994, language in india. P. 236

Thinkexist.com

Psychology and the Curriculum

Psychology, I believe, does not just take effect when it comes to the curriculums
delivery, but is a very important consideration in curriculum planning. While the
philosophical foundation explains more on why we need the curriculum, I think the
psychological foundation would stress more on how will this curriculum be
used? In simple terms, the curriculum itself, just like what Dewey said, should be
psychologized. There should be complete understanding between the aim of the
curriculum and the needs of the students.

The study of psychology is not just about cognition but it is more manifested in the
students behavior. It is therefore important to stress that the curriculum
implemented would display a deep understanding of the needs, the drives, the
wants, and the urges of the learner because this would eventually show their
behavior.

As a teacher, it is important for me to first reflect on how my past year went


through. I often ask myself: What topics did my students find hard? What made
these topics hard? Have I moved on with the next topics without them
understanding the previous topics? What day did I discuss my most important
lessons? Was it after a holiday? Was it before intramurals? What activities did I
give in the most difficult topics? Were these activities effective in making them
understand important points? Did these activities reach them?

After silently reflecting on these questions, I organized my topics based on the


needs of my students, which should come first? Which should be emphasized
more? I believe that simply following the book in its sequence will not make the

instruction effective, but understanding how the students will take lesson per lesson
is much more worth the try.

It also helps me when I think of my experiences as a student. As you know, I hate


memorizing data which will not be of use to me, so I do not give test types similar
to how I believe education should be. Education is all about correct functioning. It
is about understanding concepts and how to make use of it in real life, and not just
focus on the subjective and memorized data which will not last. As a teacher, we
should find ways on how our students can give the effort to attain a goal.

I always have high belief in education and the educational system no matter what
surveys say and other people say. As an educator, trust in the value of education
itself regardless of the working conditions, or the lacking problem is enough to
continue our sworn thrust. Even teachers need psychologizing.