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STORIES FROM THE

MAHABHARATA
PART ONE

A SANSKRIT COURSE FOR SENIOR STUDENTS


(AGES 1011 YEARS)
i

St James Independent Schools, London


Sanskrit Department
Senior Girls: tel. 020-7348 1777; fax: 020-7348 1790
Senior Boys: tel. 020-8892 2002; fax 020-8892 4442

Title: Stories from the Mahbhrata, Part 1. A Sanskrit Course for Senior Students (Ages 10-11 Years)

The Marking-Roman and Sanskritpada fonts are designed and distributed by


6H Design, London (tel. 020-8944 9496); 2003 6H Design.

COVER DRAWING: Gag, the river goddess

DRAFT, prepared October 2007

2007 St James Publishing


All rights reserved. No part of this draft may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise, without prior permission of St James Publishing.

ii

CONTENTS
YEAR 6, TERM 1

P.

YEAR 6, TERM 2

P.

34

YEAR 6, TERM 3

P.

76

iii

Teaching Sanskrit to Senior Students


INTRODUCTION

The Sanskrit language is a new element in todays education. It is an ideal study


for the young because its systematic grammar orders the students mind. At the
same time, Sanskrit literature provides the student with an exciting and profound
interaction with a classical culture. Furthermore, because Sanskrit is very close
to the source of all our Indo-European languages, it helps the student appreciate
the underlying structure of language as a whole.
Stories from the Mahaabhaarata, a new series of Sanskrit textbooks for children
of ten years and upwards, presents the epic Mahaabhaarata in stories which
develop the students knowledge of grammar in a gradual way. This book, the
first in the series, is designed for students between ten and eleven years of age.
It is strongly suggested that they should have completed the preceding section
of this course, The Story of Raama (Parts 1 and 2), before starting this book.
READING AND WRITING THE DEVANAAGAR SCRIPT

Fluent reading and writing of the Devanaagar script is essential at this point. If
the students are commencing this book after the holidays, you will probably want
to spend some time practising reading, writing and dictation exercises.
ORAL AND LISTENING EXERCISES

When teaching this course, it is very useful to have an oral component to each
lesson. If students spend all their time doing written work and never speaking
the language, their learning will not stick. Similarly, listening exercises (i.e., listening to a story read in Sanskrit and then answering questions about it) help to
immerse the student in the Sanskrit mindset. Thus, the exercises given in this
book can always be used as oral and listening exercises, and games and competitions are even more effective.
The same is true in learning paradigms. Students should not expect that they will
learn their case endings by looking them up. Learning of paradigms should be
primarily through recitation in the traditional manner (i.e., by the order of singular, dual and plural for each case). As a supporting method, learning for tests

iv

may also be done by looking for patterns of recurring words and similarities with
other paradigms. Regular oral and written testing of paradigms is necessary to
ensure that they are known accurately and by heart. This applies particularly to
the paradigms previously learnt.
Not all the exercises in this book need to be completed: some are optional and
should be used according to the teachers discrimination. It is essential that there
be a forward momentum to this study.
SENTENCE ANALYSIS

In Chapter One, a new method of sentence analysis is introduced. Previously,


the children have tended to translate each Sanskrit word into English and then
rearrange those English words to make a credible English sentence. However, in
order to train the students to be able to understand Sanskrit better as a language
in its own right, a more adult method of sentence analysis has been devised.
VOCABULARY

The approach to vocabulary in these books is different from that presented in the
junior textbooks. All new words in a story are underlined, and their English
equivalents will be found at the bottom of the page on which they are working.
However, in each chapter there is a list of new vocabulary words. These should
be learned and tested, and could usefully form a component of any end-of-term
exam.
Verbs are given a different treatment to that of the Junior Course. New verbs are
presented in three forms, namely the dhaatu, the First Person singular (i.e., the
it form) and the indeclinable participle (i.e., the Tv| form).
Each chapter includes a story. It would be helpful to give a written or oral test
on the new vocabulary before starting the story.
NOTES TO TEACHERS

Advice to the teacher is indicated in italics.

The Sanskrit Alphabet and its Pronunciation


a
a|

f
ao
aO
k

q
Q

vi

e
ai
o
au
ka
kha
ga
gha
a
ca
cha
ja
jha
a
a
ha
a

as in

approach

as in

star

as in

if

as in

feel

as in

book

as in

food

A sound made with the tip of


the tongue raised but not quite
touching the roof of the mouth
(something like the ri in ring).

as in

say

as in

my

as in

home

as in

now

as in

kite

as in

block-head

as in

gate

as in

log-hut

as in

long

as in

chalk

as in

catch him

as in

jug

as in

hedgehog

as in

cringe

as in

take*

as in

anthill*

as in

do*

~
t

n
p

m
y
r
l
v
z
w
s
h

ha
a
ta
tha
da
dha
na
pa
pha
ba
bha
ma
ya
ra
la
va
a
a
sa
ha

as in

godhood*

as in

under*

as in

table

as in

anthill

as in

day

as in

godhead

as in

no

as in

pure

as in

loop-hole

as in

baby

as in

abhor

as in

mother

as in

yellow

as in

rosy*

as in

lady

as in

awake

as in

shall

as in

show*

as in

slug

as in

heaven

,
;

as in a pure nasal
as in an exhaled breath

* with the tongue raised to the roof


of the mouth

Note to Teachers
In addition to their revision of the grammatical terms
described on pages 24, students should review, and be
tested on, the forms of the following words to be found in
the Reference Book.
NOUNS

VERBS

r|m;
im]m\
sIt|
ndI

vit
ivWyit
avt\
vRte
aiSt

Grammatical Terms
NOUN

ADJECTIVE

VERB

CASE ENDINGS

A noun is a person, place or thing.


e.g.
r|m;
Rma
ayoy|
Ayodhy
sU]m\
rope
An adjective is a word that describes a noun.
e.g.
pIt)
yellow
p|u)
pale
The ) symbol at the end of these words indicates
that they may take endings in three genders, eight
cases, and three numbers.

A verb is an action word.


e.g.
ipbit
he drinks
gimWy|im
I shall go

The case ending of a noun shows the role of that


noun in the sentence.
e.g.
r|mSy
of Rma
sIty|
by St
There are eight cases in Sanskrit:
FIRST CASE ENDING
VOCATIVE
SECOND CASE ENDING
THIRD CASE ENDING
FOURTH CASE ENDING
FIFTH CASE ENDING
SIXTH CASE ENDING
SEVENTH CASE ENDING

often the doer


the person addressed
the object done to
by or with
for
from
of
in (or on)

AGREEMENT

NUMBER

MASCULINE

FEMININE

NEUTER

Agreement means that adjectives agree in case,


number and gender with the nouns they go with.
e.g.
or; r|xs;
horrible demon
or|y r|xs|y
for the horrible demon
orH; r|xsG;
by horrible demons
The number of a word shows whether that word is
singular, dual or plural.
e.g.
g;
bird (singular)
gO
two birds (dual)
g|;
birds (plural)
Note that the plural for bird is simply translated as
birds, while the dual is translated as two birds.

A masculine word names something considered to be


male.
e.g.
r|m;
Rma
hIr;
Lord
gu;
teacher
A feminine word names something considered to be
female.
e.g.
sIt|
St
ndI
river
mit;
thought
A neuter word names something considered to be
neither male nor female.
e.g.
im]m\
friend

TENSE

PARADIGM

PERSON

The tense of a verb shows the time in which the


action is happening.
e.g.
|dit
he eats (present tense)
|idWyit
he will eat (future tense)
a|dt\
he ate (past tense)
A paradigm (pronounced par-a-dime) is a list or table of all
the possible forms that a noun, adjective, pronoun or verb can
take.
A verb can be expressed in one of three Persons. In
Sanskrit grammar these are known as:

First Person (FP)


Middle Person (MP)
Best Person (BP)

SINGULAR
he/she/it
you
I

DUAL
they two
you two
we two

PLURAL
they
you
we

Later languages (for example, Latin and French) deal with


these Persons in the opposite order:

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

SINGULAR
I
you
he/she/it

DUAL
we two
you two
they two

In this course, we shall use the Sanskrit system.

PLURAL
we
you
they

Year 6, Term 1

CHAPTER
HAPTER ONE
NE
1.1

The Sanskrit Language

Sanskrit is one of the oldest languages in the world. It is the language of the
Vedas, Upaniads, Bhagavad Gt, Mahbhrata, Rmyaa and the Puras.
These books provide an insight into the history of the world and the evolution of
humanity. Also, there are books on many other subjects written in Sanskrit.
Some of these deal with medicine, astronomy, architecture, mathematics, dance,
art and science.
Sanskrit is, or is close to, the mother of all Indo-European languages, including
Greek, Latin and English. The word saskta means perfected language. This
perfection is brought about through its precise grammatical structure which has
remained unchanged throughout millennia.
Thousands of years ago, the worlds greatest grammarian, Pini, explained
these laws of grammar in a systematic and beautiful way.

FINDING PINI ON THE INTERNET


See what is available on the Internet about the great grammarian, Pini. Here
are some websites to start you off:
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/mathematicians/Panini.html
http://www.answers.com/topic/panini-scholar
http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0837484.html

Year 6, Term 1

1.2

Epic Civilization: Paan-ini

When Pini was a boy, he was not very good


in his lessons at school. The other boys used to laugh
at him.
You are a fool, they said.
But Pini, unconcerned, continued to serve his teacher
faithfully and always did what he was told. One day, he
went for a walk in the mountains by himself. There he
remembered the Great Lord, who appeared before him.
Pini was amazed.
Since you have always served and obeyed your teacher,
I shall give you whatever you desire, said the Great Lord.
I desire knowledge, replied Pini.
Then you will receive a divine grammar, promised the
Great Lord.
When Pini returned to his classmates, he challenged
them to a grammar competition to see who knew most.
The competition went on for eight days. On the eighth
day, it seemed that Pini was almost beaten. But at this
point, the Great Lord intervened and made Pini victorious.

One.key feature of Pinis grammar is his explanation


of how words come from dhtus (see page 8).

Year 6, Term 1

The Great Lord (Narja) who appeared to Pini.

Year 6, Term 1

1.3

Dhaataus

One of the key elements in the Sanskrit language is the system of roots. Words
in Sanskrit have at their centre a dhtu or root. This is the seed of the word. Thus
the dhtu |d\ expresses the action of eating; the dhtu tud\ expresses the
action of hitting; the dhtu U expresses the act of becoming. All the different
forms of a Sanskrit verb are formed from its dhtu. Nouns and adjectives also
come from dhtus.

Uym\ more, numerous


(Adjective)

Uit; existence
(Noun)

Utm\ living being

Uim; earth

(Noun)

(Noun)

vit becomes
(Verb)

Dhtu

There are over 2,000 dhtus in Sanskrit,


and from these thousands and thousands of words are formed!

Year 6, Term 1

Note to teachers: Any of the exercises in this book can be either oral or written
according to the teachers discretion.

EXERCISE 1
Here are five dhtus:
(a) jIv\
in living

(b) cr\
in moving

(c) |d\
in eating

(d) vd\
in speaking

(e) iml\
in meeting

Below is a list of five words. State which dhtu goes with each word.

avdt\

For example:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

|m\
jIv;
cIr]m\
aimlt\
vd|Ny

1.4

= (d)

(food)
(a creature)
(behaviour)
(he, she or it met)
(eloquent)

Stems (The Expansion of Dhaataus)

There are three stages in the formation of a word:


1. The Dhtu

2. The Stem

cr\

cr

3. The Final Word

crit

What changes do you notice at each stage?

1.5

Verbs

A verb is an action word and can be expressed in the present, past or future
tenses. The forms of verbs are called conjugations.
9

Year 6, Term 1

EXERCISE 2
Using the paradigms on pages 120 and 121, conjugate the following three
dhtus in the present and past tenses.
(a)

|d\

(b)

vd\

(c)

cr\

EXERCISE 3
Using the five stems below, translate the verbs into the correct tenses.
(a)

jIv\

(b)

lives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

cr\
walks

crit
vdis
jIivWy|m;
|idWy
aimln\

(c)

|d\

(d)

eats

vd\
speaks

10.

acr;
vidWy|im
ajIvt\
imlit
a|dit

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

he became
she spoke
I became
you met
they ate

6.
7.
8.
9.

EXERCISE 4
Translate into Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

10

I shall eat
they many live
he says
he will meet
they many walk

(e)

iml\
meets

Year 6, Term 1

Tv| WORDS AND DHAATA US


In future, when we are given a new verb it will be expressed in three parts: the
dhtu, the verb form, and the Tv| form.
Example:

vit

UTv|

become

he/she/it becomes

having become

EXTENSION WORK
1. Conjugate the following dhtus in the future tense, with an English
translation:
(b) vd\
(c) cr\
(a) |d\
2. Here are some unusual future forms. Translate them into English.
You may need to look in Appendix 4 for the forms.
(a)
(b)
(c)

1.6

gimWyit
gimWyiNt
Xy|im

(d)
(e)

gimWyt;
gimWy|v;

Nouns

A noun is a name of a person, place or thing. The forms of nouns are called
declensions.

EXERCISE 5
Using the paradigms in Appendix 2 (pages 124 and 125) of r|m; im]m\
sIt| and ndI , decline the following words in the singular:
11

Year 6, Term 1

(a)
(b)

k|m;
sum\

(desire, masc.)
(happiness, neut.)

(c)
(d)

g|
devI

(Gag, fem.)
(goddess, fem.)

EXERCISE 6
Translate the following into English or Sanskrit. Where necessary, use the
vocabulary in the Appendices 3 and 4.

r|mSy
im]fwu
sIt|yI
ngrey;
g|i;
gjyo;
k|m|t\

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1.7

8. for a man
9. in desire
10. by two boats
11. the houses
12. the two cities
13. by elephant
14. kings (2nd)

Agreement of Doer and Verb

Remember that actions can be done by one doer, two doers or many doers. For
example:

|dit

|dt;

|diNt

he, she or it eats

two eat

they eat

g; |dit
gO |dt;
g|; |diNt

12

A bird (singular) eats.


Two birds (dual) eat.
Two birds (plural) eat.

Year 6, Term 1

Notice in each sentence how both the doer and the verb take endings according
to whether they speak of one, two or many.

EXERCISE 7
Translate the English word into Sanskrit to form a correct Sanskrit sentence.
Then translate the whole sentence into English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

np; (speaks)
gj|; (walk)
mTSyO (eat)
im]f (meet)
W~; (lives)

EXERCISE 8
(a) Choose the correct form from the two in brackets.
(b) Write out the correct Sanskrit sentence.
(c) Translate the sentence into English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

g; g|; pZyit
im]d im]|i~ aimlt|m\
nr|; nrO sufn jIivWyiNt
dfVyO dfVy; criNt
puStkm\ puStk ptt;

13

Year 6, Term 1

EXERCISE 9
Choose the correct form from the two in brackets and write out the correct
Sanskrit sentence. Then translate the sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

np|; ndIm\ gCit gCiNt


r|xs|; ngrm\ crit criNt
pu]; vnm\ gimWyit gimWyiNt
b|lkSy sodr; ndIm\ fivzit fivziNt
kNy|; gh|t\ acrt\ acrn\

EXERCISE 10
Translate these sentences. The first few examples may be set out as follows:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

14

The man

walks.

nr;

crit

The king walks.


The friend eats.
Two friends walk.
Two kings meet.
The kings live.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The king walked.


