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_________

( )

__________________________________________________

. . , . .



, ,


FASTEST-3D


2007

27.5.4
49

49 .. , .. .

, ,

Fastest-3D: . - .:
- , 2007. 116 .: .
ISBN 978-5-7035-1854-0


FASTEST-3D.
, ,
.
: Dr.-Ing. . ; Dr.-Ing. .
ISBN 978-5-7035-1854-0

(
)
. ., . ., 2007

. 2007, .



, ,

Fastest-3D
. .
29.08.07
. . 6084 1/16 .
. . . 6,74. .-. . 7,25. 250 .
. 3736/2239. .629.

, ., . 4, , -80, -3 125993.

, ., . 4, , -80, -3 125993.


1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
2.
2.1. (DNS)
2.2. (LES)
2.3.
(RANS)
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3.

2.3.4.

2.3.5.

2.3.6.

2.3.7.

2.3.8.
2.3.9.
2.3.10.
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.
3

5
7
13
13
16
17
26
28
28
29
30
34
35
37
38
42
48
49
51
56
58
66
66
68
72
73
74
75
76
78
79

3.10.
4. FASTEST-3D
4.1. FASTEST-3D
4.2. FASTEST-3D
4.3. ,

4.4. ,
4.5.
4.6.

82
87
88
89
93
97
102
104
106
111


30


. ,
,

(Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD).


CFD ,

. ,
- ,
,


.
.


FASTEST-3D (Flow Analysis
Solving Transport Equation Simulating Turbulence 3 Dimensional),

(TU Darmstadt). FASTEST-3D



, ,
,

, ,

,
. FASTEST-3D

5

SFB,

, Siemens, Rolls-Roys,
Alstom.

. ,

, Fluent, CFX, ANSYS
, .
FASTEST-3D ,
Linux,

.

Pentium 100 (32Mb)
.

Dr.-Ing. ., Dr.-Ing. .
(TU
Darmstadt) Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Schafer, Prof. Dr.-Ing. J. Janicka,
Prof. Dr.-Ing. A. Sadiki, Dr.-Ing. D. Sternel.

I , II , III , IV ,V
aij

Ci , ci
C ji
cp

( )

dp
D

F1, F2
G
Fi
f , fi
gi

p
Pk
Pr
Prt
R

Re

( )

, ..





, k + = k

, w / w

Re p
Ret
Sc
Sij

T
t
u , ui

u
uiu j

u j

V
xi
y




, u y /

y+

i , i , i , i

ij

2
2

i
k

ij

, t

( )

3
2

ij

ij

k , i

( )

, t



,
+ = 4
U


2
c
c

( )
(j)

div ( )

grad ( )

( )b
( ) F
()O
( ) P
( )u

AS
BML
CDS
CFD
CLS
CV

,
, ,
- (Central
Difference Scheme)

(Computational Fluid Dynamics)
, ,
(Control Volume)
10

DES
DH
DNS
EARSM
EASFM
EDC
EVM
GGDH
GL
GS
IARSM
KM
LES
LRR
LU
MPI
PDF
RANS
RSM
RSFM


(Detached Eddy
Simulation)
,

(Direct Numerical Simulation)

(Explicit
Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model)

(Explicit Algebraic Scalar Flux
Model)
(EddyDissipation Concept)
(EddyViscosity Model)
-
(General Gradient-Diffusion
Hypothesis)
,
,

(Implicit
Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model)
,
(Large
Eddy Simulation)
, ,
- (LowerUpper decomposition)
Message Passing Interface


(Reynolds
Averaging based Numerical Simulations)

(Reynolds Stress Model)

(Reynolds Scalar Flux Model)
11

RST
SJ
SGS
SIMPLE
SIP
SMC
SSG
SST
UDS
URANS
WJ
WWJ
ZFK


(Reynolds Stress Tensor)
,
, ,

(Semi Implicit Method
for Pressure Linked Equations)
(Strongly
Implicit Procedure)
(Second
Moment Closure)
, ,
(Shear
Stress Transport)
(Upwind
Difference Scheme)


(Unsteady RANS)
,
, ,
--

12

1.

: , .
1.1.


[4]
ui
+
= 0,
t
xi
I

(1.1)

II

,
.


ui
= 0.
xi

(1.2)

13

ui ui u j
p ij
+
=
+
+ gi ,
t
x j
xi x j
V
I

III

II

(1.3)

IV

, , -
( ), ().
[54]
ui ui
ij =
+
xi x j

2 u
ij ,

x
3

(1.4)

ij - ( i = j ij = 1, i j ij = 0 ).


ui ui u j
p

+
=
+
t
x j
xi x j

u u
i + i
xi x j

2 u
ij + gi . (1.5)

3
x

(1.2) (1.5)
[1].

[4]
ui
ui
1 p 2ui
+uj
=
+
+ gi .
xi x j x j
t
x j

14

(1.6)

c pT
t
I

u i c pT
x j

qi ij ui
=
+
+S,
xi
x j
V
III

II

(1.7)

IV

, , -
T
,
qi =
xi
- , -
, ..
,

(, ),

ui

+
=
D
+S.
t
xi
xi xi

(1.8)

D=

Sc

(1.9)

,
,
, .
,
: ,

p = RT .

(1.10)


, ,

.
15

.
,
,
(,
)
.
(
),
.

.
1.2.

. ,
, -
, ().

:
(EulerLagrange) (EulerEuler).

. ..
,
. ()
(),
. . 1.1
.
(),
().

16

. 1.1. (),
()
,

, , , .. [12],
[14], [49].
1.3.

, ,
().
.
[63].


[6]: ,

.

,
.
:

(),
.

17



,
(, ).

F F + O O = P P ,

(1.11)

: F - ; O - ; P -
.

.
N M
:
N

kj k = kj k ,

k =1

j = 1, M ,

(1.12)

k =1

k - k kj , kj k
j . (1.12)

N

kjWk = 0 ,

j = 1, M ,

(1.13)

k =1

kj = kj kj Wk
i

k . kj k
:
i

kj = r jWk kj ,

18

(1.14)

r j - j . k
k
M :
i

k = kj =Wk r j kj .
j =1

(1.15)

j =1

(1.15) (1.13)
N

r
W

j k kj .

j =1
j =1 k =1
N i

(1.16)

r j
:
r j = r f , j rb, j ,

r f , j =

K f , j kN=1

kj

Yk

Kb, j kN=1

(1.17)
kj

Yk

; rb, j =
.
W
W
k
k
K f , j , Kb, j

K f , j = A f , jT

nf , j

Ef ,j
exp
.
RT

(1.18)

(1.18) :
n
A f , j , T f , j
E f , j . Kb, j

19

Kb, j

p
= K f , j a
RT

kj
S 0j H 0j

k =1
,

exp

R
RT

(1.19)

pa ; S 0j , H 0j .

(1.12),
(1.18).
[6]. ,
. .

,
,
.
,
. ,

.
.
,

. ,
.
,
.
, .

,
,
.

.

,
20

, NOx .
,
,
NOx .

