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SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT

(Introduced in 2013 by IBM)

Nishant Kumar

LECTURE-1
Basic Definitions
OBJECTIVE
Define a project management
Define the following terms
Project
Sub-Project
Program
Portfolio Management
List the phases of the project life cycle.

Why SPM(Software
Project Management)
?

What is Management ?
Management in business and organizations is
the function that coordinates the efforts of
people to accomplish goals and objectives using
available resources efficiently and effectively.
Management comprises planning, organizing,
staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an
organization to accomplish the goal.
--Wikipedia

What is Project ?
Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique
service, product or result. It has a definite beginning and a
definite end. It is undertaken to create a lasting outcome.
or
A project is well-defined task, which is a collection of several
operations done in order to achieve a goal (for example, software
development and delivery). A Project can be characterized as:

Every project has a goal.


Project is not routine activity or day-to-day operations.
Project comes with a start time and end time.
Project ends when its goal is achieved hence it is a temporary
phase in the lifetime of an organization.
Project needs adequate resources in terms of time, manpower,
finance, material and knowledge-bank.

Project Management

Project Management is the application of


knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to
project activities to meet the project
requirements.

Software Project Management is.


A Software Project is the complete procedure of
software development from requirement gathering
to testing and maintenance, carried out according to
the execution methodologies, in a specified period of
time to achieve intended software product.

Software project management is the art and science


of planning and leading software projects.It is a subdiscipline of project management in which software
projects are planned, implemented, monitored and
controlled.

SPM over Another Project

Software projects have several properties that make


them very different to other kinds of engineering
project.
The product is intangible.
Its hard to claim a bridge is 90% complete if there is not 90%
of the bridge there. It is easy to claim that a software project
is 90% complete, even if there are no visible outcomes.

Large software projects are often bespoke.


Most large software systems are one-off, with experience
gained in one project being of little help in another.

The technology changes very quickly.


Most large software projects employ new technology; for
many projects, this is the raison detre

WHY WE NEED TO
LEARN SOFTWARE
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
?

To deliver a quality product.


To keep cost within clients budget.
Tracking of project stages.
Accomplishing task as per
schedule.

Lets discuss five process groups

Initiating

Planning

Executing

Monitoring and Controlling

Closing

Managing Project Requirements in broader


context

Identifying Requirements

Addressing the needs and expectations of the


stakeholders

Balancing the competing project constraints


including , but not limited to scope, quality,
schedule, budget, resources and risk.

Portfolio Management
Portfolio management is a centralized management of
one or more portfolios. It includes identifying, prioritizing,
authorizing, managing and controlling projects, programs,
and other related work, to achieve specific strategic
business objectives.
Example:
An infrastructure firm that has the strategic objective of
maximizing the return on its investments may put
together a portfolio that includes a mix of projects in oil
and gas, water, roads, rail and airports. For this mix, the
firm may choose to manage related projects as one
program. All of the power projects may be grouped
together as a power program.

Project Phases

Project phases are components of the project life


cycle. They are divisions within a project where extra
control is needed to effectively manage the
completion of a major deliverable. It can be
sequential or can overlap. They mainly facilitate ease
of management, planning and control.

Project phases can be mapped to the following life


cycle structure irrespective of size or project
complexity:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Initiating the project


Organizing and preparing
Carrying out the project work
Closing the project

Project Lifecycle Characteristics


In project life cycle cost and staffing levels are
low in the initial stages, increase while work is
carried out and then drops.
Intermediate Phase
Cost and staffing levels peak

Cost & Staffing Level

Final Phase
Cost &
staffing
levels drop

Initial Phase
Cost and
staffing
levels low

Time

The cost of changes and correcting errors


typically increases substantially as the project
approaches completion.
Stakeholder influence, risk and uncertainty
are high in the initial stages, dropping over
the life of the project.

QUICK RECALL

Term

Definition

Project

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or


result. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end.

Subproject

A subproject is a set of work units assigned to a single project organizational unit to


divide the project into more manageable components.

Program

A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain


benefits and control not available from managing them individually.

Project management

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to


project activities to meet the project requirements.

Portfolio
Management

The centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying,


prioritizing, authorizing, managing and controlling projects, programs, and other related
work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives.

Portfolio

A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to
facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.

Progressive
Elaboration

Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information
and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, and thereby
producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations
of the planning process.

Project Management
Office (PMO)

An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the


centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain.