The friend ate.
Two friends walked.
Two kings met.
The kings lived.

Year 6, Term 1
olden

1.8

Sentence Analysis

In the past, you may have translated Sanskrit sentences by writing out the
Sanskrit, putting the English word-for-word translation underneath, and then
writing a good English translation using your word-for-word translation. We are
now going to translate Sanskrit sentences and stories using a different method.

Note to teachers: These are to be learnt and tested.

Here is a list of abbreviations used in the method


as set out on the next page:
v.
pa.
pr.
fu.
s.
du.
pl.
m.
f.
n.
adv.
adj.

verb
past
present
future
singular
dual
plural
masculine
feminine
neuter
adverb
adjective

ind.
1st
voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
FP
MP
BP

indeclinable (e.g. it c
the doer
vocative (e.g. O king)
the object
by / with
for
from
of
in / on
First Person
Middle Person
Best Person

etc.)

15

Year 6, Term 1

The Golden Rules of Translation


1 FIND THE VERB. After reading a sentence accurately, find the verb, which

will usually be at the end of the sentence. Above this, write a v.,
together with pa ., pr. or fu. for the tense, s., du. or pl. for the
number, and FP, MP or BP for the person. Write the English meaning
beneath. For example:
v. FP pr. s.

nr;

kuKkur|n\

m|gRe

pZyit
he/she/it sees

FIND THE DOER and then write above it 1st , plus m., f. or n. for the

gender, and also write the number. Add the English beneath.
1st m. s.

nr;

v. FP pr. s.

kuKkur|n\

m|gRe

man

pZyit
he/she/it sees

FIND THE OBJECT (The Done To) and then above it put 2nd, and the

other details. Add the English beneath.


1st m. s.

nr;
man

2nd m. pl.

kuKkur|n\

v. FP pr. s.

m|gRe

dogs

pZyit
he/she/it sees

LABEL ANY OTHER WORDS. Identifying any other words, label them and

add the English beneath.


1st m. s.

nr;
man
5

2nd m. pl.

kuKkur|n\
dogs

7th m. s.

m|gRe

pZyit

in road

he/she/it sees

Finally, TRANSLATE THE SENTENCE directly into English.


The man sees the dogs in the road.

16

v. FP pr. s.

Year 6, Term 1

Further Rules of Translation


A For sentences with more than one action, the different actions should be

tackled one by one in the order they appear in the sentence, each with
their doer and object before it. This will include Tv| words.
B Often, the doer will not be separately mentioned, but is understood from

the ending of the verb.


C

When the verb is a form of aiSt (is), it is often left out. For example:
r|m; gt; (Rama is gone.)

vit aiSt there is no object. For example:


r|m; mt; vit (Rama becomes dead.)

D With forms of

E When there is an

it in a sentence, indicating the end of a statement or

thought, there may be an extra verb in the sentence, the one which is part
of what is said or thought. For example:
is,hm\ pZy|im it s; avdt\ (I see the lion, he said.)

a and have past


tense endings. You will find this form in the vocabulary without the a and

F If a verb is in the past tense, it will usually begin with an

in its present form, unless it is a special case.

17

Year 6, Term 1

1.9

Vocabulary for Story 1

NOUNS

k|m; (m)
np; (m)
dow; (m)
z|Ntnu; (m)

g| (f)
|y|R (f)
devI (f)
n|rI (f)

desire
king
fault
ntanu

Gag
wife
goddess
lady

INDECLINABLES (words that do not change their ending) etc.

N||m
atIv
kd|

by name
very
once, once upon a time

DHAATUS

VERBS

as\ *
jIv\
cr\
iml\
vd\
Tyj\

aiSt
jIvit
crit
imlit
vdit
Tyjit

in being
in living
in walking
in meeting
in speaking
in leaving

smIpe
tu
dyy|

near (+ 6th)
but
please

Tv|
he is, there is
he lives
he walks
(+ 3rd) he meets
he says, speaks
he leaves

jIivTv|
cIrTv|
imilTv|
idTv|
Ty|

* The past tense of aiSt is a|sIt\ (he was, there was).

18

ENDINGS

having lived
having walked
having met
having spoken
having left

Year 6, Term 1

Gag, the river goddess


19

Year 6, Term 1

1.10

Story 1

A Strange Wife
King ntanu meets the beautiful river goddess Gag. He immediately falls in love, and pleads with her to be his wife. She consents,
but says that if ntanu ever asks her what she is doing, she will leave
him. A strange wife and a stranger bargain! Can ntanu fulfil the
strict regulation laid upon him?

1. a|sIt\ np; z|Ntnu; n|m


2. s; atIv s|u; np; sufn ajIvt\
3. tSy tu k; dow;

tSy dow; k|m;

4. kd| z|Ntnu; n|; smIpg acrt\


5. s; n|y|R sh aimlt\
6. s| n|rI dgvI g| n|m

s| atIv suNdrI n|rI

7. mm |y|R v dyy| it z|Ntnu; avdt\


8. g| avdt\ ahm\ tv |y|R ivWy|im
9. Ikm\ kroiw it n kd|ip m|m\ pC
10. yid tt\ pCis tIhR Tv|m\ Tyj|im it

sfn
tSy
v
ahm\
kroiw

20

happily
(see page 129 )

be!
(see page 134)

you do

n kd|ip never
m|m\
(see page 134)
pC
ask!
yid tIhR if . . . then . . .

Year 6, Term 1

ntanu meets Gag.


21

Year 6, Term 1

CHAPTER TWO
2.1

Rivers
Rivers are important because they provide something essential
for life water. So towns and cities have normally been built
where there is a river. Since the water flows all the time and
is ever-fresh, rivers keep everything clean.
Sanskrit literature often speaks of rivers as goddesses. Gag
is an example of a river goddess. Gag is the river Ganges. It
is one of the largest rivers in the world. Its source is found
among the tallest mountains in the world, the Himlayas
(Sanskrit for home of the snows).

The River Gag descending from the Himlayas.


22

Year 6, Term 1

2.2

Complementary Sentences

We now look at a sentence with two sides that complement, or complete, each
other. For example:

y] y] ndI aiSt t] t] jlm\ aiSt


Wherever there is a river, there is water.

y] y] ndI aiSt

t] t] jlm\ aiSt

Above are the two halves of the sentence. Can you see that they work together?
This is an example of the y] y] t] t] type of complementary sentence
just one of the complements listed below.

COMPLEMENTS

y] . . . t]
y] y] . . . t] t]
yd| . . . td|
yd| yd| . . . td| td|
yId . . . tIhR
y; . . . s;
y| . . . t|
y|vt\ . . . t|vt\

where . . . there
wherever . . . there
when . . . then
whenever . . . then
if . . . then
he who . . . he
as . . . so
as long as . . . for so long

ADVERBIAL ENDINGS

d|
]
|

indicates time
indicates place
indicates manner

e.g.,
e.g.,
e.g.,

yd|
y]
y|

when
where
as

23

Year 6, Term 1

Note to teachers: This exercise should be gone through orally with the class and then
completed by each pupil in written form.

EXERCISE 11
Translate into English:
1.

y] np; vsit

t] |y|R vsit

2.

yd| dfvI vsit

td| nr; suit; avt\

3.

y] y] nr; gCit

t] t] kuKkur; anugCit

4.

y| jn; icNtyit

t| s; ivWyit

5.

yId n|rI gm\ z~oit

tIhR s| hsit

6.

y; aGnO itit

s; dG; ivWyit

7.

y|vt\ nr; s|u; aiSt

24

t|vt\ suit; ivWyit

Year 6, Term 1

EXERCISE 12
Translate the following into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.

y] devI a|gCit t] r|xs|; tSy|; gCiNt


yd| r|m; sIt|m\ apZyt\ td| s; suit; avt\
y; fbl; s; r|xs|n\ jyit
yId z|Ntnu; pCit Ikm\ kroIw it tIhR g| tm\ Tyjit

EXTENSION WORK
Translate into Sanskrit:
1. When the boy meets the demon, then they will do battle.
2. As a lady thinks so she will do.
3. If I meet my friend here, then we shall walk to the mountain.
4. Wherever a good man goes, there are many ladies.

25

Year 6, Term 1

Note to teachers: The following material provides a methodical approach to


English-to-Sanskrit translation

2.3

The Second Case Ending

The second case ending indicates the object the person or thing affected
by the action. Here are some examples.
DOER

OBJECT

The man

English order:
Sanskrit order:

nr;
nr;

sees

npm\

pZyit
pZyit

DOER

Sanskrit order:

z|Ntnu;
z|Ntnu;

goes

ndIm\

gCit
gCit

DOER

Sanskrit order:

nr|;
nr|;

to the river.

ndIm\

OBJECT

The men

English order:

npm\

OBJECT

ntanu

English order:

the king.

shoot

zr|n\

ixpiNt
ixpiNt

arrows.

zr|n\

Notice how in the Sanskrit order of a completed sentence the verb is at the end
and is followed by a sign called a ivr|m or stop. Also, notice how the doer
and the verb agree.

26

Year 6, Term 1

EXERCISE 13
Translate into English or Sanskrit. Use the Sanskrit order method shown
above.
1.
2.
3.

z|Ntnu; jlm\ Ipbit


np; la |dit
n|rI dow|n\ pZyit

4. The wise ladies walked to the strong man.


5. The good son went home quickly.

27

Year 6, Term 1

Note to teachers: This is revision. It should be known by heart. The three exercises that
follow the paradigms can be oral or written, according to the need in the classroom.

2.4

The Paradigms of hIr; and gu;

hIr; (Lord) is a masculine word. This paradigm gives the pattern for masculine
nouns ending in

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

Singular

Dual

Plural

hIr;
hf hrf
hIrm\
hIr~|
hryg
hrf;
hrf;
hrO

hrI
hf hrI
hrI
hIry|m\
hIry|m\
hIry|m\
hyoR;
hyoR;

hry;
hf hry;
hrIn\
hIri;
hIry;
hIry;
hrI~|m\
hIrwu

gu; (teacher) is a masculine word. This paradigm gives the pattern for masculine nouns ending in

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

28

Singular

Dual

Plural

gu;
hf guro
gum\
gu~|
gurvg
guro;
guro;
gurO

gu
hf gu
gu
guy|m\
guy|m\
guy|m\
guvoR;
guvoR;

gurv;
hf gurv;
gun\
gui;
guy;
guy;
gu~|m\
guwu

Year 6, Term 1

Other words that go like hIr;

kip;
Aiw;
muin;
aiGn;

Other words that go like gu;

z|Ntnu;
v|yu;
muin;
aiGn;

monkey
sage
sage
fire

ntanu
sage
sage
fire

EXERCISE 14
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Awg;
hIry|m\
munIn|m\
aGnO
kpy;

10.

gu~|
pzUn\
z|Ntnvf
v|yo;
gurv;

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

of ntanu
of two teachers
in many teachers
by ntanu
from the wind

6.
7.
8.
9.

EXERCISE 15
Translate into Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

two monkeys (2nd)


in a sage
for two lords
from a monkey
O many lords

29

Year 6, Term 1

EXERCISE 16
Choose the correct form from the two in brackets and write out the correct
Sanskrit sentence. Then translate the sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Aiw; Awg; nIl; g; aiSt


z|Ntnu; l|in kipi; kipy; dd|it
gurv; gu; vdit hf izWy m|m\ z~u it
svRe jn|; pzv; c hryg hrf; a|gCiNt
v|yum\ v|yO zBd; aiSt

A teacher (guru)

30

Year 6, Term 1

2.5

Vocabulary for Story 2

PRONOUNS

s; (m) he / that
tt\ (n) that

s| (f) she / that


Ikm\ (n) what?

ADJECTIVES

mt)
sPt

am) eighth

dead
seven

INDECLINABLES

aicre~ soon
d|nIm\ now

DHAATUS

VERBS

ixp\ in throwing / shooting


dz\ pZy* in seeing
U in being, becoming
nI
in leading
f\
in asking
gm\ in going
a| gm\ in coming

ixpit
pZyit
vit
nyit
pCit
gCit
a|gCit

vm\

thus

Tv|
he throws / shoots
he sees
he becomes
he leads
he asks
he goes
he comes

ENDINGS

ixPTv| having thrown / shot


d|
having seen
UTv|
having become
nITv|
having led
p|
having asked
gTv|
having gone
a|gMy ** having come

* dz\ is an irregular dhtu and the stem is pZy.


** Notice the y ending instead of Tv|

31

Year 6, Term 1

2.6

Story 2

Gag Kills the Sons


of ntanu
King ntanu marries Gag and they have seven children. Gag
drowns every child born to her. Little does ntanu know that these
seven children are gods who have been cursed to be born into human
bodies but by special dispensation are allowed to escape from their
human bodies shortly after birth. When Gag is about to drown her
eighth child, ntanu asks her what she is doing. Gag leaves him,
taking her eighth child with her.

1. z|Ntnu; g|m\ pyR~yt\


2. aicre~ g|y|; pu]; a|sIt\
3. s| tu pu]m\ n|m\ aixpt\
4. z|Ntnu; tt\ apZyt\
5. vm\ g| sPt pu]|n\ n|m\ aixpt\
6. tg svRd mt|; avn\
7. aicre~ g|y|; am; pu]; a|sIt\
8. s| pu]m\ ndIm\ anyt\
9. z|Ntnu; tu Ikm\ kroiw it apCt\
10. g| avdt\ d|nIm\ Tv|m\ Tyj|im
11. tv am; pu]; my| sh a|gimWyit it
pyR~yt\
kroiw
32

he married
you do

Tv|m\
my|

(see page 135)


(see page 134)

Year 6, Term 1

ntanu grieves as Gag kills his sons.


33

Year 6, Term 2

CHAPTER THREE
3.1

The Paradigm of mIt;

Note to teachers: This is new material. The paradigm should be learnt by heart. The words
at the foot of the page, which have the same paradigm as mit;, should be memorised as part
of the defined vocabulary list.

mIt; (thought) is a feminine word. This paradigm gives the pattern for feminine
nouns ending in Its paradigm is very similar to that of hIr;.

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

Singular

Dual

Plural

mIt;
hf mtf
mItm\
mTy|
mtyg
mtf;
mtf;
mtO

mtI
hf mtI
mtI
mIty|m\
mIty|m\
mIty|m\
mTyo;
mTyo;

mty;
hf mty;
mtI;
mIti;
mIty;
mIty;
mtIn|m\
mItwu

Other femimine words that have


the same paradigm as mIt;

bui; intellect
Uim; earth
z|iNt; peace
34

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 17
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.

mty;
mtg;
mtyg

4.
5.
6.

mTyo;
mtI;
mTy|

EXERCISE 18
Translate into Sanskrit:
1. of a thought
2. of many thoughts
3. in thought

4. for two thoughts


5. thought (2nd)
6. thoughts (2nd)

EXERCISE 19
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.

buiy|m\
z|NtO
UmO

4.
5.
6.

z|Ntg;
mtIn|m\
buii;

EXERCISE 20
Translate into Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.

He walked on the earth.