(mixture fraction),
:

z z ,O
z , F z ,O

(1.20)

z .
,
(1.19), :
ui


+
=


.
t
xi
xi xi

(1.21)

,
,
[6].
.

21

. 1.2.
. 1.2
.
,
: Yk = Yk ( ) , T = T ( ) , = ( ) ,

= ( t , xi ) .

[6], [63].
[6].

,
,
,
. . 1.3
.
- [6].
22

T x
T0 ()
Tmax . ,
,
: ,
, ,
, , ;
.

. 1.3.


, ,
.
,
, - (ZFK)
:
-
Tmax ;
23

- l
l f ;
-
s .
(1.18) T = Tmax [6]
2

s ~

exp
cp
RTmax

(1.22)

,

;

Tmax

,
,
.
. [40] :
,
,

.
.

24

. 1.4.
. 1.4

. ,
.
.

,
.
()
. ,

. ,
: ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.
25

1.4.

,
, .
:
,
.
,
,
:
Re =

l0 u0

(1.23)

l0 - ; u0 - ; .


. , . .
, ,
. ,
. . ,

, ,
.

.
; ,
, ,
,
.
[33] .

, . . 1.5
.

26

. 1.5.
, :
- ,
- ,
- ,
- ,
- .


[40].
(, ,
..) ,
: DNS, LES, RANS
URANS.

27

2.

2.1. (DNS)
(DNS)

. ,
,
.

DNS

.

.
:
1
3
4

k =

(2.1)

:
1
2

k = .

(2.2)

, . 2.1,
[38].

28

. 2.1.
DNS
.
Re
200
Mflop/s
1 Tflops/s

5103
68 .

5104
444 .

5105
610

5106

5108

13 .

88 .

122

, DNS

. , ,
DNS,
,
.
2.2. (LES)

,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
LES ,
,
,
, DNS.
, LES
, DNS.
LES . ,
LES RANS.
. LES
. ,
; , LES,
, DNS. C
29

,
, .
LES
RANS LESDES. DES RANS,
LES. , ,
, .. .

.
2.3.
(RANS)

,
.


:

( xi , t ) = ( xi ,t ) + ( xi t ) .

(2.3)

:
1t
( i ) = lim ( xi , t ) dt .
t t 0

(2.4)

. 2.1
.

30

. 2.1. : () ; ()

,
,

,
() [62].

:
u i
= 0;
xi

1 p
u i ui u j
ui uiu j
+
=

xi x j xi
t
x j
x j

(2.5)

+ gi ;

+ u j
=

+S,
D
u

t
x j x j
x j

(2.6)
(2.7)

uiu j - , u j .

; ,
().
,
.
.
31


(2.5) - (2.7)
. .

(2.5) - (2.7)
.

.
, ,

. ,
, 1969 . [62],
:

f
f =
.

(2.8)

u = ui + ui ;

(2.9)

= i + i .

(2.10)


:
ui
+
= 0;
t
xi

ui u j ui
u
p

i u j + gi ;
+
=

i + uk

t
x j
xi x j
x j

 u j

+
=
u j +  .

t
x j
x j
x j

32

(2.11)

(2.12)
(2.13)

(2.11) (2.13),
(turbulencechemistry interaction). (2.13)
 .

,
(1.14) - (1.19) ( 1),
:

  (T , Y ) ,

(2.14)

(T , Y ) .

(2.15)

, ,
, (PDF),

( ) P ( ) d ,

(2.16)

, ,
; P ( ) .

( ) P ( ) ,

(2.16).
.
[35],
,
. ,
- .

.
,
33

[35].
, ,

[6], [40], [63].
2.3.1.
,
,
. 1877 . [13]
,
.

ui u j
uiu j = t
+
x j xi

2
k i .
3

(2.17)

,
.
t .
, t

. t
,
. ,

.
,

t ut l ,

(2.18)

ut - ; l .
ut l .
34

.

, , ,
..

:

aij =

uiu j

2
ij .
3
k

(2.19)

,

:
aij =

2 t
k

u u j
i +
x j xi

(2.20)


, ,
, .
, , ,


xy ,
.


aij ,
Sij

ij ,
,
2.3.5.
2.3.2.

t , ,
35


.
t
1925 .
[62].

t = lm2

vx
,
x

(2.21)

lm - , .
,
lm = y ,

(2.22)

0.39 - ; y - .

:
[48], [11],
[27] ..

[62]
:
,
.
,
;
,
. ,

,
, .
,


. ,

.
36

2.3.3.


,
,
( )
ut l . ,
ut
k , k .

(2.18), :

t = C* k L ,

(2.23)

C -
.
,
k
k

+uj
=
t
x j x j

u j ui
t k
+
+
+ t
x
x

k
j

i x j

3
k2

u j
CD
, (2.24)

xi
L

C , CD , k - .
L
.
,
,
(, , [15]), (,
[39]) [62].


, ,
, , ,
.
,
.
37

, ,
, ..
.
2.3.4.

.
(1942) [33].
k
.
k -

k -
, [62]:

k
*
+

;
t
x



ui
2
= ij
+ ( +t ) ;
+ u j
t
xj
xj
xj
k xj
k
t = ;

u u j 2
kij .
ij = uiuj = t i
x j xi 3

k
k
u i

+ u j
= ij
*k +
t
x j
x j
x j

(2.25)
(2.26)
(2.27)
(2.28)

* = 9 /100; = 3 / 40; = 5 / 9; * = 1/ 2; = 1/ 2 .
k -


k - , (1945) [17]
38


(1972) [26].

t k

; (2.29)

k
j

ui
2 t
= c1 ij
c 2 + + ; (2.30)
+ u j
k xj
k xj xj
t
xj

k
k
u i

+ u j
= ij
+
t
x j
x j
x j

t = C

k2

ui u j

x j xi

ij = uiuj = t

(2.31)
2
kij .
3

(2.32)

:
c 1 = 1.44; c 2 = 1.92; C = 0.09; k = 1.0; = 1.3 .


k
, k
.
, (1993) [37],
k k
. k k
,
F1 , k
k .
,
k k ,
F1 (1 F1 ) . F1 ,

. ,
k ,
t .
(SST),
39

[15],

uiu j = 0.31k . , SST (shear stress


transport),
, [16].
:
k
k
u i

k
= ij
* k +
+
+ u j

(
)

; (2.33)
k t
t
x j
x j
x j
x j

ui


2
+ u j
= ij
+ ( +t ) +
t
xj
xj
xj
k xj
(2.34)
1 k
;
+ 2(1 F1)2
xj xj

t =

(2.35)

ui u j 2

ij = uiu j = t
(2.36)
+
k ij .
x j xi 3

1
k 1 2
k ,

= F11 + (1 F1 )2 .
.
1. k ():

* = 0.09; 1 = 0.075; k 1 = 0.5; 1 = 0.5;


= 0.41; 1 = 1 / * 1 2 / * .
2. k :

* = 0.09; 2 = 0.0828; k 2 = 1; 2 = 0.856;


= 0.41; 2 = 2 / * 2 2 / * .
40

(2.37)

k 500 4 2 k
;
arg1 = min max * ; 2 ;
2

y y CDk y

1 k
20
CDk = max 2 2
,10 ;

x
x

j
j

F1 = tanh(arg14 ) .