Sponsor

A sponsor is an individual or an organization that has the authority to perform,


delegate or ensure completion of the following project commitments:
Formalisation of an agreement with the delivery organization

Approval to proceed with the start of the project or of a phase

Acceptance of the deliverables from the project

Spending for the cost or price, or both, of the project as specified in the

agreement

Assignment

Discuss the phases in your projects.

LECTURE-2
Project Stakeholders
and Organizational
Influences on Project
Management
OBJECTIVE:

Define stakeholders.
List some of the key stakeholders in a software
development project.
Explain the relationship between stakeholders and the
project.
List the different types of organizational structures.
Explain the influence of an organizational structure on
project management

QUICK RECALL

Term

Definition

Project

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or


result. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end.

Subproject

A subproject is a set of work units assigned to a single project organizational unit to


divide the project into more manageable components.

Program

A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain


benefits and control not available from managing them individually.

Project management

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to


project activities to meet the project requirements.

Portfolio
Management

The centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying,


prioritizing, authorizing, managing and controlling projects, programs, and other related
work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives.

Portfolio

A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to
facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.

Progressive
Elaboration

Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information
and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, and thereby
producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations
of the planning process.

Project Management
Office (PMO)

An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the


centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain.

Sponsor

A sponsor is an individual or an organization that has the authority to perform,


delegate or ensure completion of the following project commitments:
Formalisation of an agreement with the delivery organization

Approval to proceed with the start of the project or of a phase

Acceptance of the deliverables from the project

Spending for the cost or price, or both, of the project as specified in the

agreement

STAKE-HOLDERS

Stakeholders are the people or organizations actively involved in


the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively
affected by the start or completion of the project. They can
positively or negatively affect the project by execution (start) or
completion of the project. They may exert influence over the
project, its deliverables and on the project team. It can be both
internal and external.
Some key stakeholders in a software development project:
Executive Sponsor or Funding Authority
Project Manager
Product Manager
Project Team Members including Analysts, Developers, Testers and
Technical Writers
Quality Assurance Team
Marketing and Finance Team
Government Agencies and Regulatory Bodies
Vendors and Sub contractors
Business Partners
Financial Institutions and Banks, etc.

Organizational Structure

It is of three types

Functional

Project Based

Matrix

Functional Organization
Functional Organization
Chief
Executive

Functional
Manager

Staff

Staff

Functional
Manager

Staff

Staff

Functional
Manager

Staff

Project
coordination

Staff

Coloured boxes indicate staff engaged in project activities

The functional organization is the classical hierarchy. Staff


members are grouped by skills, functional specialty, or
other common attribute and report to a single individual
above them in the hierarchy.

Advantages
Staff is managed by a person with experience in their same specialty who
can adequately understand and review their work.
Staffers have the opportunity to move up within their functional areas, which
gives a reason for them to stay long-term. The company gets the advantage
of their expertise and company knowledge over time.
Staffers work with others in their field, which allows for knowledge sharing
and lateral job moves to learn new skills.

Disadvantages
Functional areas may have difficulties working with other functional areas.
There is often a perception that they are competing with other functional
areas for resources and a lack of understanding of what other areas do for
the company. So, the accounting department may be upset that its request
for an additional headcount is denied, but the company financial results point
to a need for additional sales people rather than accountants.
As the company grows larger, the functional areas can become difficult to
manage due to their size. They can become almost like small companies on
their own, with their own cultures, facilities, and management methods.
Functional areas may become distracted by their own goals and focus on
them, rather than on overall company objectives. For instance, there may be
a desire by the I.T. department to implement a new, state-of-the-art
computer system, but the overall company objectives support investment in
new products instead. Since the unit doesn't have an overview of the entire
company, it may focus attention on goals that it believes are important but
which are not priorities for top management.

Project-Based Organization
Projectized Organization
Project
coordination

Chief
Executive

Project
Manager

Staff

Project
Manager

Staff

Staff

Staff

Project
Manager

Staff

Staff

It has a full time project manager who has


almost total authority over project decisions,
resources, and budget. Project team members
report directly to the project manager.

Matrix Organization

Project
coordination

They are structured such that the project managers authority


and control are governed by the type of matrix used.
Resources are borrowed from functional areas to accomplish
project objectives.

Matrix
The

advantages of a matrix organisation are:

Resource has a home organization to which he/she can return.