O peace, come to me!
His intellect was strong.
Soon the thoughts came to him.
35

Year 6, Term 2

3.2

The Paradigms of Nouns Ending in A

In English, the endings -er and -or on a noun show the agent of an action. For
example:
A swimmer swims.
A sailor sails.
A farmer farms.
These endings almost certainly derive from an original A ending which, in
Sanskrit, has the same meaning. For example, the masculine word |t means
creator. Here is its paradigm:

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

Singular

Dual

Plural

|t|
hf |tr\
|t|rm\
|]|
|]g
|tu;
|tu;
|tIr

|t|rO
hf |t|rO
|t|rO
|ty|m\
|ty|m\
|ty|m\
|]o;
|]o;

|t|r;
hf |t|r;
|t<n\
|ti;
|ty;
|ty;
|t<~|m\
|twu

Note the first-five rule here. What difference do you notice in the first five case
endings? (Remember that the Vocative is also considered as the First case.)
Note also that the word

36

ktR

goes like

|t

It means actor or doer.

Year 6, Term 2

Note to teachers: The following exercises 21 and 22 should be done orally.

EXERCISE 21
Decline the word ktR

EXERCISE 22
A. Translate the following into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

|t|rm\
ktRy|m\
|t<n\
k]oR;
ktRIr
|tu;
k]|R
|t<~|m\
|t|
kt|R

B. Translate the following into Sanskrit.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

from a creator
of many actors
for an actor
by many creators
in two creators

37

Year 6, Term 2

3.3

Relationship Nouns

In Sanskrit, many words which describe family relationships end in A For


example:

ipt (m.)
m|t (f.)
Svs (f.)
duIht (f.)
/|t (m.)

father
mother
sister
daughter
brother

The paradigms of m|t (mother) and ipt (father) are similar to |t except
for the first two cases.

For m|t the paradigm is as follows:

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

38

Singular

Dual

Plural

m|t|
hf m|tr\
m|trm\
m|]|
m|]g
m|tu;
m|tu;
m|tIr

m|trO
hf m|trO
m|trO
m|ty|m\
m|ty|m\
m|ty|m\
m|]o;
m|]o;

m|tr;
hf m|tr;
m|t<;
m|ti;
m|ty;
m|ty;
m|t<~|m\
m|twu

Year 6, Term 2

ipt goes like this:

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

/|t

Singular

Dual

Plural

ipt|
hf iptr\
iptrm\
ip]|
ip]g
iptu;
iptu;
iptIr

iptrO
hf iptrO
iptrO
ipty|m\
ipty|m\
ipty|m\
ip]o;
ip]o;

iptr;
hf iptr;
ipt<n\
ipti;
ipty;
ipty;
ipt<~|m\
iptwu

also goes like

ipt

Note to teachers: Exercises 23 and 24 should be done orally.

EXERCISE 23
See if you can recite from memory the paradigms of m|t and ipt.

BONUS:
Can you say what is the same and what is different between
the paradigms of m|t ipt |t and Svs ?
(Hint: the First-Five Rule)

39

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 24
Choose the correct form from the two in brackets and write out the correct
Sanskrit sentence. Then translate the sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.

m|t| m|]| apQt\


|t| |]| lok; t;
|y|R /|tu; /|t|rm\ fTyvdt\
Svsu; Svs| ngrm\ gtvtI

EXERCISE 25
Translate the following into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

m|t| b|lkO dvtI


svRa jn|; |tIr jIviNt
p|v|; /|tr;
Svs| /|t| c n vNtO
mRSy ddv; yuiirSy ipt|

EXERCISE 26
Choose the correct form from the two in brackets and write out the correct
Sanskrit sentence. Then translate the sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
40

Uim; ivz|l; ivz|l|


Uim; hIr~| t; t|
a~; a~| kip; vxh vsit
r|v~Sy r|xSy; knipt; knipt|; siNt
aiGnn| aGNy| r|xsO dGO

Year 6, Term 2

Note to teachers: The material in 3.4 is for the purpose of training the students in the
translation of English into Sanskrit.

3.4

The Third Case Ending

The third case ending is used to show the instrument, the thing you might use to
do the action. For example:
Third Case Ending

English order:
Sanskrit order:

The man

eats

nr;

||dit

nr;

lm\

fruit
lm\

hStgn

with his hand.


hStgn

|dit

EXERCISE 27
Translate into Sanskrit, using the method shown above. Do not forget to put
the verb last!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The man goes to town by chariot.


The goddess goes to the forest by two boats.
The demoness meets with her son.
The two monkeys eat a fruit with their hands.
The king came to the river with the sage.

41

Year 6, Term 2

Note to teachers: The material in 3.5 is revision to ensure that these paradigms
are known by heart.

3.5

The Paradigms of tt\ s; and s|

A pronoun is used instead of a noun to designate a person, place or thing. For


example, tt\ s; and s|
The paradigm of the neuter pronoun tt\ (that):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

tt\

tg

t|in

2nd

tt\

tg

t|in

3rd

tgn

t|y|m\

tG;

4th

tSmH

t|y|m\

tgy;

5th

tSm|t\

t|y|m\

tgy;

6th

tSy

tyo;

tgw|m\

7th

t^Smn\

tyo;

tgwu

The paradigm of the masculine pronoun s; (that / he):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

s;

tO

tg

2nd

tm\

tO

t|n\

3rd

tgn

t|y|m\

tG;

4th

tSmH

t|y|m\

tgy;

5th

tSm|t\

t|y|m\

tgy;

6th

tSy

tyo;

tgw|m\

7th

t^Smn\

tyo;

tgwu

42

Year 6, Term 2

The paradigm of the feminine pronoun s| (that / she):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

s|

tg

t|;

2nd

t|m\

tg

t|;

3rd

ty|

t|y|m\

t|i;

4th

tSyH

t|y|m\

t|y;

5th

tSy|;

t|y|m\

t|y;

6th

tSy|;

tyo;

t|s|m\

7th

tSy|m\

tyo;

t|su

EXERCISE 28
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ty|
tH;
tyo;
t|su
tt\

EXERCISE 29
Translate into Sanskrit.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

he
she
for him
for her
by those two (neuter)
43

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 30
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

s; kip;
s| dfvI
tt\ im]m\
t^Smn\ vng
t|y|m\ mity|m\

EXERCISE 31
Choose the correct form from the three in brackets and write out the correct
Sanskrit phrase. Then translate the phrase.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

tt\ s; s| k|m;
t^Smn\ t|in tSy|m\ dowh
tgn ty| tG; r|xSy|
tSm|t\ t|; tSy|; kpf;
tg t|; s| Oim;

EXERCISE 32
Translate into Sanskrit.
1. that monkey
2. from those rivers
3. in that heart

44

4. by those two friends


5. of that tree
6. for that peace

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 33
Translate into English:

s; nr; t|m\ n|rIm\ apZyt\


tgn muinn| s| t|rk| d|
t|; n|yR; tSmG np|y anmn\

1.
2.
3.

The paradigms of tt\ s; and s| set the pattern for the declensions of many other
pronouns, such as svRm\ aNyt\ and tt\ for which the First Case singular endings are given below. The complete paradigms for these are given in Appendix 2.
NEUTER

MASCULINE

FEMININE

svRm\

svR;

svR|

all

aNyt\

aNy;

aNy|

other / another

tt\

w;

w|

this

EXERCISE 34
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

aNy; dfv;
w; dow;
svRawu k|mgwu
tSyI Umyg
sv|Rin im]|i~

45

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 35
1. Decline tt\ in the masculine.
2. Decline svRm\ in the feminine.
3. Decline aNyt\ in the neuter.

EXERCISE 36
Translate these sentences into Sanskrit, following this example:

English order:
Sanskrit order:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

46

The man

walks

to the river.

nr;

crit

ndIm\

nr;

ndIm\

crit

The two boys run.


The lion led the deer to the water.
The dead bird fell from a tree.
Rma will eat the two fruits.
St, will you come to the palace? asked the king.
Having seen the lion, the man ran from the forest.
When ntanu asked Gag, What are you doing?, then she left
him.

Year 6, Term 2

3.6

Vocabulary for Story 3

IWm; (m) Bhma


v|yu; (m)
jnk; (m) father
tIrm\ (n)
Ivr; (m) fisherman
kNy| (f)
gN; (m) a smell
sTyvtI (f)
[ sugN;dugRN; good smell / bad smell ]

NOUNS

ADJECTIVE

suNdr) [ suNdrI) (f) ]

INDECLINABLE

v * only

wind
bank (of a river)
daughter / girl
Satyavat

handsome

* This indeclinable emphasises the word before it.

Note to teachers: Here introduce to the students the concept of a family tree.
The tree will be developed later in the book as the story proceeds.

FAMILY TREE FOR STORY 3


ntanu

married

Gag

Bhma

47

Year 6, Term 2

Couple in their marriage ceremony walk round


the sacred fire.

48

Year 6, Term 2

3. 7
7

Story 3

The Fisherman Kings


Daughter
King ntanus eighth son, Bhma, now grown up, returns to his
father. ntanu proclaims that Bhma will be his heir. One day,
while walking by the river, ntanu smells a beautiful fragrance. The
fragrance leads him to Satyavat, the dazzling daughter of the king of
the fishermen. Will ntanu find love once again?

1. z|Ntno; am; pu]; IWm; n|m


2. kd| IWm; z|Ntnum\ a|gCt\
3. Tvm\ v np; ivWyis it z|Ntnu; IWmm\ avdt\
4. kd| tu z|Ntnu; n|; tIre acrt\
5. v|yO sugN; a|sIt\
6. s; sugN; suNdy|R; kNy|y|; a|gCt\
7. y] y] s| n|rI agCt\ t] t] sugN; a|sIt\
8. kNy|m\ d| k| Tvm\ it z|Ntnu; apCt\
9. kNy| avdt\ ahm\ sTyvtI n|m
10. mm jnk; Ivr|~|m\ np; aiSt it

Tvm\
k|

you (see page 135)


who? (see page 133)

ahm\ I (see page 134)


mm
my (see page 134)

49

Year 6, Term 2

ntanu asks Satyavats father for her hand in marriage.


50

Year 6, Term 2

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1

Epic Civilization: Vows


A vow is when you give your word that you will do
something. Once you have given your word, you cannot go back on it.
In Story 4 at the end of this chapter, Bhma, for his
fathers sake, gave his word to the king of the fishermen that he would give up his claim to the throne.
This, Bhma thought, would enable his father to
marry Satyavat, the daughter of the king of the fishermen.
But the king of the fishermen was still not satisfied.
He thought that Bhmas sons would claim the throne
as their own in the future. So Bhma took another
vow that he would never marry or have children.
Bhma kept his word throughout his life.

51

Year 6, Term 2

Note to teachers: The following section 4.2 is new material. The question words
should be learned as part of the defined vocabulary.

4.2

Question Words

In English we use certain words at the beginning of a sentence to ask a question.


These words are:

?
RE
E
WH

HO
W

WHEN ?

Y?
H
W

WHO ?

WH
AT
?

Sanskrit uses question words too, and they always begin with the letter k .
For example:

kn]
km\
kd|

where?
how?
when?

Notice in these words the adverbial endings:

d|
]

52

indicating time,

e.g.,

indicating place,

e.g.,

indicating manner, e.g.,

kd|
kn]
km\

when?
where?
how?

Year 6, Term 2

Here are some examples of how these question words are used:

QUESTION WORD

kn]

gimWyis

where?

you will go

Where will you go?


QUESTION WORD

km\

ngrm\

how?

town (2nd)

gC|im
I go

How do I go to town?
QUESTION WORD

kd|

b|lk;

nr;

vit

when?

boy

man

becomes

When does a boy become a man?

EXERCISE 37
Translate into English. Do not forget to put a question mark at the end of your
English sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

kn]; sugN;
kd| k|m; nrm\ Tyjit
km\ ghm\ gimWy|im
kd| nr|; vnm\ gCiNt
kn] r|xs|; vsiNt
53

Year 6, Term 2

QUESTION
GAME
Make up three questions in Sanskrit, using
the three question words you have just
learned. Then, exchange your questions
with a neighbour and see if you can
answer your neighbour in
Sanskrit.

Note to teachers: The following section 4.3 is new material.

4.3

More Question Words

Ikm\ k; and k| are declined in a similar manner to tt\ s; and s|.


The paradigm of Ikm\ what? (neuter):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

Ikm\

k|in

2nd

Ikm\

k|in

3rd

kn

k|y|m\

kA;

4th

kSmH

k|y|m\

ky;

5th

kSm|t\

k|y|m\

ky;

6th

kSy

kyo;

kw|m\

7th

k^Smn\

kyo;

kwu

54

Year 6, Term 2

The paradigm of k; what? / who? (masculine):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

k;

kO

2nd

kO

k|n\

3rd

km\
kn

k|y|m\

kA;

4th

kSmH

k|y|m\

ky;

5th

kSm|t\

k|y|m\

ky;

6th

kSy

kyo;

kw|m\

7th

k^Smn\

kyo;

kwu

The paradigm of k| what? / who? (feminine):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

k|

k|;

2nd

k|m\

k|;

3rd

ky|

k|y|m\

k|i;

4th

kSyH

k|y|m\

k|y;

5th

kSy|;

k|y|m\

k|y;

6th

kSy|;

kyo;

k|s|m\

7th

kSy|m\

kyo;

k|su

55

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 38
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

k|y|m\
kw|m\
k
k|n\
kn

EXERCISE 39
Choose the correct form from the two in brackets and write out the correct
Sanskrit phrase. Then translate the phrase.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

56

k; nr; n|rI
k| Uim; kip;
Ikm\ vn|in vnm\
k|; ddvI ddVy;
kO pu]O kNy|
k^Smn\ cN|n\ cNf
k|s|m\ n|rIm\ n|rI~|m\
k im]e nre
ky| nOk|y|; nOky|
kSmG knKknrF; kpyg

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 40
Translate into English:

4.

k; nr; vdit
k deVyO ghm\ aTyjt|m\
kn m|geRn jnk; a|gCt\
Ikm\ avd;

5.

kSy|; n|; Ivr|; acrn\

1.
2.
3.

EXERCISE 41
Translate into Sanskrit:
1. What is that good smell?
2. Where is that snake?
3. From which monkey does that bad smell come?

Note to teachers: The following material extends a methodical approach to


translation from English to Sanskrit.

4.4

The Fourth Case Ending

The Fourth Case Ending shows for whom the action is done. It is also used when
a person is bowed to or given something. For example:

Object (2nd case)

English order:
Sanskrit order:

Fourth Case Ending

The man

makes

a house

for his wife.

nr;

kroit

ghm\

|y|RyG

nr;

|y|RyI

ghm\

kroit
57

Year 6, Term 2
Fourth Case Ending

English order:

Arjuna

bows

to Ka.

ajRun;

nmit

W~|y

ajRun;

Sanskrit order:

W~|y

nmit

Object (2nd case)

English order:
Sanskrit order:

Fourth Case Ending

ntanu

gives

a palace

to Gag.

z|Ntnu;

dd|it

r|jghm\

g|yG

z|Ntnu;

g|yI

r|jghm\

dd|it

Notice that the person who receives the gift has a fourth case ending and that
the thing given is in the second case.

58

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 42
Translate into Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The man bows to the lady.


The man bows to two ladies.
The man bows to the ladies.
The demon gives a dead bird to the demoness.
The sage goes to the forest for peace.