(2.38)
(2.39)
(2.40)

= a1k

(2.41)

a1 [15]. ,

:

= Ht ,

(2.42)

u
.
y

,
:

t =

a1k
.

(2.43)

,
,
,
SST- .
F2 :

41

t =

a1k
,
max ( a1w1F2 )

(2.44)

F2 (2.40).

F2 = tanh arg 22 ;

500
arg 2 = max 2 k / 0,09 y; 2 .
y

(2.45)
(2.46)

* = 0.09; 1 = 0.075; k 1 = 0.85; 1 = 0.5;


= 0.41; 1 = 1 / * 1 2 / * ; a1 = 0.31 .
.

,
. ,
, .
2.3.5.

,
,
.
[41],
[53].


aij . ,

1 u i u j
1 u i u j
Sij =
+

ij =
.
2 x j xi
2 x j xi
, ,
(CLS) [18].
42

t 2 1
t
t 2 1

S
II
I
c
S
S
c

+
(
)

II I +
s
2
3
k


3
3

k
k
2

+ c4 t2 S 2 S 2 + c5 t2 S 2 2 S IVI +
3


k
k
+ c6 t2 Sij S jk Ski + c7 t2 Sij jk ki .
(2.47)

a=

S + c1

0.36
c =
1 exp
. (2.48)
1.5

S
exp
0.75max
,
(
)
(
)
1 + 0.35 ( max ( S , ) )


0.3

:
c1 = 0.1, c2 = 0.1, c3 = 0.26, c4 = 10c2 , c5 = 0, c6 = 5c2 , c7 = 5c2 .


, (GL) [23],
.
:

a = c 1 S c 2 t

1
( S S ) + c 3 t S 2 II s I ,(2.49)
3

c =

31 1 + 2

3 + 2 + 6 2 1 + 2

2 = ( 2 ) / 2, 2 = ( 3 S ) / 8 .
2

43

(2.50)
(2.51)

1 = 2 / 21, 2 = 1/ 7, 3 = 2 / 7 .
,
, ,
,
. , CLS
7 , .

.
.

(EARSM)


,

,
.


uiuj

uk uiu j

u i
u i
= uiuk
u j uk

t
x
x
x
k

k
k
N 



I
+

II

III

uiu j p ui u j
1

+
p u j jk + p u j ik
ui u j uk +
+

xk
xk x j xi



IV

u u j
2 i
.
xk xki



(2.52)

VI

; ; 44

; -
; - ; .

:
k Daij uiu j ul uiu j kul uiu j P

=
1+
t xl
k x
k

Pij

ij

ij

(2.53)

+ Cij ,


; - ;
-
u i
u i
, P = Pij / 2 ); u 'j uk'
( Pij = ui' uk'
xk
xk
; - ;
.
,
,
.
.
ARSM.

k Daij uiuj ul uiuj kul
(2.54)

= 0.
t xl
k x
, ARSM t
, ,
uiu j ,
.
ARSM ,
.


45

uiu j P Pij ij ij

+
+ Cij .
1 =
k

(2.55)

Pij , P = Pij / 2 Cij


,
.
ij ij
.
.
,
:
7C2 + 1
P
8

1
+
a
=

S
+
aik kj ik akj
1

ij
ij
15
11

5 9C2
2

a
S
S
a
ij aik Ski ,
+

ik kj
ik kj
11
3

(2.56)

P
2

A3 + A4 aij = A1Sij + aik kj ik akj A2 aik Skj + Sik akj ij aik Ski .

11( C1 1)
5 9C2
88
11
, A2 =
, A3 =
, A4 =
11( 7C2 + 1)
7C2 + 1
7C2 + 1
7C2 + 1
.

. 2.2.
. 2.2.
EARSM

A1 =

WJ, [60]
LRR, [34]
SSG, [53]
GS, [23]

A1
1.20
1.54
1.22
1.22

A2
0
0.37
0.47
0.47
46

A3
1.80
1.45
0.88
5.36

A4
2.25
2.89
2.37
1.68



,


. aij Sij ij
,

.

[52], [60], [65]. [60]
:
1
1

a = 1S + 2 S 2 II s I + 3 2 II I + 4 ( S S ) +
3
3

+ 5 S 2 S 2 + 6 S 2 2 S IVI +
3

(2.57)
2

+ 7 S 2 2 + 2 S 2 VI + 8 S S 2 S 2S 2 +
3

+ 9 S 2 2 S + 10 S 2 2 2 S 2 .

u i u j

, ij =
2 x j xi

k
=

u i

u j
+
Sij =
2 x j xi

: a = aij , S = Sij , = ij .
i -
S :
II s = S 2 = Sij Sij , II = 2 = ij ji ,
III = S 3 = Sij S jk Ski , IV = S 2 = Sij jk ki ,
V = S 2 2 = Sij S jk kj jk .

47

(2.58)

(2.56) (2.57)
i
.

.
2.3.6.


(2.52)
(2.56).

.


uiuj
t

+ Cij = Pij Dij + ij ij .

(2.59)

Cij ; Pij -
; Dij - ; ij -
; ij - .
.
,
, .
.
Dij ,
, (DH) [19]:
uiuj
k
uiu j uk = Cs uk ul
,

xl

Cs 0.22.

48

(2.60)


:
.

:

ij( s )

= C1aij ,

(2.61)

C1 - .

,
. (, , (LRR)) [34]:

ij( r )

9C + 6
4
2

Sij + 2
aik Skj + Sik akj akm Skm ij +
5
11
3

7C 10
aik *kj *ik akj ,
+ 2
11
=

(2.62)

C2 - . LRR
: C1 = 1.5 C2 = 0.582 [34].

, , k .


, ,
,
,
[64] (. .2),
, .
2.3.7.

1,
,

.
49



:
u j =

t
.
x j

(2.63)

,
, (DH) [19]:
ui = Ct1 t uiu j

.
x j

(2.64)

, (KM) [31],
:
uiuk uk u j
ui = Ct1 t

x j

(2.65)

, , , (AS) [9],
:

uiu j
uiuk uk u j
ui = k t Ct1
+ Ct 2

k
k2

x j

(2.66)

:
Ct1 = 0.22, Ct 2 = 0.22 .


,
:

50

( ui ) + u j ( ui ) = Pi + i i + Di .
t
x j

(2.67)


[25].
, EARSM,
, ,
, (WWJ) [61]:

ui = 1 c 4 Bij

uj uk

,
xk

(2.68)

2
2 1
G Q1 I G ( cs S + c ) + ( cs S + c )
2
;

B=
1
3 1
G GQ1 + Q2
2
2
cs = 1 c 2 c 3 , c = 1 c 2 + c 3 ;

1
1 P
G = 2c1 1 ;
2
r

2
2
2
II , Q2 = cs3 III s + 2cs c
IV .
: Q1 = cs2 II s + c
3
:
c1 = 4.51, c 2 = 0.47, c 3 = 0.02, c 4 = 0.08 .