New ideas and best practices are constantly coming into the
project team with the various experiences and skills of different
team members.

Project manager can focus on project-related activities while the


functional manager can handle organizational issues such as
performance reviews, pay and benefits, and hiring and
termination activities.

The

challenge of a matrix organisation is:

Dual reporting and communication requirement.

Assignments

Discuss the kind of probable influences the


various stakeholders have on the project.
Discuss the organizational structure in which
your projects are executed.

LECTURE-3
Project Management
Processes
OBJECTIVE

Recall the stakeholders influence on projects.


Explain the project management processes.
Explain interaction of process groups in a project.
List the knowledge areas in which a project manager
requires skills.

Introduction to Project Management


Processes

Project process is a set of interrelated actions


and activities that are performed to achieve a
pre-specified set of products, results, or
services.

They mainly fall into two major categories:

Project Management Processes encompass the


tools and techniques involved in applying the
skills and capabilities described in the knowledge
areas.
Product-oriented processes are typically defined by
the project life cycle, varying by application area.

Project management processes are grouped into five categories:

Initiating Process Group

This group defines and authorises a new project


or new phase of an existing project by obtaining
authorisation to start the project or phase.

Initial scope of the project is defined


Initial financial resources are committed
Internal and external stakeholders are identified
Project manager selected (if not already done)

The two processes in this group are:

Develop Project Charter


Identify Stakeholders

Planning Process Group


This group defines and refines project objectives. Project
management plan and project documents that will be used to
carry out the project are created. Detailing of the plan is done
progressively referred to as rolling wave planning.
1. Develop project
management plan
2. Collect requirements
3. Define scope
4. Create Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS)
5. Define activities
6. Sequence activities
7. Estimate activity
resources
8. Estimate activity
durations
9. Develop schedule
10. Estimate costs

11. Determine budget


12. Plan quality
13. Develop human resource
plan
14. Plan communications
15. Plan risk management
16. Identify risks
17. Perform qualitative risk
analysis
18. Perform quantitative risk
analysis
19. Plan risk responses
20. Plan procurements

Executing Process Group

This group integrates people and other


resources to carry out the project
management plan for the project.

It comprises of 8 processes:
1. Direct and manage
project execution.
2. Perform quality assurance
3. Acquire project team
4. Develop project team

5. Manage project team


6. Distribute information
7. Manage stakeholder
expectations
8. Conduct procurements

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group


This group regularly measures and monitors progress to identify
variances from the Project Management Plans so that corrective
actions can be taken when necessary, to meet project objectives.
It comprises of 10 processes:
1. Monitor and control project 6. Control costs
work
7. Perform quality control
2. Perform integrated change 8. Report performance
control
9. Monitor and control risks
3. Verify scope
10. Administer contracts
4. Control scope
5. Control schedule

Closing Process Group

This group formalises acceptance of the


product, service or result and brings the
project or project phase to an orderly end.

It comprises of two processes:

Close project or phase


Close procurement

Project Management Knowledge Areas

The 42 Processes within the 5 Process Groups,


are mapped into 9 Project Management
Knowledge Areas:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project
Project

Integration Management
Scope Management
Time Management
Cost Management
Quality Management
Human Resource Management
Communications Management
Risk Management
Procurement Management

Assignment

Discuss the interaction of process groups in a


project.

LECTURE-4
Project Initiating
Processes

OBJECTIVE
Define a project charter.
Explain the purpose of using a project charter.
List the different fields that should be present in a project
charter.
Explain stakeholder analysis.
Create a stakeholder register.

Project Charter

A project charter is a document that formally authorises a


project.

It is a document usually issued by an entity external to the


project organization which provides the project manager with
the authority to apply organisational resources to project
activities.

A project charter:

Includes the business need that the project is to address


Includes the product description
Establishes the scope of the project
Names the project manager as the responsible and authorised party
Identifies the project deliverables, schedule and budget

The purpose of the Project Charter is to


document the:

Reasons for undertaking the project

Objectives and constraints of the project

Directions concerning the solution

Identities of the main stakeholders

Sample Project Charter

A sample The project charter contents include:

The specific purpose of the project


Project objectives and criteria for success
High level requirements
High level project description
High level risks
Summary milestone schedule
Summary budget
Project approval requirements
Assigned Project Manager and authority level
Name and authority of the sponsor

Assignment

Discuss and develop the project charter for


one of your live projects

THANK
S