4.5

The Use of Sm

The word Sm is used after a verb in the present tense to change that verb into
the past. For example:

icNtyit Sm
ipbis Sm

he thought
you drank

EXERCISE 43
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

is,h|; ndIm\ criNt Sm


r|xs; r|xSyG nmit Sm
|y|R; Aiwm\ pZyiNt Sm
sTyvtI z|Ntnum\ vdit Sm
np; r|jghm\ rgn gCit Sm

59

Year 6, Term 2

Vocabulary for Story 4

4.6

ivv|h; (m)
r|jghm\ (n)

palace

INDECLINABLES

du;gn

unhappily

DHAATUS

VERBS

w\

Cit

NOUNS

in desiring / wanting

v/tm\ (n)

vow

long ago

pur|

Tv|

u in hearing
z~oit
fit vd\ in replying fitvdit
pIr nI in marrying pIr~yit **
*
**

marriage

ENDINGS

he desires / wants

he hears

uTv|
fTyu * having replied
pIr~Iy * having married

he replies
he marries

having desired
/ wanted
having heard

Notice the y ending instead of Tv|.


Notice the n becomes a ~ after a r .

Note to teachers: This begins to develop the family tree shown on page 47.

FAMILY TREE FOR STORY 4


Gag

married

Bhma

60

ntanu

married

Vicitravrya

Satyavat

Year 6, Term 2

4. 7
7

Story 4

Bhmas Vow
ntanu asks the king of the fishermen for permission to marry
Satyavat. The king will only consent to the marriage if ntanu
promises that Satyavats son will be the next king. Bhma, for his
fathers sake, vows that he will give up his claim to the throne and
will never marry nor have any children.

1. Ivr|~|m\ npm\ gTv| z|Ntnu; pCis Sm


2. tv kNy|m\ ivv|hf C|im it
3. Ivr|~|m\ np; fitvdit Sm yid sTyvtI tv |y|R ivWyit

tIhR tSy|; pu]; np; ivWyit it


4. z|Ntnu; r|jghm\ du;gn pun; agCt\
5. IWm; svRm\ uTv| Ivr|~|m\ npm\ gTv| tm\ vdit Sm
6. pur| z|Ntnu; m|m\ avdt\ hf IWm Tvm\ np; ivWyis it
7. d|nIm\ tu sTyvTy|; pu]; np; ivWyit
8. ahm\ np; n ivWy|im it mm v/tm\
9. z|Ntnu; sTyvtIm\ pIr~yit Sm

tv your
tm\ him
m|m\ me

(see page 135)


(see page 129)
(see page 134)

Tvm\ you
ahm\ I
mm mine

(see page 135)


(see page 134)
(see page 134)

61

Year 6, Term 2

Bhma making his vow.


62

Year 6, Term 2

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1

Epic Civilization: The Svayavara


The svayavara is a ceremony in which a princess
can choose a husband.
The king sends out invitations all over the world to
eligible young princes to come to the ceremony.
When they arrive, their names are read out. There is
often a competition in which the princes can show
their prowess in archery or other martial arts.
At the end of the competition those seeking the hand
of the kings daughter gather before the princess and
she puts a garland around the neck of the man she
chooses (usually the winner of the competition).
As you will see in Story 5, in Bhmas case he picked
up the princesses and put them on his chariot!

63

Year 6, Term 2

A prince makes his choice at a svayamvara.

64

Year 6, Term 2

Note to teachers: The class should sound ict\ cn and aip as often
as possible for the next few lessons.

5.2

Indefinites

An indefinite is a word like:


somebody
something
somewhere
sometime
somehow

(no definite person)


(no definite thing)
(no definite place)
(no definite time)
(no definite manner)

In Sanskrit, indefinite words are made by adding ict\ cn and aip after a
question word. If n is added before the indefinite, you get a negative indefinite, like the words no one, nothing, nowhere, never and no way. For
example:
QUESTION WORD

INDEFINITE

NEGATIVE INDEFINITE

kn]

kn] aip
kn] ict\

n kn] aip
n kn] ict\

somewhere

nowhere

km\

km\ aip

n km\ aip

how?

somehow

(in) no way

kd|

kd| ict\
kd| aip

n kd| ict\
n kd| aip

sometimes

never

where?

when?

65

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 44
Translate the following sentences into English:
1.

ahm\ ngrm\ km\ aip gC|im

2.

b|lk; knKknrm\ n kn] ict\ apZyt\


gurv; n kd| aip m|m\ pCiNt
Tvm\ aZvm\ kn] ict\ aTyj;
knKknr; km\ aip ghm\ aTyjt\ it izWy; avdt\
ajRtn; zrm\ kn] aip aixpt\
suNdrI kNy| W~Sy zBdm\ n kd| ict\ az~ot\
kNy|; ivv|hm\ kd| aip CiNt

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Note to teachers: The question words k; k| and Ikm\ can also make indefinites.
These indefinites are listed in the Reference Book.

5.3

Indefinites in Three Genders

Examples of indefinites in each gender:

k; ict\ somebody (masc.)


k| ict\ somebody (fem.)
Ikm\ ict\ something (neut.)

To take an example of the masculine indefinite forms we use the question word
k; [Remember that Ikm\ k; and k| take forms like tt\ s; and s|]
If we take k; and add ict\ cn or aip then we get the following paradigm:

66

Year 6, Term 2

QUESTION WORD
(masc.)

INDEFINITE
(masc.)

NEGATIVE INDEFINITE
(masc.)

k;

k; ict\
k; cn
k; aip

n k; ict\
n k; cn

who?

no one / nothing

someone / something

km\
(to) whom?

kn
by whom?

kSmG
for whom?

kSm|t\
from whom?

kSy
of whom?

k^Smn\
in whom?

km\ ict\

n km\ ict\

(to) someone /
(to) something

(to) no one /
nothing

kn ict\
kn aip

n kn ict\
n kn aip

by someone /
by something

by no one /
nothing

kSmG ict\

n kSmG ict\

for someone /
for something

for no one /
nothing

kSm|t\ ict\

n kSm|t\ ict\

from someone /
from something

from no one /
nothing

kSy ict\

n kSy ict\

of someone /
of something

of no one /
nothing

k^Smn\ ict\

n k^Smn\ ict\

in someone /
in something

in no one /
nothing

67

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 45
Translate the following sentences into English:
1.

k; ict\ m|m\ vdit

2.

n k; ict\ m|m\ z~oit


a] kSy ict\ r; aiSt
Awy; Ikm\ ict\ |diNt
a] ahm\ km\ ict\ aTyjm\

3.
4.
5.

5.4

Indefinites as Adjectives

Sometimes, an indefinite can act as an adjective to a noun and is translated as


some or a certain. For example:

k; ict\ Aiw;
some sage
or
a certain sage

EXERCISE 46
Translate the following sentences into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
68

t^Smn\ vng k; ict\ Aiw; a|sIt\


k^Smn\ ict\ dfzf np; r|jghm\ akrot\
b|lk; km\ ict\ vxm\ acrt\
k^Smn\ ict\ k|la v/t|in vIdWy|im
vym\ kSm|t\ ict\ Ivz|l|t\ kpf; a|v|m

Year 6, Term 2

Note to teachers: This material continues to extend a methodical approach to


translation from English to Sanskrit.

5.5

The Fifth Case Ending

The Fifth Case Ending shows where an action comes from. For example:
Fifth Case Ending

English order:

The king

goes

from the palace.

np;

gCit

r|jgh|t\

np;

Sanskrit order:

English order:
Sanskrit order:

r|jgh|t\

gCit

Object

Fifth Case Ending

Satyavat

walks

to the forest

from her sons.

sTyvtI

crit

vnm\

pu]fy;

sTyvtI

pu]fy;

vnm\

crit

Fifth Case Ending

English order:
Sanskrit order:

The monkeys

ran

from the fire.

kpy;

a|vn\

aGng;

kpy;

aGng;

a|vn\

69

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 47
Translate into Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The man goes from the house to the forest.


Run from the town, son!
The wind came from the forest.
The demon eats from the ground.
The fisherman drank water from the river.

5.6

Prefixes

A prefix is added to the beginning of a word and gives a particular direction to


that word. Here are some examples in English of words with prefixes. The
prefixes are underlined.
underground

under the ground or the earth

overseas

beyond or across the sea

EXERCISE 48
(a) Underline the prefix in each of these five words.
(b) Briefly explain the English meaning of each word.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

undersized
underwear
overweight
triangle (tri means three )
submarine (sub means under )

(c) Now think of five examples of your own.

70

Year 6, Term 2

Note to teachers: Students should learn, and be tested on, the following list.

Here are some Sanskrit prefixes:


THE DIRECTION EXPRESSED

EXAMPLES AND EXPLANATIONS

forwards, onwards, towards

fhsit

he laughs at, mocks

ap

away, off

aphrit

he carries off

sm\

all together as one,


completely

s,tu)

he, completely
pleased

anu

following after, along with

anugCit

he follows

av

down, down into, through

avtrit

he crosses down,
descends

ins\

out from

ingRCit

he goes or
comes out of

dus\

evil

du;m\

sorrow

Iv

outward, separation

IvSmrit

he separates from
memory, forgets

71

Year 6, Term 2

EXERCISE 49
(a) Write down each Sanskrit word and underline the prefix.
1.

avgCit

2.

sm|gCit
duWtm\
s,i; sm\i;
IvsgR;
fgCit
anuvit

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

(b) Choose the matching English meaning for each of the words listed
above and write it against the Sanskrit:
it comes together
he/she/it becomes along with; experiences
a bad action
he/she/it goes down into; understands
a placing together
an outflowing
he/she/it goes forward

FAMILY TREE FOR STORY 5


Gag

married

ntanu

married

Satyavat

d
marrie

Bhma

Vicitravrya

Ambik

married

Ambalik

72

Year 6, Term 2

5.6

Vocabulary for Story 5

NOUNS

ivic]vIyR; (m)

Vicitravrya

yuvr|j; (m)
r|jpu]; (m)
Svy,vr; (m)

heir apparent

aMb| (f)
aiMbk| (f)
aMbilk| (f)
Uim; (f)

prince
self-choice
ceremony

Amb
Ambik
Ambalik
ground / earth

INDECLINABLES

k|lan

in time

aip

also / even

iv^Smt)
mu)

amazed

ADJECTIVES

bh)
apHt)

much
carried off

DHAATUS

VERBS

icNt\ in thinking
pt\
in falling

icNtyit
ptit

freed

Tv|
he thinks
he hears

ENDINGS

icNtiyTv|
pitTv|

having thought
having fallen

73

Year 6, Term 2

5. 7
7

Story 5

Bhma Carries Off


Three Princesses
Satyavats son, Vicitravrya, becomes king. Bhma, worried that
Vicitravrya is not married, goes to a svayamvara (see page 61). At
the svayamvara, Bhma carries off three princesses. Bhma grants
one of the princesses her freedom, as she is already secretly
pledged to someone else, but the other two marry Vicitravrya.

1. sTyvTy|; pu]; ivic]vIyR; n|m


2. k|lan ivic]vIyR; np; avt\
3. yid ivic]vIyRSy |y|R n ivWyit tIhR yuvr|j; n ivWyit

it IWm; icNtyit Sm
4. Svy,vr; a|sIt\
5. bhv; r|jpu]|; Svy,vrm\ agCn\
6. tt\ d| IWm; aIp Svy,vrm\ agCt\
7. Svy,vre IWmg~ kNy|; apHt|;
8. t|; kNy|; aMb| aiMbk| aMbilk| c
9. r|jpu]|; iv^Smt|; a|sn\ Uimm\ aptn\ c
10. aMb| IWmg~ mu|
11. aiMbk| aMbilk| c tu ivic]vIyRSy |yRc avt|m\
From the evidence of this story, what qualities do
you think that Bhma possesses?
74

Year 6, Term 2

Bhma carries off the three princesses.


75

Year 6, Term 3

CHAPTER SIX
Epic Civilization: A Day in the Life of a King

6.1

In Sanskrit literature, kings are important figures. However,


according to the Sanskrit law books, a king cannot just do
what he likes; his job demands strict discipline and adherence
to duties.
The most important duty for the king is the protection of his
subjects and his kingdom. All disciplines are given to support
this duty.
He must rise very early in the morning, before sunrise, bathe
and perform a sacrifice. Then, he sees his subjects. After that,
he takes counsel with his ministers on all sorts of issues, such
as alliances, ambassadors, spies and enemies, as well as the
needs of his own kingdom. He must fully consider the future
and present results of all of his actions, and he must also reflect on what he has done in the past.
He then exercises, bathes and has a meal with his family. Of
course, while he eats, he must take precautions against any
poisons that his enemies may slip into his food. In the afternoon, he inspects his army. In the evening, he makes another
sacrifice to the gods, and then meets with his spies in a secret
place. Finally, he has a meal again with his family, listens to
music, and then goes to bed at a reasonable hour.

76

Year 6, Term 3

A king listens to the music of a flute.

77

Year 6, Term 3

More Prefixes

6.2

Here are some more Sanskrit prefixes:


Note to teachers: Students should learn, and be tested on, the following list.
THE DIRECTION EXPRESSED

EXAMPLES AND EXPLANATIONS

a|\

fully, returning back

a|gCit

he comes

in

down, inward

inimwit

he puts down eyelids

su

good, best

sum\

pleasure

t\

upwards

i.it

he stands up

ai

thoroughly, repeatedly

aiwgk;

a thorough sprinkling,
anointing, coronation

fit

back again

fitvdit

he speaks back,
replies

pIr

around

pIr~yit

he leads around, marries

up to, towards

pgCit

he goes up to,
approaches

78

(In Vedic times the wife was led


seven times around a fire which
stood for the eternal witness.)

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 50
(a) Write down the following English meanings:
1. becomes upwards, arises, is born
2. fullness of joy
3. places in, entrusts
4. best colour, gold
5. lifts eyelids
6. comes back
(b) Now choose which of the above meanings match which of the following
Sanskrit words:

a|nNd;

suv~R)

*vit

fTy|gCit

^Nmwit

inixpit

(c) Then underline the prefix in each Sanskrit word.

EXERCISE 51
(a) Underline the prefixes in each of the following Sanskrit words.
(b) Using the list of prefixes on the previous page, and also the Sanskrit to
English vocabulary list in Appendix 4, try to guess what these words
might mean in English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ai|vit
ingRCit
suv~R
fitvdit
pIr~yit (look up nyit )

79

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 52
(a) Underline the prefixes in each word.
(b) Using the lists of prefixes on page 71 and 78, and also the Sanskrit to
English vocabulary list in Appendix 4, say what these words
might mean in English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

80

fhsit
phrit
anugCit
avgCit
IvSmrit
inimwit
i.it
apgCit

Year 6, Term 3

Note to teachers: This material is revision to be known by heart.

6.3

The Paradigms of ahm\ and Tvm\

ahm\ (I) and Tvm\ (you) are called personal pronouns.


The paradigm of the personal pronoun ahm\ (I):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

ahm\

a|v|m\

vym\

2nd

m|m\

a|v|m\

aSm|n\

3rd

my|

a|v|y|m\

aSm|i;

4th

mm\

a|v|y|m\

aSmym\

5th

mt\

a|v|y|m\

aSmt\

6th

mm

a|vyo;

aSm|km\

7th

miy

a|vyo;

aSm|su

The paradigm of the personal pronoun Tvm\ (you):

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

Tvm\

yuv|m\

yUym\

2nd

yuv|m\

3rd

Tv|m\
Tvy|

yuv|y|m\

yuWm|n\
yuWm|i;

4th

tuym\

yuv|y|m\

yuWmym\

5th

Tvt\

yuv|y|m\

yuWmt\

6th

tv

yuvyo;

yuWm|km\

7th

Tviy

yuvyo;

yuWm|su
81

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 53
Translate into English or Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Tv|m\
aSm|km\
miy
vym\
mm

6. we two
7. you many
8. of you
9. by me
10. in you two

EXERCISE 54
In each sentence, choose the correct form from the two in brackets. Next, write
out the correct Sanskrit sentence, then translate the sentence into English.