2.3.8.


, :
St =

p
k

51

(2.69)

p - ,
, k -
.

.
.
,
..
. ,
.
p
Re p ,
Re p =

W dp

(2.70)

W - ; d p .

. : ,
.
:
CV =
Cm =

V p
V
m p
m

(2.71)

(2.72)

p ;
.
.

( 1.2)

52

(2.5-2.7).

,
. ,
.
, .
,
( ).
,
.

( )
,
( ) [49],
, .


.

JJG
d xp

dt

mp

JJG
du p

dt

G
= up.

(2.73)

JG
JG
JG
JG
JG
JG
= F A + F g + F vm + F Sa + F M + F P + ... , (2.74)

JG
JG
F A - ; F g -
JG
JG
F vm -
; F Sa - ;
;
JG
JG
F M - ; F P - .
,
, .

53


Ip

JJJG
d p

dt

G
= Ti ,

(2.75)

G
I p - ; Ti - ,
.
,
(2.74).

,

.
:

G
f
3
FA = m p
Cd Re p U rel .
4
p d 2p

(2.76)


Cd
.
Re p << 1
.
Cd = 24
Re p
Re p < 1000 ,
(1933):
Cd =

24
.
1.0 + 0.15Re0.687
p
Re p

(2.77)


G
G
Fg = m p g .

(2.78)


, .
54

p :
G
d
Fvm = m p Cvm
u f up .
dt

(2.79)

Cvm
.
Cvm 0.5 .

.
. [44]

G
u
FAS = 1.615d 2p U rel
y

0.5

(2.80)

.

G
U
G
G
G

rel
FM = f d 2p cMa G
U rel rel ,
8
rel

(2.81)

G
G
rel , U rel -
.

G
G
G
f Du f
f Du f G
FP = m p
g.
mp
p Dt
p Dt

(2.82)

,
. (2.5) (2.7),
(2.73) (2.75),
,
55

.
.
2.3.9.

1.3,

(mixture fraction).

:

 ui

D
u
+
=

j .
t
xi
xi
xi

(2.83)

,
2.3.7. ,
,

Tk = Tk 
Yk = Yk 

( )

( )

.
2.3.
Yk PDF
1

Yk = Yk ( )P ( ) d .

(2.84)

PDF P ( ) - .
, 
2 .

56

(2.13),

2
2 u j

2

k2
k
+
=
u j 2 u j

t
x j
x j
x j

x
j


Sc x j x j

(2.85)

(2.85) ,
(2.83).
k
u 2
uk
j


.
x j x j


, ,
( 2.3.7.).

t 
k
uj =
.
xi

(2.86)

:
2
k2 t 
uj =
.
xi

(2.87)

[35]:
2

= 2 2 .
Sc x j x j
k

(2.88)

[35], [47], [59].


-
,
. FASTEST-3D
: BML Gequation. BML

,
57

(progress variable),
,
. Gequation
.
[6], [40], [63].
.

BML [35]:

t k
+

x
(2.89)
k
j

k
p
uic

,
u
xi

k u
k k

+
( ui k ) = uiu j i +
t
xi
x j
x j

ui
k
2 t

+ ( ui ) = c1 ui u j
c 2 + +
k
k xj xj
t xi
xj

k p
c 3 uic .
k
xj

(2.90)

(2.88) (2.89)
BML . c 3
1.44 .
(BML),
.
[35], [47], [59].
2.3.10.


.
Ret
,
.
58


,
:
, ,
.

. 2.2.

:
1) ,

u y
u
: u + = y + , u + = , y + = ,

u
u = w - ,
2) ,
.

u + = 5 ln y + + 3.05 . ,
59

.
0 y + 11.63 (. 2.2),
3) y + 11.63
,
:

( )

1
u + = ln Ey + + B ,

(2.91)

0.41- ; - ,
( E = 8.8 ); B 5.0 .

, 20%
80%
.
,
,
.

(
),
.
,

,
.

[45].

(, [29])
:
1) y + 11:

t + = Pr y + ,

(2.92)

- ; t - ; + ,
60

2) 0 y + 11.63 :

t ,

(2.93)

3) y + 11.63 :

t + =

k
ln y + + D .
kt

(2.94)

+
:

+ = Prt U + + f ,

(2.95)

f
[29]

f = 12.5Pr 2 / 3 + 2.12ln Pr + 1.5 .

(2.96)

eff =

y+
T+

(2.97)

,
.
.

,
, ,
. ,
, k
(2.29), (2.30)

61

Ret , ,
s ,
. ,
2 / k (2.30)
.
= 0 +  ,  ,
; 0 -
( - )
.
(Low- Re)
.
k [16]
k
k
u i

+ u j
= ij
+
t
x j
x j
x j

t
+
k

k
;



 u i
 2
+ u j
= c 1 f1 ij
c 2 f 2
+E+
t
x j
k x j
k

t

+
+
x j

k
= 0 +  , 0 = 2 2 ;
y
+

E = 2 2 e y / 2 ;
y


;

x
j

; f1 = 1; f 2 = 1 0.22e
f = 1 e
.
:

(2.101)
(2.102)

(Ret / 6) 2

c 1 = 1.35; c 2 = 1.80; c = 0.09; k = 1.0; = 1.3 .

62

(2.99)

(2.100)

k2
t = c f .

0.0115 y +

(2.98)

, k ,

.

WJ CLS.

( & ) [60]

aijex = 1 f12

) max(3BII2 , II4 eq ) 2 S 2 13 II s I + f12 3 2 13 II I +


s

B2
2
+ f1 4 1 f1
( S S ) +
eq
2
max(
,
)
II
II

s
s

+ f1 6 S 2 2 S IVI + f12 9 S 2 2 S .
3

(2.103)


y+
f1 = 1 exp +
A

(2.104)

A+ = 26 .
- (2.86).
II s ,
- II seq
:
II seq

405c12
=
5.74 ,
216c1 160

c1 = 1.8 .

63

(2.105)


(Craft, Launder & Suga) [18]:

t 2 1
t

S
II
I
c

+
( S S ) +

2
s
k


k
1

+ c3 t 2 II I + c4 t2 S 2 S 2 +

3

k
2

+ c5 t2 S 2 2 S IVI +
3


k
k
+ c6 t2 Sij S jk Ski + c7 t2 Sij jk ki ;

a=

S + c1

(2.106)

k2
;
(2.107)
t = c f


0.36
0.3
c =
1 exp
. (2.108)
1.5
S
exp
0.75max
,

(
)
(
)
1 + 0.35 ( max ( S , ) )


f = 1 exp ( Ret / 90 )

1/ 2

2
( Ret / 400 ) .

(2.109)


Ret = k 2 / .

(2.110)

:
c1 = 0.1, c2 = 0.1, c3 = 0.26, c4 = 10c2 , c5 = 0, c6 = 5c2 , c7 = 5c2 .