1.

ajRun; c|pm\ mm\ m|m\ add|t\

2.

aSm|i; aSm|km\ gu; f|D; it izWy|; avdn\

3.

r|xs; Tvm\ Tv|m\ atudt\

4.

ahm\ a|v|m\ z|Ntnun| sh yum\ kroim

5.

aho aho zr; miy mt\ aiSt it np; aFozt\

82

Year 6, Term 3

6.4

Agreement of Verbs with ahm\ and Tvm\

A verb can be expressed in one of three Persons. In Sanskrit grammar


these are known as:

First Person (FP)


Middle Person (MP)
Best Person (BP)

SINGULAR
he/she/it
you
I

DUAL
they two
you two
we two

PLURAL
they
you
we

Later languages (for example, Latin and French) deal with these Persons in
the opposite order:

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

SINGULAR
I
you
he/she/it

DUAL
we two
you two
they two

PLURAL
we
you
they

In this course, we use the Sanskrit system.

In English, we always use personal pronouns to show the doer of a verb, for
example I eat, you go. However, in Sanskrit, personal pronouns do not
need to be used with verbs. The personal endings on the verbs are all that are
needed. You might, however, use a personal pronoun to show emphasis. For
example:

ahm\ |d|im
Tvm\ gCis

|d|im
gCis

I eat
you go

83

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 55
State the Person and Number of each verb, and translate into Sanskrit. For
example:
you (sing.) become

MP: vis

1. they two become

6. I become

2. they become

7. we two become

3. we become

8. you two become

4. you (sing.) become

9. you (pl.) become

5. she becomes

EXERCISE 56
Using the table on the preceding page, give the Person and Number of each of
the forms below, transliterate and then translate: For example:

vis second Person singular you become


[second Person singular may be abbreviated to 2nd s.]
1. vit

6. v|im

2. v

7. v;

3. vt;

8. vis

4. viNt

9. v|m;

5. v|v;

84

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 57
Translate into English, stating the Person and number of each verb:

1.

vym\ ghm\ gimWy|m;

2.

Tvm\ hStgn vxm\ atud;

3.

ahm\ tuym\ lm\ dd|im

EXERCISE 58
Translate into Sanskrit, stating the Person and number of each verb:
1. We (pl.) will go to the forest.
2. You made food with your two hands.
3. I speak with my mouth.
4. You (pl.) will drink water.
5. I hit the ground with my hand.

85

Year 6, Term 3

EXTENSION WORK
Optional Oral Conversation Exercise
Below are some ideas which can be used for Sanskrit conversation in
the class:
1. My name is __________.
David / Katherine

n|m ahm\

2. I am a pupil.

ahm\ izWy; izWy|;


3. What is your name?

Ikm\ tv n|m
4. Where do you live?

kn] Tvm\ vsis


5. I live in __________.

ahm\

Camden

ngrf vs|im

6. I have a horse / dog (etc.).

mm aZv; knKknr; aiSt


7. What do you have in your house?

Ikm\ tv ghf aiSt

86

Year 6, Term 3

Note to teachers: This continues the methodical approach to English to Sanskrit


translation. It should be pointed out that the Sixth Case Endings work in a
similar manner to the s or s in English.

6.5

The Sixth Case Ending

The Sixth Case Ending is normally expressed in English by an apostrophe or


of. For example:
Sixth Case Ending

Vicitravryas

wife

is named

Ambik.

ivic]vIyRSy

|y|R

n|m

aiMbk|

ivic]vIyRSy

|y|R

aiMbk|

n|m
Sixth Case Ending

Ka

goes

by the chariot

of Arjuna.

W~;

gCit

rgn

ajRunSy

W~;

ajRunSy

rgn

gCit

EXERCISE 59
Give two translations for the following Sanskrit phrases. For example:

nrSy aZv;
the mans horse / the horse of the man
1. |y|Ry|; pu]|;
2. nr|~|m\ buy;
3. sGinkSy rG;
4. tSy im]|y
5. n|; tIrf
87

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 60
Translate into Sanskrit:
1. The mans dog ran.
2. The dog of the man ran.
3. The Lords house is large.
4. The elephant eats the fruit of the tree.
5. Bhmas mother is named Gag.

88

Year 6, Term 3

6.6

Special Use of the Sixth Case Ending

In Sanskrit, the verb to have does not exist. Instead, we use the Sixth Case
Ending. For example:
Sixth Case Ending

npSy

k|m;

a|sIt\

of the king

desire

there was

Literally: Of the king there was a desire.


We would say: The king had a desire.

Sixth Case Ending

g|y|;

pu]|;

siNt

of Gag

sons

there are

Literally: Of Gag there are sons.


We would say: Gag has sons.

EXERCISE 61
Translate into English:
1. nrSy pu]; a|sIt\
2. pu]Sy jnk; aiSt
3. kNy|y|; sodr|; a|sn\
4. ghSy |rf St;
5. np|~|m\ r|Jy|in siNt
89

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 62
Translate into Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The brave men walk.


The bird saw the soldiers.
Go quickly to the house, she said.
Once there was a certain king named Hari.
Having eaten, the sage stood.
The king had a palace.

Note to teachers: This diagram further develops the family tree shown on page 72.

FAMILY TREE FOR STORY 6


Gag

married

ntanu

married

Satyavat

d
marrie

Bhma

Vicitravrya

Ambik

married

marrie
d

married

Vysa

Ambalik

Dhtarra

90

Pu

Year 6, Term 3

6.7

Year 6, Term 3

Vocabulary for Story 6

NOUNS

Vy|s; (m)

Vysa

tr|?; (m)
p|u; (m)

Dhtarra

pit; (m)1
mum\ (n)

husband
face / mouth

Pu

PRONOUNS

aNy)

other / another (declines like tt\ s; and s| )

ADJECTIVES

aN)
mu)
p|u)

INDECLINABLES

tSm|t\

blind

therefore

freed
pale

DHAATUS

VERBS

l\
in finding
in imw\ in closing the eyes

ltg 2
inimwit

Tv|

ENDINGS

lBv| having found


3
he closes his eyes inimWy having closed
he finds

the eyes

1
2
3

pit has an irregular declension.


Note the vRtg verb endings (see page 121).
Notice the y ending instead of Tv|

91

Year 6, Term 3

6. 8
7

Story 6

Who Will Be King?


Vicitravrya dies before he has children. So Bhma arranges for
another husband, a sage called Vysa, to take his place. When
Ambik and Ambalik see the sage, they are shocked.
Unfortunately, their negative reactions cause deformity in their
unborn children.

1. ivic]vIyR; aicre~ mt; avt\


2. |yRyo; pu]; n a|sIt\
3. IWm; aicNtyt\ km\ npm\ lPSyf it
4. s; |y|Ry|m\ aNym\ pitm\ alt
5. pit; Aiw; a|sIt\
6. s; Aiw; Vy|s; n|m
7. Aiwm\ d| tu aiMbk| inimwit Sm
8. tSm|t\ tSy|; pu]; aN; a|sIt\
9. s; pu]; tr|?; n|m
10. yd| aMbilk| Aiwm\ apZyt\ td| tSy|; mum\ p|u avt\
11. tSm|t\ tSy|; pu]; p|u; n|m

lPSytg future of ltg

92

Year 6, Term 3

Ambik and Ambalik shocked when they see the sage Vysa.
93

Year 6, Term 3

CHAPTER SEVEN
7.1

Epic Civilization: The Wise

In Sanskrit literature, the help of a sage or wise person often


solves a difficult situation. For example, in the last story,
Bhma has the difficulty of finding a husband for the two widowed princesses. The sage Vysa steps in and offers to marry
them.
The qualification for being wise is the deep understanding of
the unity of all things: the mind is free from all concern and
dwells on the true nature of the One Self.
The wise retain detachment and are able to help with difficult
situations because they are free from all ties. Therefore, they
can approach problems from a different standpoint and see
solutions that ordinary people would not.

94

Year 6, Term 3

7.2

Words ending in t

A t ending word has the sense of a completed action. Like an adjective, its
ending is modified in case, number and gender so that it agrees with the noun it
describes. For example, r|m; gt; Rma (is) gone. Here is a list of some
t words:
t ENDING WORDS

MEANING

t)

made / done

gm\

gt)

gone

a| gm\

a|gt)

come

mt)

dead

hn\

ht)

killed / struck

ut)

heard / listened to

pz\ *

d)

seen

|d\

|idt)

eaten

ap H

apHt)

carried off

g/h\ *

ghIt)

grabbed / seized

vc\ *
\
pt\

said / spoken

pitt)

fallen

DHTUS

* Has irregular forms.

95

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 63
A t ending word can often be used with a form of aiSt understood.
Translate the following into English:
1. IWm; gt; a^St
2. lm\ |idtm\
3. kNy| apHt|
4. kpI dO
5. gurv; ut|;

EXERCISE 64
Translate into Sanskrit using t ending words. Remember that, in Sanskrit
sentences, a form of the verb aiSt is understood. Thus, the bracketed words
in the following sentences do not get translated into Sanskrit:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

96

The desire (is) gone.


The marriage (was) made by the sage.
The dead king (had) fallen to the ground.
The demoness (was) seen by him.
The wind (was) heard in the trees.

Year 6, Term 3

7.3

The Passive Sentence

There are two ways to say a sentence. One is in an active way, such as:
The boy kicks the football.
Another is in a passive way, such as:
The football is kicked by the boy.
What do you notice about the verbs used in both sentences?

EXERCISE 65
Here are some English sentences. Say whether they are active or passive.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The warrior hits the demon.


The demon is hit by the warrior.
Bhma goes to do battle.
A song is sung by the lady.
The play was performed by the actors.

EXERCISE 66
Here are some active sentences. Rewrite them in the passive.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The soldier kills the dragon.


The lady finds the man.
Bhma sees the snake.
The queen walks to the palace.
The boy throws a ball.

97

Year 6, Term 3

7.4

The Passive Sentence in Sanskrit

Passive sentences in Sanskrit often use t ending words such as ht d


and ut Note that the simple verb is, or was, usually is assumed but not
stated. Here are some examples:

r|xs;

nre~

demon

by man

Ending Word

ht;
killed

The demon is killed by the man.

vx|;

ajuRngn

trees

by rjuna

Ending Word

d|;
seen

The trees are seen by rjuna.

zBd;

n|y|R

sound

by lady

Ending Word

ut;
heard

The sound is heard by the lady.

98

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 67
Translate the following sentences into English. Some are active and some are
passive.
1. b|lk; gun\ agCt\
2. gu; b|lk|n\ agCt\
3. gu; b|lkn ut;
4. gurv; b|lkn ut|;
5. nOk| kNyy| d|

7.5

The Seventh Case Ending

The Seventh Case Ending is used to show the place where the action happens.
It can be translated as in/on, at and among. For example:
Seventh Case Ending

In the tree

there was

a monkey.

a|sIt\

kip;

vxf

English order:

vxf

Sanskrit order:

kip;

a|sIt\

Seventh Case Ending

In the tree
English order:

a monkey

eats

a fruit.

kip;

|dit

lm\

vxf
vxf

Sanskrit order:

kip;

lm\

|dit

Seventh Case Ending

Ka
English order:
Sanskrit order:

W~;
W~;

stood

on the body

of the demon.

aitt\

dfhf

r|xsSy

r|xsSy

dfhf

aitt\
99

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 68
Translate into Sanskrit:
1. The prince lives in the palace.
2. The boy dwelt in the forest.
3. The goddess stands on the mountain.
4. In the sky, there were many birds.
5. At the svayamvara, the king shoots an arrow.

Note to teachers: This diagram further develops the family tree shown on page 90.

FAMILY TREE FOR STORY 7


Gag

married

ntanu

married

Satyavat

d
marrie

Bhma

Ambik

Vicitravrya m
arried

marrie
d

married

Vysa

Ambalik

Dhtarra

100

Kunt

married

Pu

Year 6, Term 3

7.6

Vocabulary for Story 7

NOUNS

mg; (m)

deer

zr; (m)
z|p; (m)

arrow

vnm\ (n)
knNtI (f)

forest
Kunt

curse

m|I (f)

Mdr

chosen

itIy)

second

ADJECTIVES

vt)
tuidt)

hit

INDECLINABLES

ySm|t\ ... tSm|t\

since ... therefore

t]

there

DHAATUS

VERBS

Tv|

in doing/making
anu|v\ in running after

kroit he does/makes
anu|vit he runs after

Tv| having done/made


anu|Vy * having run after

ENDINGS

* Notice the y ending instead of Tv|

101

Year 6, Term 3

7. 7
7

Story 7

A Deer Curses Pu
Pu becomes king, and Kunt chooses him as a husband. While
hunting, Pu accidentally kills a sage who is disguised as a deer.
The sage curses Pu, saying that when he embraces his wife, he
will die.

1. ySm|t\ tr|/; aN; tSm|t\ p|u; np; avt\


2. p|u; aicNtyt\ k| mm |y|R ivWyit it
3. s; knNTy|; Svy,vrm\ agCt\
4. p|u; knNTy| vt;
5. IWm; p|vf itIy|m\ |y|Rm\ alt
6. s| m|I n|m
7. ivv|hm\ Tv| p|u; |y|Ry|m\ sh vnm\ agCt\
8. t] p|u; mgm\ anu|vit Sm
9. zrf~ tuidt; mg; z|pm\ avdt\ yid Tvm\ |y|Rm\ pIrWvjsg

tIhR mt; ivWyis it


pIrWvjsg you embrace pIr Svj\

102

Year 6, Term 3

The deer cursing Pu.


103

Year 6, Term 3

CHAPTER EIGHT
8.1

Epic Civilization: Mantras

Mantras are special words having special powers. Some


mantras can summon gods, like the mantra Kunt uses in
the next story. Others can lead to attainment of a particular goal, such as the gaining of a power, or union with
God.
Mantras can be single syllables, a word, or a group of
words. The correct pronunciation of a mantra is very
important. If wrongly pronounced, it can have the wrong
effect. Mantras are often repeated. They are most powerful when repeated mentally rather than aloud.
A person who wishes to attain a happy life which is fully
successful, spiritually, mentally and physically, is often
given a simple mantra on which to meditate. This mantra
will purify the mind.

A girl being given a mantra.


104

Year 6, Term 3

8.2

Revision of the Conjugation of vRtg

There are some verbs that take a different set of endings to vit As an
example, we shall use vRtg meaning grows.
The paradigm of the Present Tense of vRtg is:

Singular

Dual

Plural

vRtg

vRgtg

vRNtg

he, she, it grows

they two grow

vRsg

they grow

vgRg

you grow

vRvf

you two grow

you grow

vgR

v|Rvhf

v|Rmhf

I grow

we two grow

we grow

Note: The endings of vRtg are translated in exactly the same way as vit

EXERCISE 69
Conjugate the following stems in the Present Tense, using the vRtg endings:
(a)

(finds)

(b)

Svj

(embraces)

The paradigm of the Past Tense of vRtg is:

Singular

Dual

Plural

avRt

avRgt|m\

avRNt

he, she, it grew

they two grew

they grew

avR|;

avgR|m\

avRvm\

you grew

you two grew

you grew

avgR

av|RvIh

av|RmIh

I grew

we two grew

we grew

105

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 70
Conjugate the following stems in the Past Tense, using the above paradigm:
(a)

8.3

(finds)

(b)

Svj

(embraces)

Present Passive Verbs

We have already learned the way in which a passive sentence can be constructed
using a t ending word For example:

ajRun; knNTy| d;

Arjuna is seen by Kunt.

Another way to form a passive sentence is by using a passive verb. This is


formed simply by adding the ending y directly on to the root. The vRtg
endings are then added instead of those for vit For example:
Dhtus

|d\
tud\

Passive Verbs

|d\ y tg
tud\ y tg

|tg
tutg

is eaten
is hit

Here are some sentences using these passive verbal forms:


Passive Verb

r|xs;
Sanskrit order:
English order:

106

demon

zre~
by an arrow

The demon is hit by an arrow.

tutg
is hit

Year 6, Term 3

Passive Verb

Sanskrit order:

nr;

is,hfn

|tg

man

by the lion

is eaten

The man is eaten by the lion.

English order:

Here is a list of several dhtus with their present active and passive
verb forms. Some are irregular.
DHTUS

PRESENT ACTIVE

PRESENT PASSIVE

d|

dd|it

gives

dIytg

he/she/it is given

p|

Ipbit

drinks

pIytg

he/she/it is drunk

tud\

tudit

hits

tutg

he/she/it is hit

|d\

|dit

eats

|tg

he/she/it is eaten

pQ\

pQit

reads

pQtg

he/she/it is read

~oit

hears

Uytg

he/she/it is heard

kroit

IFytg

he/she/it is made/done

icNt\

icNtyit

thinks

icNTytg

he/she/it is thought

gm\

gCit

goes

gMytg

he/she/it is gone to

l\

ltg

finds

lytg

he/she/it is found

vd\

vdit

speaks

tg

he/she/it is spoken

k\

kyit

tells

kytg

he/she/it is told

dz\

pZyit

sees

dZytg

he/she/it is seen

makes / does

107

Year 6, Term 3

Note to Teachers: The following four rules should be learnt and tested.

RULES FOR PASSIVE VERBS

1. The object (the done to) is expressed in the First Case and the
subject is in the Third Case.
2. The verb (the action) has a

y after the dhtu.

3. The ending of the verb takes a vRtg form.


4. The ending of the verb agrees in number with the word in the
First Case, i.e., with the object of the action.

Here is an example of the paradigm of the Present Tense Passive:

Singular

Dual

Plural

|tg

|ftg

|Ntg

he, she, it is eaten

|sg
you are eaten

they two are eaten

|fg

they are eaten

|vf

you two are eaten

you are eaten

|f

||vhf

||mhf

I am eaten

we two are eaten

we are eaten

EXERCISE 71
Translate into English. Pay close attention to whether the verb is active
or passive.
1. pIytg

6. |dit

2. icNTytg

7. icNtyit

3. dZygtg

8. kytg

4. UyNtg

9. ltg

5. pQtg

10. Ntg

108

Year 6, Term 3

Note to Teachers: The three First Person forms of avRt should be practised.

8.4

Past Passive Verbs

Past passive verbs are formed by adding the prefix a on to the passive stem,
and the avRt endings are used. For example:
Dhtus

Past Passive Verbs


Passive Stem

|d\
tud\

a | t
a tu t

a|t
atut

was eaten
was hit

Here are examples showing the passive verb in the present and past tenses:
Dhtus

Present Passive

Past Passive

pIytg

apIyt

it is drunk

it was drunk

p|

gMygtg

gm\

agMygt|m\

they two are gone to

they two were gone to

UyNtg

aUyNt

they are heard

they were heard

EXERCISE 72
Read each pair and say what they mean:
1. tutg atut
2. IFygtg

aIFygt|m\
3. icNTyNtg aicNTyNt

aUyNt
5. gMytg agMyt
4. UyNtg

109

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 73
Turn the following Present Passive verbs into Past Passive verbs:
1. kytg

4. lygtg

2. pQetg

5. dIyNtg

3. |Ntg

EXERCISE 74
Translate into English:
1. Im; knNTy| adZyt
2. yu|in b|lkA; aiFyNt
3. |yRd p|un| alygt|m\
4. npSy sGink; zrf~ atut
5. aMb| IWmg~ aTyJyt

EXERCISE 75
Translate the following into Sanskrit. Use passive verbs when appropriate.
1. The lion finds the river.
2. The river is found by the lion.
3. The two teachers eat two fruits.
4. The two fruits were eaten by two teachers.
5. The story was heard by the girl.

110

Year 6, Term 3

A river is found by a lion.

8.5

Passive Verbs in the Future Tense

Passive verbs can be put into the Future Tense by using the normal active future
stem plus vRtg endings. You can recognise them by the characteristic Wy
or Sy signs. For example:
Dhtus

|d\

Present Passive

|tg
it is eaten

gm\

gMygtg

they two are gone to

cr\

cyRNtg
they are walked to

Future Passive

|idWytg
it will be eaten

giMyWygtg

they two will be gone to

cIrWyNtg
they will be walked to
111

Year 6, Term 3

EXERCISE 76
Write the active and passive forms of the following future verbs. Then,
translate both.
For example:

kIrWyit
kIrWytg

it will be done to

1. gimWyit

4. Xyit

2. kIrWyt;

5. |idWyit

3. icNtiyWyiNt

EXERCISE 77
Translate into English:
1. g; spRd~ |idWytg
2. acl|; Aiwy|m\ gimWyNtg
3. r|jghm\ r|jpu]f~ kIrWytg
4. sGink|y|m\ vx|; XyNtg
5. l|in kNy|i; zI/m\ |idWyNtg

112

it will do

Year 6, Term 3

Note to teachers: This diagram further develops the family tree shown just before Story 7.

FAMILY TREE FOR STORY 8


Gag

married

married

ntanu

Satyavat

d
marrie

Bhma

Vicitravrya

Ambik

married

marrie
d

married

Vysa

Ambalik

Dhtarra

Kunt

Yudhihira
(by
Dharma)

Bhma
(by
Vyu)

married

Pu

Arjuna
(by
Indra)

married

Nakula
(by the
Avins)

Mdr

Sahadeva
(by the
Avins)

113

Year 6, Term 3

8.6

Vocabulary for Story 8

NOUNS

mN]; (m)
dfv; (m)

mantra

sUyR; (m)

Yudhihira

sun

yuiir; (m)
Im; (m)
ajRun; (m)

k~R; (m)

Kara

nknl; (m)

Nakula

vcnm\ (n)

word

shdfv; (m)

Sahadeva

abandoned

p{c)

god

Bhma
Arjuna

ADJECTIVES

Ty)
j|t)

born

DHAATUS

VERBS

d|

dd|it

114

five

in giving

Tv|
he gives

d>v|

ENDINGS

having given

Year 6, Term 3

8. 7
7

Story 8

The Pavas Are Born


Because of the deers curse, Pu cannot have children. However,
when Kunt was a teenager, she had been given a magical word
(mantra) to give birth to three sons. Yudhihira is fathered by
Dharma, the god of law. Bhma is fathered by Vyu, the god of the
wind. Arjuna is fathered by Indra, the king of the gods. Kunt also
shares the magical word with Mdr, who gives birth to the twins
Nakula and Sahadeva, who are fathered by the Avins, the twin
gods of the dawn.

1. mgSy vcn|in uTv| p|u; du;gn aicNtyt\ km\

mm pu]|; ivWyiNt it
2. pur| tu yd| kuNtI kNy| td| Aiw; tSyG km\ aip mN]m\

add|t\
3. tgn mN]f~ k; cn dfv; tuym\ pu]m\ d|Syit it Aiw;

avdt\
4. sUyRm\ icNtiyTv| knNtI mN]m\ avdt\
5. sUyR; t|m\ a|gMy tSyG pu]m\ add|t\
6. s; pu]; k~R; n|m
7. s; tu knNTy| Ty;
8. vm\ p{c pu]|; mN]f~ j|t|;
9. tgw|m\ jnk|; dfv|;
10. tg yuiir; Im; ajRun; nknl; shdfv; c
d|Syit will give
115

Year 6, Term 3

The Pavas are born through gods and a mantra.


116

Appendix 1

APPENDICES
1.

TRANSLITERATION

P.

118

2.

PARADIGMS

P.

120

3.

ENGLISHSANSKRIT VOCABULARY

P.

136

4.

SANSKRITENGLISH VOCABULARY

P.

147

117

Appendix 1

APPENDIX 1
Transliteration
The word Transliteration here means the writing of Sanskrit using English letters. This
Appendix shows all the Sanskrit Devangar letters together with the English letters used to
represent them.

a|

ao aO

ai

au

k|

ik

kI

ku

kU

k<

kE

ko

kO

ka

ki

ku k

ke kai ko kau

VOWELS

1.

ka

ca

ta

pa

kha

cha

ha

tha

pha

ga

ja

da

ba

gha

jha

ha

dha

bha

na

ma

ha

ya

ra

la

va

sa

;
NANTS
118

2. CONSO-

Appendix 1

3. HALANTA CONSONANTS
For halanta letters, the a of the letter is dropped. Examples:

k\

m\

nta

Lp

lpa

Wp

pa (a)

q\

gh

z\

4. JOINED CONSONANTS

Sy sya

Gn gna

Nt

Standard Examples

k kka
(b)

dva

ga

Double-decker Examples

tra

pra

kra

g/

gra

b/

bra

tR

rta

pR

rpa

kR

rka

gR

rga

bR

rba
(c)

Examples of Consonants Joined with r

ka

ra

ja

kta

hra

119

Appendix 2

APPENDIX 2
Paradigms
A paradigm is an example of all the forms and endings of a word set out as a list or chart,
and which is often used as a pattern for other words of a similar kind. All the paradigms
used in this volume, as well as those of the earlier Sanskrit textbooks in this series, are
included in this Appendix for easy reference.

VERBS

vit

Present Tense:

Singular

Dual

Plural

vit

vt;

viNt

he, she, it becomes

they two become

they become

vis

v;

you become

you two become

you become

v|im

v|v;

v|m;

I become

we two become

we become

Dual

Plural

vit

Future Tense:

Singular

ivWyit

ivWyt;

ivWyiNt

he, she, it will become

they two will become

they will become

ivWyis

ivWy;

ivWy

you will become

you two will become

you will become

ivWy|im

ivWy|v;

ivWy|m;

I shall become

we two shall become

we shall become

120

Appendix 2 Verbs

vit

Past Tense:

Singular

Dual

Plural

avt\

avt|m\

avn\

he, she, it became

they two became

they became

av;

avtm\

avt

you became

you two became

you became

avm\

av|v

av|m

I became

we two became

we became

vRtg

Present Tense:

Singular

Dual

Plural

vRtg

vRgtg

vRNtg

he, she, it grows

vRsg

you grow

vRtg

they two grow

vgRg

they grow

vRvf

you two grow

you grow

vgR

v|Rvhf

v|Rmhf

I grow

we two grow

we grow

Singular

Dual

Plural

viRWytg

viRWygtg

Future Tense:

he, she, it will grow

viRWysg

they two will grow

viRWygg

viRWyNtg
they will grow

viRWyvf

you will grow

you two will grow

viRWyg

viRRWy|vhf

viRWy|mhf

we two shall grow

we shall grow

I shall grow

you will grow

121

Appendix 2 Verbs

vRtg

Past Tense:

Singular

Dual

Plural

avRt

avRgt|m\

avRNt

he, she, it grew

they two grew

they grew

avR|;

avgR|m\

avRvm\

you grew

you two grew

you grew

avgR

av|RvIh

av|RmIh

I grew

we two grew

we grew

ltg

Future Tense:

Singular

Dual

Plural

lPSytg

lPSygtg

lPSyNtg

he, she, it will find

lPSysg
you will find

|dit

lPSygg

you two will find

they will find

lPSyvf
you will find

lPSyg

lPSy|vhf

lPSy|mhf

I shall find

we two shall find

we shall find

Present Tense Passive:

Singular

Dual

Plural

|tg

|ftg

|Ntg

he, she, it is eaten

|sg
you are eaten

122

they two will find

they two are eaten

|fg

you two are eaten

they are eaten

|vf
you are eaten

|f

||vhf

||mhf

I am eaten

we two are eaten

we are eaten

Appendix 2 Verbs

aiSt

aiSt

Present Tense:

Singular

Dual

Plural

aiSt

St;

siNt

he, she, it is

they two are

they are

ais

S;

you are

you two are

you are

a^Sm

Sv;

Sm;

I am

we two are

we are

Singular

Dual

Plural

a|sIt\

a|St|m\

a|sn\

he, she, it was

they two were

they were

a|sI;

a|Stm\

a|St

you were

you two were

you were

a|sm\

a|Sv

a|Sm

I was

we two were

we were

Past Tense:

For nouns, see next page.

123

Appendix 2 Nouns

NOUNS

r|m;

(Rma): paradigm for masculine nouns ending in

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th

Singular

Dual

Plural

r|m;
hf r|m
r|mm\

r|mO
hf r|mO
r|mO
r|m|y|m\
r|m|y|m\
r|m|y|m\
r|myo;
r|myo;

r|m|;
hf r|m|;
r|m|n\

r|mg~
r|m|y

6th

r|m|t\
r|mSy

7th

r|mg

5th

im]m\

(friend): paradigm for neuter nouns ending in

r|mF;
r|mgy;
r|mgy;
r|m|~|m\
r|mgwu

am\

Singular

Dual

Plural

6th

im]m\
hf im]
im]m\
im]f~
im]|y
im]|t\
im]Sy

im]|i~
hf im]|i~
im]|i~
im]F;
im]fy;
im]fy;
im]|~|m\

7th

im]f

im]f
hf im]f
im]f
im]|y|m\
im]|y|m\
im]|y|m\
im]yo;
im]yo;

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th

124

im]fwu

Appendix 2 Nouns

sIt|

(St): paradigm for feminine nouns ending in

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

ndI

Voc.

3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

Singular

Dual

Plural

sIt|
hf sItg
sIt|m\
sIty|
sIt|yH
sIt|y|;
sIt|y|;
sIt|y|m\

sItg
hf sItg
sItg
sIt|y|m\
sIt|y|m\
sIt|y|m\
sItyo;
sItyo;

sIt|;
hf sIt|;
sIt|;
sIt|i;
sIt|y;
sIt|y;
sIt|n|m\
sIt|su

(river): paradigm for feminine nouns ending in

1st

2nd

a|

Singular

Dual

Plural

ndI
hf nid
ndIm\
n|
nH
n|;
n|;
n|m\

nO
hf nO
nO
ndIy|m\
ndI|y|m\
ndI|y|m\
no;
no;

n;
hf n;
ndI;
ndIi;
ndIy;
ndIy;
ndIn|m\
ndIwu

125

Appendix 2 Nouns

hIr;

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

gu;

(Lord): paradigm for masculine nouns ending in

Singular

Dual

Plural

hIr;
hf hrf
hIrm\
hIr~|
hryg
hrf;
hrf;
hrO

hrI
hf hrI
hrI
hIry|m\
hIry|m\
hIry|m\
hyoR;
hyoR;

hry;
hf hry;
hrIn\
hIri;
hIry;
hIry;
hrI~|m\

(teacher): paradigm for masculine nouns ending in

hIrwu

Singular

Dual

Plural

6th

gu;
hf guro
gum\
gu~|
gurvf
guro;
guro;

7th

gurO

gu
hf gu
gu
guy|m\
guy|m\
guy|m\
guvoR;
guvoR;

gurv;
hf gurv;
gun\
gui;
guy;
guy;
gu~|m\
guwu

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th

126

Appendix 2 Nouns

|t

1st
Voc.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th

(creator): paradigm for masculine nouns ending in

Singular

Dual

Plural

|t|
hf |tr\
|t|rm\
|]|
|]g
|tu;
|tu;
|tIr

|t|rO
hf |t|rO
|t|rO
|ty|m\
|ty|m\
|ty|m\
|]o;
|]o;

|t|r;
hf |t|r;
|t<n\
|ti;
|ty;
|ty;
|t<~|m\
|twu

For pronouns, see next page.