. ,
- (LB) [8]
f T = (1 e0.255 Ret ) 2 (1 +
64

41
).
Ret

(2.111)

,
;
,
,
[64] (. .2).
;
, , ,
.

65

3.
, ,
,
.
. :
, , ,
. FASTEST3D (Flow Analysis
Solving Transport Equations Simulating Turbulence 3 Dimensional)
[20]:
- ,
;
- ;
- ;
-
;
- (Strongly Implicit Procedure)
;
- ,
(domain decomposition).
3.1.


ui

+

= S ,
t
xi
xi
xi
IV
I

II

III

66

(3.1)

; - ;
- ; .

.

, ,
:

dV

u
dV

(
)
t
xi i
xi xi dV = S dV , (3.2)
V
V
V
V

- (, ); -
(/ ,
. .); S - ,
,
( , ..).
,
:

divdV = ndF = S dV .

(3.3)

dV

(
)
ni d = S dV ,

t
i

x
i
V

(3.4)

, V ni ,
n
.
.
FASTEST-3D
(. 3.1).

67

. 3.1.

.
.
(3.4)
.
, .
3.2.



. .
3.2
.
.
(1, 2 , 3 ) ,
( x1 , x2 , x3 ) . [21]
.

68

. 3.2.
[21]

x1

1
x
T = 2
1
x3

x1
2
x2
2
x3
2

x1

3
x2
.
3
x3

(3.5)



j
.
=
xi j xi

(3.6)

T 1 (
) :

69

x1
1 2
T =
x1
3

x1

2
x2
3
x2

T=
J = det T -
T .
,

x3
2
,
x3
3

x3

1
x2

(3.7)

1
(Tad )T ,
J

(3.8)

(Tad )T - ,

1 x
= adj i
xi J i

1
= ij
J

(3.9)

,
= ij
xi J
j

(3.10)

ij - ,
x2 x3 x2 x3

2 3 3 2
x x x x
= 2 3 2 3
3 1 1 3
x2 x3 x2 x3

1 2 2 1

x1 x3 x1 x3

3 2 2 3
x1 x3 x1 x3

1 3 3 1
x1 x3 x1 x3

2 1 1 2
70

x1 x2 x1 x2

2 3 3 2
x1 x2 x1 x2

.
3 1 1 3
x1 x2 x1 x1

1 2 2 2
(3.11)

,
(3.10) (3.2),

dV
u
n
d

(
)
t
i i
J k ik ni d = S dV .
V
V

(3.12)


(3.12), [21]

j j
l
dV
u
F
b
u
b

= S dV ,
i
n
i
l
k
b
k
t
V
x

i
V
V

(3.13)

Fnbj -
; bkj - .
, j = 1 East ( E)
West ( W); j = 2 North ( N)
South ( S); j = 3 Top ( T)
Bottom ( B) (. 3.3).

. 3.3.

71

3.3.


East, . 3.4.
.
P E; ,
, te, ne, se be.

. 3.4. East

East [21]:
Fe1{bk1

( ) ( ) ( )

i bki = b1'1
v
v

+ b21

2
+ b31 1 +

(3.14)
2
1 1 1 2 1
1 3 1 3 1 3
b1 b1 + b2b2 + b3b3 3 ,
b1 b2 + b2b2 + b3b 3 2 +
+

i
:
72

1 = E P ,
2 = ne se ,
3 = te be .

(3.15)


, ,
E P ,
(3.14). ne , se , te , be
P, E, N, S, T, B, ne, se,
te, be.
3.4.


East
Fe1{bk1

( u )} =

e b11u1 + b21u2

+ b31u3

)e e = m e e ,
i

(3.16)

me East ,

me = b11u1 + b21u2 + b31u3 .

(3.17)

me + mn + mt m w m s mb = 0 .

(3.18)

FASTEST-3D
; ,

.

73

3.5.

( ) (3.1)
.

VP

dV ( ) P VP .
t
t

(3.19)


.
, :

( P V )n ( P V )n1 =
t

n 1 n 1
Nb + S Pn 1 APn 1 nP1 . (3.20)
ANb
Nb

t , n n 1
.
(3.20) AP ,
S p .
:

( P V )n ( P V )n1 =
t

n 1 n 1
f APn 1 nP1 + ANb
Nb + Sn 1 +

Nb

n 1 n 1
n 1 n 1
n 1
+ (1 f ) AP P + ANb Nb + S .(3.21)

Nb

f = 0 ,
; f = 0.5
,
. ,
, . f ,
74

3.6.

3.3-3.5
(3.1).
,
,
.
(,
-

..)

(.3.5).

. 3.5. ,


, ,

75

=
dV

V
bk
VP

P
xi
x
J

i P
i
VP

1
1
1
bi j j VP = bi j j ,
J j k l
J

(3.22)

j k l = VP .
,
xi
Sup = ( pe pw ) bi1 ( pn ps ) bi2 ( pt pb ) bi3 .
i

(3.23)

gi :
Sug = gi V .
i

(3.24)

(3.22)
Suki Sudi :
Si = Sup + Sug + Sudi + Suki .
i

(3.25)


, :
Si = Sug + Sudi + Suki .
i

(3.26)

3.7.


. . 3.6
.

76

. 3.6.
(Upwind Difference
Scheme (UDS)) East
P E (.
3.7):
f ,m > 0
.
f eUDS = P e
,
0
<
f
m
E e

(3.27)

. 3.7. West East



.
(Central Difference Scheme (CDS)),
77

(P E) (. 3.7)
:
feCDS = f E e + f P (1 e ) ,

(3.28)

e =

e P
.
E P

(3.29)

,
, ,
.

(UDS/CDS), FASTEST-3D :
fe =

feUDS

+ feCDS feUDS ,

(3.30)

- .
= 0 UDS , = 1
UDS
. 0 1,
. , UDS
CDS UDS
.
3.8.


.
:
Ap p ANb Nb =
Nb

SP

78

(3.31)

Ap - p P ; ANb .
(3.31)
:
Ap p

ANb(1) Nb(1)

Nb (1)

ANb(2) Nb(2) = S P ,

(3.32)

Nb (2)

Nb(1)=E, W, N, S, T, B Nb(2)=EN, WN, ES, WS, NT, NB, ST, SB,


ET, EB, WT, WB, ENT, ENB, WNT, WNB, EST, ESB, WST, WSB (.
3.3).
,
Ap p

ANb(1) Nb (1) = S P ( Nb ( 2 ) ) .

(3.33)

Nb (1)

n + 1
n +1
Ap np+1

+1
n
ANb(1) nNb
(1) = S P ( Nb ( 2 ) ) .

(3.34)

Nb (1)


, .
3.9.

,

. -
.
FASTEST-3D SIMPLE,
, ,
,
.
79

[20]
[21]. m

m 1 . (3.34)
ui
u
Aup uim, P ANb
uim, Nb = QPm 1 ( i p m 1 ) p .
m 1

m 1

(3.35)

Nb

S p
( i p m 1 ) p QPm 1 .
p* = p m 1 u* (3.35) ui*, P

ui*, P =

1
u m 1 *
A
ui , Nb + QPm 1 i p*
m 1
Nb
APu Nb

.
P

(3.36)

ui*

,
. ,

m*p = Fe* Fw* + Fn* Fs* + Ft* Fb* ,

(3.37)


ui*
Fe* = eui*,ebi1,e .

(3.38)



. , ( ui*,e ,
ui*,n , ..) .
80

ui** p** ,
.

:
ui** = ui* + uicor , pi** = pi* + picor .

(3.39)

ui** p**
, :

ui**, P =

1
u m 1 *
A
ui , Nb + QPm 1 i p**
m 1
Nb
APu Nb

.
P

(3.40)

(3.36) (3.40)
:

cor
uicor
,P = i p

)P .

(3.41)

)e

(3.42)

1
Fecor = euicor
,e bi ,e

(3.43)

cor
uicor
.
,e = i p

m*p = Fecor Fwcor + Fncor Fscor + Ftcor Fbcor ,

m*P ,

(3.44)

ui* .
(3.42) (3.43) , (3.44),

81

Ap p cor
p ANb p
Nb

cor

= m*p ,

(3.45)

Nb

,
(Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP)).
, , FASTEST-3D
:
(3.36)

m 1 ui* .
, u*
p* = p m 1

m*P (3.37).
m*P
(3.45),
p cor .
:
p** = p* + p p cor , 0 < p 1,

(3.46)

P - ,

p** = p m
.

m + 1.
p cor
ui* ui** ,
Fi**
,e .., .

3.10.

(3.31)

82

A = S ,

(3.47)

A - ,
(3.31) CV;
- ,
; S - , ,
(3.31).
(3.47)
. A

( FASTEST-3D ).
, , ,
,
,
,
.

.

. n
(3.37) n ,
. r n
( (3.31))

A n = S r n .

(3.48)


.
:
M n +1 = N n + B .

(3.49)

M n , (3.49)

M n +1 n = B ( M N ) n

83

(3.50)

M n = rn .

(3.51)

n = n +1 n ,
. N n
, (3.49) .
(3.49) M
A.
(SIP),
[55]
[21],
FASTEST-3D. M LU
ILU:

M = LU = A + N .

(3.52)

ILU LU,
A
L
U . , L U
A (W, E, S, N, B, T,
P), LU
(SE, NW ..). [55] ,
, N
, LU.
N ,
N 0 M
A. ,
(SE, NW, etc.) N
(W, E, S, N, B, T, P).

. [55]

, A.
A,
N. M, A N,
. L U A N.

84

, L U .
(3.51)
LU n = r n

(3.53)

U n = L1r n = R n .

(3.54)

LU, R n
(3.54)
.
n

,
:
n +1 = n + n .

(3.55)

,
r n
.

.
.

,
(3.31) , ,

(3.31)

( SIP).

, , ,
.
:

m = m 1 + new m 1 ,
85

(3.56)

m m 1 - m m (m-1)
; new - (3.31)

0 < 1 .

, , .


.

86

4. FASTEST-3D
FASTEST-3D
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
(, ..)
.

.
,
,

.
FASTEST-3D Fortran C
[20]:
- ();
- ;
- - ;
- ,
;
-
;
-
;
- ,
MPI
(Message Passing Interface).
,
. ,
87

,
.
4.1. FASTEST-3D
, FASTEST-3D
Linux
fastest3d.tgz.
: CD
( cp
/media/ /fastest3d.tgz fastest3d.tgz);
( tar xvfz fastest3d.tgz).
. 4.1 FASTEST-3D.
:
1. ( 4.2).
2. ( 4.2).
3. ,
( 4.3).
4. ( 4.4).
5. ( 4.5).

88

. 4.1. FASTEST-3D.
4.2. FASTEST-3D
ICEM CFD.
:
, ,
.
grid01.grd grid01.tbc
fastest3d/project/grid ,
test.grd test.tbc. *.grd
, *.tbc (
, ..).
*.tbc,
:
INL- , OUT- , SOL- , MIR , CON- ;
INL- , OUT- , SOL- ,
, FLX- ,
, HTC- ,
89

, MIR ;
SOL- ,
, FLX- ,

.

,
fastests3d/project/map/test.md.
test.md.
( (1)):
### number of processors
1
;number of processors
(
):
### processor info
1110
;proc. in i, j, k dir., new processor (block 1)
1110
;proc. in i, j, k dir., new processor (block 2)
1110
;proc. in i, j, k dir., new processor (block 3)
( (1) ):
### number of flow regions
1
( ):
### flow region description
1
;flow region for block #1
1
;flow region for block #2
1
;flow region for block #3
( (0)):
### number of rotating regions
0
90

():
### rotating region description
0
;block #1
0
;block #2
0
;block #3
,
():
### volume check
1
;1 = on, 0 = off
( (1),
(2,2,2):
### monitoring point
1222
;block, i, j, k
( (0)):
### turbulence statistics
0
;input number for turbulence statistics (memory allocation)
; 0 = no memory for turbulence statistics is allocated
; 1 = memory for mean values and reynolds stresses is
allocated
; 2 = additional memory for skewness and flatness
,
( (0)):
### number of chemical species
0
(
(0)):
### number of chemical reactions
0
91

(
(0)):
### number of comb. prog. variables
0
(
(isotherm), (turbulent), (earsm),
(steady),
(prem) ( ),
(radiation) ( )):
### allocation
isotherm turbulent earsm steady ;keywords are:
; isotherm or temperature
; steady or unsteady
; laminar or turbulent
; if turbulent____ keps
;
|
;
|_ earsm
;
|
;
|_ restr
;
|
;
|_ les
;
; prem or nothing
; prem is for single reactive scalar
; for Bray-Moss-Libby model
; (premixed combustion)
;
;When "temperature" is given, memory
; for arrays concerning temperature
;calculations and temperature topology
;will created.
;
; radiation or nothing
;(Gas radiation model.Only with
; temperature possible, otherwise
92

; memory for radiation is not allocated)


;
;If no entry point is given, memory will
;be allocated for isotherm, turbulent and
;unsteady calculation.

map3d map fastest3d/project.
4.3. ,

,
( ):
fastest3d/project/id/test.id.
.
( (channel)):
### title
channel (created by Alex Yun)

( (0), (1):
### read restart
0

( (10) ,
ASCI (0), (10) ):
### write output
10 0 10
;restart ascii visual (0 = no output)
(tecplot6):
### file formats for visual output
tecplot6
;[cfview37|cfview37time]
;[tecplot6|tecplot6temp]
93

;[explorer]
(not supported ???)
;[plot3d|plot3dtemp]
( (vel),
(pres), (tke), (edis)):
### visual output variables
vel pres tke edis
;[vel][pres][tke][edis][temp][conc]
;[den][vis][vism][hcap][hcon][hconm][diff][td]
;[vort][avg][tau][yplus][dist][mix][mixdiff]
;[tauxx][tauyy][tauzz][tauxy][tauyz][tauxz]
;[mixvar][drhodt][srs][usrs][vsrs][wsrs]