127

Appendix 2 Pronouns

PRONOUNS

The neuter paradigm for the pronoun

tt\

(that):

Singular

Dual

Plural

tt\

tg

t|in

that

those two

those

tt\

tg

t|in

that (2nd)

those two (2nd)

those (2nd)

tgn

t|y|m\

tG;

by that

by those two

by those

tSmI

t|y|m\

tgy;

for that

for those two

for those

tSm|t\

t|y|m\

tgy;

from that

from those two

from those

tSy

tyo;

tgw|m\

of that

of those two

of those

t^Smn\

tyo;

tgwu

in that

in those two

in those

Note: In the dual and plural, 2nd Ending onwards,


sometimes tt\ is translated as them.

128

Appendix 2 Pronouns

The masculine paradigm for the pronoun

tt\

(he / that):

Singular

Dual

Plural

s;

tO

tg

he, that

those two

those

tm\

tO

t|n\

him, that (2nd)

those two (2nd)

those (2nd)

tgn

t|y|m\

tG;

by him, by that

by those two

by those

tSmI

t|y|m\

tgy;

for him, for that

for those two

for those

tSm|t\

t|y|m\

tgy;

from him, from that

from those two

from those

tSy

tyo;

tgw|m\

of him, of that

of those two

of those

t^Smn\

tyo;

tgwu

in him, in that

in those two

in those

Note: In the dual and plural, 2nd Ending onwards,


sometimes tt\ is translated as them.

129

Appendix 2 Pronouns

The feminine paradigm for the pronoun

tt\

(she / that):

Singular

Dual

Plural

s|

tg

t|;

she, that

those two

those

t|m\

tg

t|;

her, that (2nd)

those two (2nd)

those (2nd)

ty|

t|y|m\

t|i;

by her, by that

by those two

by those

tSyG

t|y|m\

t|y;

for her, for that

for those two

for those

t|y|m\

t|y;

from those two

from those

tSy|;

tyo;

t|s|m\

of her, of that

of those two

of those

tSY||m\

tyo;

t|su

in her, in that

in those two

in those

tSy|;
from her, from that

Note: In the dual and plural, 2nd Ending onwards,


sometimes tt\ is translated as them.

130

Appendix 2 Pronouns

The paradigm of the question word

Ikm\

(what? / which?), neuter:

Singular

Dual

Plural

Ikm\

k|in

what? / which?

which two?

which?

Ikm\

k|in

to what? / to which? (2nd)

to which two? (2nd)

to which? (2nd)

kn

k|y|m\

kA;

by what? / by which?

by which two?

by which?

kSmH

k|y|m\

ky;

for what? / for which?

for which two?

for which?

kSm|t\

k|y|m\

ky;

from what? / from which?

from which two?

from which?

kSy

kyo;

kw|m\

of what? / of which?

of which two?

of which?

k^Smn\

kyo;

kwu

in what? / in which?

in which two?

in which?

131

Appendix 2 Pronouns

The paradigm of the question word

k;

(who? / which?), masculine:

Singular

Dual

Plural

k;

kO

who? / which?

km\

which two?

kO

which?

k|n\

to whom? / to which?

to which two? (2nd)

kn

k|y|m\

kA;

by whom? / by which?

by which two?

by which?

kSmH

k|y|m\

ky;

for whom? / for which?

for which two?

for which?

kSm|t\

k|y|m\

ky;

from whom? / from which?

from which two?

from which?

kSy

132

to which? (2nd)

kyo;

kw|m\

of whom? / of which?

of which two?

of which?

k^Smn\

kyo;

kwu

in whom? / in which?

in which two?

in which?

Appendix 2 Pronouns

The paradigm of the question word

k|

(who? / which?), feminine:

Singular

Dual

Plural

k|

k|;

who? / which?

which two?

which?

k|m\

k|;

to whom? / to which? (2nd)

to which two? (2nd)

to which? (2nd)

ky|

k|y|m\

k|i;

by whom? / by which?

by which two?

by which?

kSyG

k|y|m\

k|y;

for whom? / for which?

for which two?

for which?

kSy|;

k|y|m\

k|y;

from whom? / from which?

from which two?

from which?

kSy|;

kyo;

k|s|m\

of whom? / of which?

of which two?

of which?

kSy|m\

kyo;

k|su

in whom? / in which?

in which two?

in which?

133

Appendix 2 Pronouns

The paradigm of

ahm\

Singular

Dual

Plural

ahm\

a|v|m\

vym\

we two

we

m|m\

a|v|m\

aSm|n\

me (2nd)

134

(I):

us two (2nd)

us (2nd)

my|

a|v|y|m\

aSm|i;

by me

by us two

by us

mm\

a|v|y|m\

aSmym\

for me

for us two

for us

mt\

a|v|y|m\

aSmt\

from me

from us two

from us

mm

a|vyo;

aSm|km\

of me

of us two

of us

miy

a|vyo;

aSm|su

in me

in us two

in us

Appendix 2 Pronouns

The paradigm of

Tvm\

(you):

Singular

Dual

Plural

Tvm\

yuv|m\

yUym\

you

you two

you

Tv|m\

yuv|m\

yuWm|n\

you (2nd)

you two (2nd)

you (2nd)

Tvy|

yuv|y|m\

yuWm|i;

by you

by you two

by you

tuym\

yuv|y|m\

yuWmym\

for you

for you two

for you

Tvt\

yuv|y|m\

yuWmt\

from you

from you two

from you

tv

yuvyo;

yuWm|km\

of you

of you two

of you

Tviy

yuvyo;

yuWm|su

in you

in you two

in you

135

Appendix 3

APPENDIX 3
Vocabulary: English Sanskrit
This EnglishSanskrit vocabulary comprises in alphabetical order the appropriate English
renderings of all the Sanskrit words used in the exercises and stories found in this volume, as well as
those used in the earlier Sanskrit textbooks, The Stories of Krishna and The Story of Rma.

Ai

It)
pun;
pun; pun;

afraid
again
again and again
Agha, name of

a;
h| h|
d|hyit
svR)
v

a demon

alas! alas!
(sets) alight
all
alone, only

Arjuna
army
arrow
as if, like
asked
asks
asks for
Aoka trees
ate
Ayodhy

ajRun;
shn|
zr;
v
apCt\
pCit
f|Ryit
azok
vx|;
a|dt\
ayoy|

(emphasises
previous word)

also
and
angry
are they (plural) are
they two are
i we (plural) are
i we two are
i you (sing.) are
i you (plural) are
i you two are
136

aip
c
kpipt)
siNt
St;
Sm;
Sv;
ais
S
S;

Bi

battle
beautiful
became
be!, become!
(having) become
(will) become

yum\
rm~Iy)
icr)
avt\
v (sg.),
vt (pl.)
PTv|
ivWyit

Appendix 3

becomes
belly
best
Bharata
Bhma
binds
bird
black
bliss
blood
blue
boat
body
book
(having)

bound

bow [the noun]


bowed
(having) bowed
bows [the verb]
boy
Brahm weapon
brave
breakfast
breast
bring!
brings
brother
brought
built

vit
dr;
.m)
rt;
Im;
bn|it
g;
W~)
a|nNd;
rm\
nIl)
nOk|
dfh;
puStkm\
b\v|
c|p;
anmt\
nTv|
nmit
b|lk;
b/|S]m\
vIr)
f|tr|z;
Stn;
a|ny
a|nyit
sodr;
a|nyt\
akrot\

burn
burned
(will)

burns
(having)

burnt

but
butter

Xyit
adht\
dhit
dGv|
tu
nvnItm\

Ci

calf
came
Cra
carried off
causeway
cave
chair
chariot
cheating; sin
chin
city
climbs
closes (the eyes)
cloud
colour
come
(having) come
(will) come
comes

vTs;
a|gCt\
c|~Nr;
apHt)
sgtu;
guh|
pIQm\
r;
amR;
icbukm\
ngrm\
a|rohit
inimwit
mg;
v~R;
a|gt)
a|gMy
a|gimWyit
a|gCit
137

Appendix 3

a|gC
ijt) ajyt\
conquers, is victorious jyit
contented
s,tu)
cowherd
gop|l;
Creator, the
ipt|mh;
cried out
aFozt\
cried; wailed
arodt\
cries out
Fozit
cries; wails
rodit
crossed
atrt\
crosses
trit
curse
z|p;
cursed
zPt)
cut
In)
come!
conquered

(will)
138

do, make

done, made,
put on Tv|

koKkor;
|rm\
aipbt\
drink!
ipb (sg.), ipbt (pl.)
drinks
ipbit
drunk
pIt)
(having) drunk
pITv|
dwells
vsit
dwelt
avst\
dog
door
drank

Ei

Daaratha
daughter
dead
deer
demon
demoness
destroyed
destroys
(they pl.) did, made
did, made

(having)

kroit
t)

does, makes
done

dzr;
kNy|
mt)
mg;
r|xs;
r|xsI
an|zyt\
n|zyit
akovRn\
akrot\
kIrWyit

ear
k~R;
eat!
|d (sg.), |dt (pl.)
eaten
|idt)
eats
|dit
(will) eat
|idWyit
elephant
gj;
entered
f|ivzt\
(having) entered
fivZy
enters
fivzit
everything
svRm\
everywhere
svR]

Appendix 3

evil
experienced
eye

as|u) du)
anuQt)
nh]m\

friend
fruit

im]m\
lm\

Gi

Fi

garden
falls
(having)

fallen

falls in love
far away
father
fear
fearless
fell
fell in love
(will) find
finds
fire
first
fish
flower
flute
(like a) fool
forest
form
found
freed

ptit
pitTv|
isit (+7th)
dUrg
jnk;
ym\
ay)
aptt\
aist\ (+7th)
lPSyth
lth
aiGn;
fm)
mTSy;
puWpm\
v,z;
mPvt\
vnm\
arym\
pm\
alt
mu)

gave
give!
gives
(will) give help

|nm\
add|t\
dhIh (sg.)
dd|it

s|h|Yym\ kIrWyit
go!
gC (sg.), gCt (pl.)
gimWyit
(will) go
goes
gCit
goes down
avgCit
goes forward
fgCit
golden
suv~R)
gone
gt)
(having) gone
gTv|
good
s|u)
good! good!
s|u s|u
grabbed
ghIt)
(having) grabbed
ghITv|
green
hIrt)
grew
avRt
grief
zok;
ground
Pimm\ (2nd)
grows
vRth
139

Appendix 3

(will)

grow

viRWyth

hits
home
horrible
house
how?

Hi

hair
kz;
hand
hSt;
Hanumn, son of the wind
happiness, pleasure
happy
he
heard
(having)

heard

hears
heart
help
(will give)

help

her (2nd)
(to) her (4th)
her, of her (6th)
here
hidden
him (2nd)
(by) him (3rd)
(to) him (4th)
his, of him (6th)
140

v|yupu];
sum\
suit)
s;
ut)
uTv|
z~oit
Hdym\
s|h|Yym\
s|h|Yym\
kIrWyit
t|m\
tSyI
tSy|;
a]
itroIht)
tm\
thn
tSmJ
tSy

tudit
ghm\
or)
ghm\
km\

I
I am
if
Indra
Indrajit
inside
is

ahm\
a^Sm
yid
N;
Nijt\
aNt;
aiSt

Jayu
Janaka
jewel
jump

jq|yu;
jnk;
Nw~m\
5vnm\

Kabandha
Kasa

kbN;
k,s;

Appendix 3

Kliya,
a serpent demon

kill!
(will)

kill

kills
killed
(having)

killed

king
kingdom
Kubera, the god
of wealth

Ka
Kaikey
Kausaly

k|ily;
Vy|p|dy
Vy|p|diyWyit
Vy|p|dyit
ht)
hTv|
np;
r|Jym\
knbgr;
W~;
kAkyI
kOsLy|

Lakmaa
Lak,
Rvaas island

lady
large
laughed
laughs
leads
(will) lead
leaf-house
(having) left

lXm~;
l|
n|rI
ivz|l)
ahst\
hsit
nyit
ngWyit
p~Rghm\
Ty|

leave alone!
leaves
led
lifted up
lifts, lifts up
like, as if
like a fool
like Rma
likewise; thus
limitless
lion
listen!
z~u (sg.),
listened
listens
lives, dwells
long
long ago
(for a) long time
Lord, the

Tyj
Tyjit
anyt\
dhrt\
rit
v
mOvt\
r|mvt\
vm\
anNt)
is,h;
z~ut (pl.)
az~ot\
z~oit
vsit
dIR)
pur|
bhuk|lm\
hIr;

made, did
(they pl.) made, did
magic
(will) make, do
makes, does
man

akrot\
aknvRn\
m|y|
kIrWyit
kroit
nr;
141

Appendix 3

bhu)
m|rIc;
me (2nd)
m|m\
(by) me
my|
(for) me
mm\
(in) me
miy
meets
imlit (+ 3rd)
messenger
dUt;
met
aimlt\ (+ 3rd)
myh (+ 6th)
(in the) middle of
Mithil
imil|
monk
muinjn;
monkey
kip; v|nr;
moon
cN;
mother
jnnI
mountain
acl;
mouth
a|Sym\ mum\
my
mm
many
Mrca

not
nowhere

n
n kn]ict

O!
ocean
old
O my!
once
one, a certain
only, alone
(emphasises
previous word)

orange
other, another

hg
smu;
v)
aho
kd|
k)

v
n|r)
aNy)

name, by name
Nrada, a sage
near
never
Nla,
a monkey architect

nose
142

n|m
n|rd;
smIph (+ 6th)
n kd| aip
nIl;
n|isk|

palace
person
person
pillar
places, puts
plays (an instrument)
pleasure, happiness
poison
possessing

r|jghm\
puw;
jn;
StM;
S|pyit
v|dyit
sum\
ivwm\
yu) (+ 3rd)

Appendix 3

prince
protect!
proud
punish!
pupil
pure
Ptan, a demoness
(having)

put on

r|jpu];
rx
givRt)
dy
izWy;
zu)
pUtn|
Tv|

quickly

zI/m\

rains
Rma
ran
Rvaa
red
rejoiced
rejoices
ring
river
road
rock
rope

vw|R;
r|m;
a|vt\
r|v~;
a~)
armt
rmth
aolIym\
ndI
m|gR;
izl|
sU]m\

runs

|vit

du;it)
mqinjn; Aiw;
said, spoke
avdt\
(having) said
idTv|
sang
ag|yt\
atrughna
z]un;
saved
rixt)
saw
apZyt\
says
vdit
searched after
aNvHCt\
second
itIy)
see!
pZy (sg.), pZyt (pl.)
Xyit
(will) see
seen
d)
(having) seen
d|
sees
pZyit
serpent demon
k|ily;
(having) set alight
dGv|
set light to
ad|hyt\
sets light to
d|hyit
she
s|
shines
|it
shoots
ixpit
short
Sv)
sad
sage