( (t), (f), 0.6):
### compressible
f 0.6
;[t/f] [density realxation]
( (vel),
(turb)):
### lcalc
vel turb

;[vel][turb|rsm|visles][temp][conc][time][mix]
;[mixvar][tab][srs][scfl][raf][sp1][sp3]
;turb: use a two-equation turbulence model
;rsm: use a reynolds stress turbulence model
;visles: perform a Large Eddy Simulation
;mix: perform combustion progress variables
;mixvar: perform combustion progress variables
;
variances equation
;tab: perform laminar/flamelet/ildm chemistry
;srs: solve sing.react.scal. transp.eq.(BML model)
;scfl: solve scal.flux transp.equ. (+BML model)
;raf: solve rad.flux equation
;sp1/sp3 different approximations for the
heat flux equation

94

( k - (keps74):
### turbulence model
keps74
;according to the above choice of [turb|rsm|visles]
;[keps74|kl93|rng92|chien82] for k-eps type models
;[awj|alrr|assg|ncls|ngl] for nlinear & EARS models
;[lrr|jm|ssg|hp|ipgl|ipgy] for reynolds stress models
;[smag|germ] for Large Eddy Simulations
(Daly & Harlow (dh)):
### scalar flux model
dh
; [hp|ls|jm|dh|km|as|wwj]
( (notab)):
### combustion models
notab ;[notab|equil1D|equil2D|flamlet|ildm|ildmv|eqrad]
;nothing / equilibrium 1D / equilibrium 2D / flamelet
chemistry/
;ildm: only rpv transport equations /
;ildm: also rpv variances transport equations
;eqrad:equilibrium 2D with radiation
( (0,0,0)):
### gravity
0. 0. 0.
( (10e-3)):
### geometric scale
1.e-3 1.e-3 1.e-3
( (t)):
### check for negativ volumes
t
95

( (1.e-3),
(1.e+10)):
### residuum limits
1.e-3 1.e+10
(-
(cds)):
### interpolation method
cds
;[cds|tbi]
:
### underrelaxation
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.9 ;u v w p k eps vis den t c mix restr mixvar srs scfl ildm ildmv rf cst
vofr
, ,
( (fofi), (10000) , (1.e-3):
### time discretization
fofi
;discretization method [fofi|sofi|crni|ruk3|ruk5]
10000 1.e-3
;no of timesteps,size of timestep
( (none)):
### bouyancy by temperature gradient
none
;[none|boussinesq|dengrad]
( (0)):
### prog. variables for combustion
0
;no of progress variables: mix. frac, mass. fracts

96

(
(0,0,0):
### pressure gradient
0. 0. 0.
;pressure gradient in x,y,z direction
4.4. ,
:
fastest3d/project/funcbcs.f, fastest3d/project/funcprp.f.
.
funcbcs.f.
:
function fu(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function fv(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function fw(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
:
fu=1.36d0
fv=0.0d0
fw=0.0d0
:
function fte(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
fte=0.3d0
:
function frscxx(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function frscyy(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function frsczz(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function frscxy(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function frscyz(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function frsczx(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
97

:
frscxx=0.04d0
frscyy=0.04d0
frsczz=0.04d0
frscxy=0.d0
frscyz=0.d0
frsczx=0.d0
:
function fed(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
rlength=0.127d0
fed=sqrt(fte(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)**3)/rlength

function ft(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
:
ft=293.15d0
:
function fuw(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function fvw(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function fww(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
:
fuw=0.d0
fvw=0.d0
fww=0.d0

function ftw(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
98

:
ftw=293.15d0

function fqw(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
fqw=0.d0
:
function fmixt(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
:
if (y.gt.0.5) then
fmixt=0.0
else
fmixt=1.0
endif

function fmixtvar(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,imphi,totime)
:
if(imphi.eq.1) then
c---- mixture fraction variance
fmixtvar=0.0d0
elseif(imphi.eq.2) then
c---- reaction progress variable 1 variance (ildm)
fmixtvar=0.0d0
elseif(imphi.eq.3) then
c---- reaction progress variable 2 variance (ildm)
fmixtvar=0.0d0
endif
99



function fsrs(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function fsrscorx(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function fsrscory(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
function fsrscorz(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa,totime)
:
fsrs=0.d0
fsrscorx=0.d0
fsrscory=0.d0
fsrscorz=0.d0
funcprp.f :
function fden(press,tmpr,iflr,sumcm)
c---- Air
fden=0.96737341d0-0.00028655237d0*tmpr-1463.8211d0/tmpr+
46843.588d0/t**1.5-347974.74d0/tmpr**2
function fvis(tmpr,iflr)
c---- Air
fvis=-9.2014393d-6+4.4397544d-9*tmpr-1.4046401d14*tmpr**2.5+
3.2787496d-16*tmpr**3+1.5276332d-6*sqrt(tmpr)

c---- Luft R=287.1 J/(Kg K)
if (nfr.eq.1) rgas=287.1d0

100

function flam(tmpr,iflr)
c---- Air
flam=0.042491107d0+1.4835066d-6*tmpr**1.5-8.5222871d-12*
tmpr**3-0.41142788d0/sqrt(tmpr)
function fcp(tmpr,iflr)
c---- Air
fcp=-0.014860411d0+8.3859987d-10*tmpr**2.51.7304405d-11*tmpr**3+0.002323523d0*sqrt(tmpr)
function fbeta(tmpr,iflr)
c---- Air
fbeta=3.421d-3
function frks(x,y,z,iflr,igb,ifa)
c---- Alle Waende sind glatt:
frks = 0.d0
c
c---- Alle Waende haben die gleiche Rauhigkeit:
c frks = 0.001d0
function fmixdiff(t,iflr,imphi)
if (imphi.eq.1) fmixdiff=0.0003d0
if (imphi.eq.2) fmixdiff=0.0003d0
function fschmidtt()
fschmidtt=0.9d0
( ) function frhoun(f)
frhoun=1.0d0

101

( ) function ftun(f)
ftun=300.0d0
( ) function
fulamburn(n,f)
fulamburn=0.5d0
(T_burn - T_unburn) /
T_unburn ( ) function fexprat(n,f)
fexprat=6.0d0
fastest3d.
4.5.

CFView Tecplot.
.
, Linux
GNUplot.
Linux .

:
- subroutine usrini;
- (
) subroutine usrtim;
- (
) subroutine util.
subroutine util:
c === channel flow ===
c === Re=12300 ===
integer npoint
parameter (npoint=30)
integer icell,ipoint
102

real*8 minabstand,abstand
real*8 xst,xend,yst,yend,zst,zend,ddl
real*8 xline(1:npoint),yline(1:npoint),zline(1:npoint)
real*8 ypoint,upoint,vpoint,wpoint
c --------- Profile at x/h=95 --------------c start and end coordinates
xst=12.0d0
xend=12.0d0
ddl=(xend-xst)/dfloat(npoint-1)
xline(1)=xst
do ipoint=2 , npoint
xline(ipoint)=xline(ipoint-1)+ddl
enddo
yst= 0.0d0
yend=0.127d0
ddl=(yend-yst)/dfloat(npoint-1)
yline(1)=yst
do ipoint=2 , npoint
yline(ipoint)=yline(ipoint-1)+ddl
enddo
zst=0.025d0
zend=0.025d0
ddl=(zend-zst)/dfloat(npoint-1)
zline(1)=zst
do ipoint=2 ,npoint
zline(ipoint)=zline(ipoint-1)+ddl
enddo
open(1,file='res/channel.dat')
write(1,*)'#Profile at axial position x=12m'
write(1,*)'#h, u, uu, uv, vv, ww, te ed'
do ipoint = 1 , npoint
minabstand=1d+0
c looking for the nearest point
do icell=1,nxyza
c check the distance
abstand=sqrt((xc(icell)-xline(ipoint))**2+
&
(yc(icell)-yline(ipoint))**2+
103

&
(zc(icell)-zline(ipoint))**2)
c update min. distance if necessary
if (abstand.lt.minabstand
&
) then
minabstand=abstand
c --- y
ypoint=yc(icell)
c --- u
upoint=u(icell)
endif
enddo
write(1,'(10(e14.7,1x))')
&
ypoint , upoint
enddo
close(1)
4.6.

.

,
,
Fastest-3D.
FASTEST-3D
4.3-4.5.
,
; ,
(. 4.2).

. 4.2.

104

100h , h - .

. Re = 13700 .
CV = 6000 .
[31].
exp_channel.dat.
. 4.3
, WJ ,
. AMD Athlon 2000+
2 . 20 .

. 4.3.
, WJ

.

105


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
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11.
12.
13.
14.

15.

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. . . .: ,
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- . .
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110


. .1.
.
.
-

.

.

u i
=0
xi
-

1 p
u i ui u j
ui
+
=

+ gi

ij

t
x j
xi x j x j


+uj
=
u j + S
D

t
x j x j x j


JJG ( )
.
d xp G
=up
dt
JJG
.
JG
JG
JG
JG
JG
du p JG
= F A + F g + F vm + F Sa + F M + F P + ...
mp
dt
JJJG
.
G
d p
Ip
= Ti
dt

ui
+
=0

t
xi

ui u j ui
ui
p

k
+
=

+ uiu j + gi

t
x j
xi x j
x j

 u j

D
u
+
=

+ 

t
x j
x j
x j


.
t k
k
k
u i

+ u j
= ij
+
+

t
x j
x j
x j
k x j
111

. .1.

.
.

ui
2 t
= c1 ij
c 2 + +
+ u j
k xj
k xj xj
t
xj

.
.

k
k
u i

k
*
+ u j
= ij
*k +
+

t
t
x j
x j
x j
x j

ui



2
+ u j
= ij
+ ( +t )
k xj
t
xj
xj
xj
k
k
u i

k
*
+ u j
= ij
k +
( + k t )

t
x j
x j
x j
x j

SST



ui
+ u j
= ij
2 + ( +t ) +
t
xj
xj
xj
k x j

+2(1 F1)2

.
RST

CLS

1 k
xj xj

a = t S + c1 t S 2 II s I + c2 t ( S S ) +
3


k
1

+c3 t 2 II I + c4 t2 S 2 S 2 +
3

k
k
2

+c5 t2 S 2 2 S IVI + c6 t2 Sij S jk Ski +


3

k
+c7 t2 Sij jk ki

.
RST


a = c 1 S c 2 t

GL

+c 3 t S 2 II s I
3

112

( S S ) +

. .1.
EARSM
1
1

a = 1S + 2 S 2 II s I + 3 2 II I +
3
3

. WJ,
RST
LRR,
SSG,
GS
-

.
RST

RST

+ 4 ( S S ) + 5 S 2 S 2 +
2
2

+ 6 S 2 2 S IVI + 7 S 2 2 + 2 S 2 VI +
3
3

+ 8 S S 2 S 2S 2 + 9 S 2 2 S +

+ 10 S 2 2 2 S 2

+
A
A
3
a = A1Sij + aik kj ik akj
4
ij

A2 aik Skj + Sik akj ij aik Ski


3


uiu j uk uiu j
u i
u i
+
= uiuk
u j uk
t
xk
xk
xk

xk
+

uiu j
1
pui jk + pu j ik
uiu j uk +
+
x

p ui u j
+

x j xi

u u j

xk xk

k
k
u i

+ u j
= ij
+
t
x j
x j
x j

t
+
k



 u i
 2
+ u j
= c 1 f1 ij
c 2 f 2
+E+
t
x j
k x j
k

+
x j

t
+

113

. .1.

.
RST

CLS


f t
c1 f t 2 1
c2 f t

a=
S+
S
II
I
( S S ) +

s +
k


k
1

+c3 f t 2 II I + c4 f t2 S 2 S 2 +

3

k
k
2

+c5 f t2 S 2 2 S IVI + c6 f t2 Sij S jk Ski +


3

k
+c7 f t2 Sij jk ki

EARSM
3B2 4
2

aijex = 1 f1

.
RST
WJ

) max( II , II eq )
s

1
3

2 S 2 II s I +

+ f12 3 2 II I +
3

B2
+ f12 4 1 f12
( S S ) +
eq
2max( II s , II s )

+ f1 6 S 2 2 S IVI + f12 9 S 2 2 S
3

A3 + A4 aij = A1Sij + aik kj ik akj

.
RST

A2 aik Skj + Sik akj ij aik Ski


3




u j = t
x j

GGDH

DH

ui = Ct1 t uiu j

114

x j

. .1.

KM

AS

uiuk uk uj
ui = Ct1 t

x j
k

uiuj
uiuk uk u j
ui = k t Ct1
+ Ct 2

x j
k
k

EASFM
k

ui = 1 c 4 Bij uj uk
xk

(BML)
k u
k k
+
( ui k ) = uiu j i +
t
xi
x j

WWJ

k
k
p

u
c

u i xi
x j
2

u


t
i


+ ( ui ) = c1 ui u j
c 2 + +
t xi
xj
k
k xj xj
k p
c 3 uic
xj
k

+
x j

uk
iu j

RST

+ t
k

uk uk
iu j
xk

)=

xk

k 2 uk
iu j
CS

x
k

k u j k ui
k p j k p
R

ui uk
+ u j uk
+ uik c
u j c
+ ij

x j
x
x
x

k
k
u
i

BML

j c
uk

j c
uk uk

)=

j c
k 2 uk
+
CS

x
t
xk

u

j2 p j  c 1 k
c S
i c j + uk
j uk
c
uk
+
c u j c
+ cj
j2 2
x
x

k
k
u
i

xk

,
. . 1 .
115

. .2.
RANS [64] (
).
10-15
15

10
2-6

3-7

Low-Re
keps

Low-Re
EARSM

3-5
5
1

1-1,1

1,1-1,3

0
k-eps

EARSM Advanced
EARSM

RSM

116

Low-Re
RSM