143

Appendix 3

tUW~Im\
amR;
g|yit
sIt|
sits down
pivzit
iva
izv;
Sumitr
su im]|
rpanakh
zNpRn|
sky
ggnm\
small
aLp)
(with a) smile
s^Smtm\
snake
spR;
soldier
sHink;
son
pu];
soon
aicrf~
sound
zBd;
speaks
vdit
special
iviz)
stands
itit
star
t|rk|
stood
aitt\
stop!
prm
stops
prmit (+ 5th)
straight away
anNtrm\
strong
fbl)
Sugrva
sug/Iv;
sun
sU yR;
Supreme Lord, the prmiZvr;
sword
;
silently
sin; cheating
sings
St

144

puCm\
a|c|yR; gu;
vNdnm\
tt\ (neut.)
s; (masc.)
s| (fem.)
that, him (2nd)
tm\ (masc.)
t^Smn\
(in) that, (in) him
then
td|
there
t]
there is
a^St
therefore
tSm|t\
they two are
St;
they (plural) were
a|sn\
thinks
icNtyit
(he, she) thought
aicNtyt\
those
th
tail
teacher
thank you
that

those (plural) (2nd masc.) t|n\


three (fem.)
it;
threw
aixpt\
throat
kQ;
throws
ixpit
thus
it
thus; likewise
vm\
together with
sh (+ 3rd)
told
akyt\
tormented
pIit)

Appendix 3

towards (used after


a 2nd-case word)

town
tree
true

fit
ngrm\
vx;
sTy)

wailed, cried
wails, cries
walked
(having) walked
walks

arodt\
rodit
acrt\
cIrTv|
crit

was

a|sIt
(I was)
a|sm\
water
jlm\
we (plural)
vym\
we/us two
a|v|m\
went
agCt\
(they plural) were
a|sn\
(they two) were
a|St|m\
(we plural) were
a|Sm
(we two) were
a|Sv
(you plural) were
a|St
(you singular) were
a|sI;
(you two) were
a|Stm\
what?
Ikm\
wheel
ax;
where?
kn]
Whirlwind demon, the cFv|t;
wife
|y|R
wine
mm\
wing
px;
wise
f|D)
(he/she/it was)

unburnt
unhappiness
us (plural, 2nd)
(by) us (plural)
(for) us (plural)
(from) us (plural)
(in) us (plural)
(of) us (plural)
us/we two

adG)
du;m\
aSm|n\
aSm|i;
aSmym\
aSmt\
aSm|su
aSm|km\
a|v|m\

very
(is) victorious
Vivmitra
voice
vulture

atIv
jyit
ivZv|im];
Svr;
g/;

145

Appendix 3

wish
with, together with
wood, forest
writes

vr;
sh (+3rd)
vnm\ arym\
ilit

Yaod
yellow
you (singular)
you (plural)
you (plural, 2nd)
you two (1st & 2nd)
(by) you (singular)
(for) you (singular)
(for) you (plural)
(from) you (plural)
(from) you (singular)
(in) you (singular)
(in/of) you two
(of) you (singular)
your

146

yzod|
pIt)
Tvm\
yUym\
yuWm|n\
yuv|m\
Tvy|
tuym\
yuWmym\
yuWmt\
Tvt\
Tviy
yuvyo;
tv
tv

Appendix 4

APPENDIX 4
Vocabulary: Sanskrit English
This SanskritEnglish vocabulary comprises in alphabetical order all Sanskrit words, with their
appropriate English renderings, used in the exercises and stories found in this volume, as well as
those used in the earlier Sanskrit textbooks, The Stories of Krishna and The Story of Rma.

akyt\
told
akrot\
made, did, built
aknvRn\
they (pl.) made, did
aFozt\
cried out
ax;
wheel
aixpt\
threw
a|dt\
ate
agCt\
went
ag|yt\
sang
aiGn;
fire
a;
Agha, name of a demon
aolIym\
ring
acrt\
walked
acl;
mountain
aicNtyt\
(he/she) thought
aicrf~
soon
ajyt\
conquered
atrt\
crossed
aitt\
stood
atIv
very
atudt\
hit

a]
adG)
add|t\
adht\
ad|hyt\
amR;
a|vt\
anNt)
anNtrm\
anmt\
anyt\
an|zyt\
anuPt)
aNt;
aNth
aNy)
aNvHCt\
aptt\
apZyt\
apHt)
aip
n kd| aip
aipbt\

here
unburnt
gave
burned
set light to
cheating, sin
ran
limitless
straight away
bowed
led
destroyed
experienced
inside
in the end
other, another
searched after
fell
saw
carried off
also
never

drank
147

Appendix 4

apCt\
ay)
avt\
aimlt\ (+3rd)
ayoy|
arym\
armt
a~)
arodt\
ajRun;
alt
aLp)
avgCit
avdt\
avRt
avst\
az~ot\
azokvx|;
as|u)
ais
a^St
aS|pyt\
aist\
aSmt\
aSmym\
aSm|km\
aSm|n\
aSm|i;
aSm|su
148

asked
fearless
became
met

a^Sm
ahm\
ahst\
aho

I am
I
laughed
O my!

Ayodhy
forest
rejoiced
red
cried, wailed
Arjuna
found
small
goes down
said
grew
dwelt
listened
Aoka trees
evil
you (sing.) are
is
placed, put
fell in love
(from) us (plural)
(for) us (plural)
(of) us (plural)
us (plural, 2nd)
(by) us (plural)
(in) us (plural)

a|

a|gC
a|gCt\
a|gCit
a|gt)
a|gimWyit
a|gMy
a|c|yR;
a|nNd;
a|ny
a|nyt\
a|nyit
a|rohit
a|vyo;
a|v|y|m\
a|v|m\
a|sn\
a|sm\
a|sI;
a|sIt\
a|St
a|Stm\

come!
came
comes
come
will come
having come
teacher
bliss
bring!
brought
brings
climbs
(of/in) us two
(by/for/from) us two
we/us two
(they, plural) were
I was
you (sing.) were
he/she/it was
you (plural) were
you two were

Appendix 4

a|St|m\
a|Sm
a|Sym\
a|Sv

they two

were

we (plural) were

mouth
we two

prmit (+5th) stops


pivzit
sits down
iwTv|
having lived, dwelt

were

it
N;
Nijt\
v

Aiw;

sage

thus
Indra
Indrajit
like, as if

k)
kd|
v

one, a certain
once
alone, only
(emphasises
previous word)

vm\

thus; likewise

.m)
dr;
dhrt\
idTv|
|nm\
rit
prm

best
belly
lifted, lifted up
having said
garden
lifts, lifts up
stop!

k,s;
kQ;

Kasa
throat
149

Appendix 4

km\
kyit
kd| aip
kNy|
kip;
kbN;
kIrWyit
kroit
k~R;
k|ily;
Ikm\
knknr;
kn]
knipt)
knbgr;
t)
Tv|

how?
tells
(when after n ) never

daughter
monkey
Kabandha
will do, make
does, makes, puts on
ear
Kliya, a serpent demon
what?
dog
where?
angry
Kubera, god of wealth
done, made
having done,
having made,
having put on

W~)
W~;
kz;
kAkyI
kOsLy|
Fozit
ixpit

150

black
Ka
hair
Kaikey
Kausaly
cries out
throws, shoots

g;
;
|d
|dt
|dit
|idt)
|idWyit

bird
sword
eat! (singular)
eat! (plural)
eats
eaten
will eat

ggnm\
gC
gCt
gCit
gj;
gt)
gTv|
gimWyit
givRt)
g|yit
gu;
guh|
g/;
ghm\
ghIt)

sky
go! (singular)
go! (plural)
goes
elephant
gone
having gone
will go
proud
sings
teacher
cave
vulture
house
grabbed

Appendix 4

ghITv|
gop|l;

having grabbed
cowherd

or)

horrible

cN;
crit
cIrTv|
c|~Ur;
c|p;
icNtyit
icbukm\

Jayu
person
Janaka
father
mother
is victorious,
conquers
water
conquered

and
the Whirlwind
demon
moon
walks
having walked
Cra
bow
thinks
chin

In)

jq|yu;
jn;
jnk;
jnk;
jnnI
jyit
jlm\
ijt)

c
cFv|t;

cut

tt\
t]
td|
tm\
tyo;
trit
tv
tSm|t\
t^Smn\
tSmJ
tSy
tSy|;
tSyJ

that
there
then
that, him (2nd)
(of/in) those two
crosses
your, of you
therefore
in that, in him
to that, to him
his, of him
her, of her
to her
151

Appendix 4

t|qk|
t|n\
t|m\
t|rk|
itroIht)
itit
it;
tu
tudit
tuym\
tUW~Im\
th
thn
tO
Ty|
Tyj
Tyjit
Tvt\
Tvm\
Tvy|
Tviy

Tak
those (many) (2nd m.)
her (2nd)
star
hidden
stands
three (fem.)
but
hits
for you (sing.) (4th)
silent
those (many) (m.)
by him / by that
those two (m.)
having left
leave alone!
leaves
from

dzr;
dhit
d|hyit
dIR)
du)
du;m\
du;it)
dUt;
dUrm\
dUrf
d)
d|
dhh;
dhIh
|rm\
itIy)
Xyit

Daaratha
burns
sets light to
long
evil
unhappiness
sad
messenger
a long way
far away
seen
having seen
body
give! (sing.)
door
second
will see

you (sing.)

you (sing.)
by you (sing.)
in you (sing.)

Xyit
|vit

will burn
runs

dGv|
dy
dd|it
152

having burnt,
having set alight
punish!
gives

n
not
n kd| aip never

Appendix 4

n ku] ict\
ngrm\
nTv|
ndI
nmit
nyit
nr;
nv)
nvnItm\
n|m

nowhere
town, city
having bowed
river

n|r )
n|rd;
n|rI
n|zyit
n|isk|
inimwit
nIl)
nIl;

orange
Nrada, a sage
lady

bows
leads
man
new
butter
a name;
by name

destroys
nose
closes the eyes
blue
Nla (a monkey
architect)

np;
nh]m\
nhWyit
nOk|

king
eye
will lead
boat

px;
ptit

wing
falls

pitTv|
prmeZvr;
p~Rghm\
pZy
pZyt
pZyit
ipt|mh;
ipb
ipbt
ipbit
pIQm\
pIit)
pIt)
puCm\
pu];
pun;
pun; pun;
pur|
puw;
puWpm\
puStkm\
pUtn|
pCit
fgCit
fit (+ 2nd)
fm)
fbl)
fivZy
f|D)

fallen
the Supreme
Lord
leaf-house
see! (singular)
having

see! (plural)
sees
the Creator
drink! (singular)
drink! (plural)
drinks
chair
tormented
yellow; drunk
tail
son
again
again and again
long ago
person
flower
book
Ptan, a demoness
asks
goes forward
towards
first
strong
having entered
wise
153

Appendix 4

f|tr|z;
f|Ryit
f|ivzt\
5vnm\

breakfast
asks for
entered
a jump

lm\

fruit

vit
ivWyit
|it
|y|R
It)
Im;
PTv|
Pimm\ (2nd)
PMy|m\
Pw~m\

becomes
will become
shines
wife
afraid
Bhma
become
ground
on the ground
jewel
having

b\v|
bn|it
bh)
bhk|lm\
b|lk;
b/|S]m\

having bound
binds
many
for a long time
boy
the Brahm
weapon

ym\
rt;
v
vt
154

fear
Bharata
be!, become! (sing.)
be!, become! (plural)

mt\
mTSy;
mm\
myh (+6th)
mm
my|
miy
mm\
m|m\
m|y|
m|rIc;
m|gR;
im]m\
imil|

from me
fish
wine
in the middle of
my, of me
by me
in me
for me
me (2nd)
magic
Mrca
road
friend
Mithil (a city)

Appendix 4

imlit (+ 3rd)
mr) (+ 5th)
mrm\
mrinjn;
mOvt\
mg;
mt)
mh;

meets
freed
mouth
monk, sage
like a fool
deer
dead
cloud

yId
yzod|
yu) (+ 3rd)
yum\
yuvyo;
yuv|y|m\
yuv|m\

if
Yaod
possessing
battle
of / in you two
by / for / from

you two
you two

rm\
rx
rixt)
r;
rm~Iy)
rmth
r|xs;
r|xsI
r|jghm\
r|jpu];
r|Jym\
r|m;
r|mvt\
r|v~;

blood
protect!
saved
chariot
beautiful
rejoices
demon
demoness
palace
prince
kingdom
Rma
like Rma
Rvaa, king
of the demons

icr)
pm\
rodit

beautiful
form
cries; wails

(1st or 2nd)

yuWmt\
yuWmym\
yuWm|km\
yuWm|n\
yuWm|i;
yuWm|su
yUym\

you (plural)
for you (plural)
of you (plural)
from

you (plural) (2nd)


by you (plural)
in you (plural)
you (plural) (1st)

lXm~;
l|

Lakmaa
Lak,
Rvaas island

lPSyth
lth

will find
finds
155

Appendix 4

ilit

writes

vTs;
vdit
vnm\
vNdnm\
vym\
vr;
v~R;
vRth
viRWyth
vw|R;
v,z;
vsit
v|dyit

calf
speaks
forest
thank you
we (plural)
wish
colour
grows
will grow
rains
flute
dwells
plays (an
instrument)

v|nr;
v|yupu];

monkey
Hanumn, son
of the wind

ivwm\
ivz|l)
iviz)
ivZv|im];
ivsgR;

156

poison
large
special
Vivmitra
a release of the
breath, shown
by :, as in r|m;

vIr)
vx;
v)
Vy|p|dyit
Vy|p|dy
Vy|p|diyWyit

brave
tree
old
kills
kill!
will kill

z]un;
zPt)
zBd;
zr;
z|p;
izl|
izv;
izWy;
zI/m\
zu)
zUpRn|
z~u
z~ut
z~oit
zok;
I
ut)
uTv|

atrughna
cursed
sound, voice
arrow
curse
rock
iva
pupil
quickly
pure
rpanakh
listen! (singular)
listen! (plural)
hears
grief
light
heard
having heard

Appendix 4

sTy)
siNt
s,tu)
smIph (+ 6th)
smu;
spR;
svR)
svR]

true
they (plural) are
contented
near
ocean
snake
all
everywhere

svRm\

all, everything

s^Smtm\
with a smile
sh (+ 3rd)
together with
s;
he
s|
she
s|u)
good
s|u s|u
good! good!
s|h|Yym\
help
s|h|Yym\ kIrWyit
give help
lion
St
happiness,
pleasure
happy
Sugrva
Sumitr
golden
rope, string
will

is,h;
sIt|
sum\
suit)
sug/Iv;
suim]|
suv~R)
sP]m\

sPyR;
shtu;
shn|
sodr;
sIink;
Stn;
StM;
St;
S
S;
S|pyit
isit (+7th)
Sm;
Svr;
Sv;

sun
causeway
army
brother
soldier
breast
pillar
they two are
you (plural) are
you two are
places
falls in love
we (plural) are
voice
we two are

ht)
hTv|
hIrt)
hIr;
hsit
hSt;
h| h|
Hdym\
hg
Sv)

killed
having killed
green
the Lord
laughs
hand
alas! alas!
heart
O!
short
157

Appendix 4

158

Appendix 4

159