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50 просмотров10 страницPressure drop and pressure drop fluctuations in conical spouted beds

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Pressure drop and pressure drop fluctuations in conical spouted beds

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50 просмотров10 страницPressure drop and pressure drop fluctuations in conical spouted beds

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Powder Technology

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/powtec

mixtures of particles

Wei Du a,b, Lifeng Zhang c, Bo Zhang b, Shuhui Bao b, Jian Xu b, Weisheng Wei b,

a

b

c

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, PR China

The Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corp., China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, PR China

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 10 November 2014

Received in revised form 4 January 2015

Accepted 8 February 2015

Available online 17 February 2015

Keywords:

Spouted bed

Flow regime transition

Pressure drop uctuation

Statistic characteristics

Power spectral analysis

Binary mixtures

a b s t r a c t

When handling ne particles in spouted beds, addition of coarse particles has shown improved spouting stability

than single particle systems. However, segregation may still occur because of insufcient mixing in binary mixtures, which will adversely inuence the process performance. Therefore, in this study, analysis of pressure drop

and its uctuation signals were for the rst time used to understand mechanisms of ow regime transitions in

spouted beds with binary mixtures. The results showed that the typical varying sequence of pressure drop can

be observed for spouted bed with binary mixtures and the peak pressure drop is related to the mixing degree

of particles, which is mainly inuenced by the inter-particle forces between ne particles and their counterpart

coarse ones. The statistic characteristics of pressure drop time series, i.e., average value, standard deviation and

probability distributions, were found to vary for different ow regimes. Therefore, they could be used for the

characterization of these ow regimes. The spouting stability of binary mixtures can be reected by power

spectrum analysis; the inuences of particles size and density difference on spouting stability were discussed

through power spectral analysis.

2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Spouted beds, as an alternative to uidized beds for handling coarse

particles larger than 1 mm in diameter (typically Group D particles

according to the Geldart classication) have been widely employed in

various physical operations such as drying, coating and granulation

[1]. Spouted beds also possess some unique structural and ow characteristics of great potential applications as chemical reactors [210].

However, the main factor impeding their wider use as chemical reactors

is the limited interfacial area because of use of relatively large particles,

leading to lower conversions [11]. In particular, they are not suitable for

being used in a mass transfer limited process where only the external

catalyst surface is effective [5]. Therefore, operating the spouted bed

with relatively smaller particles (such as Group B particles according

to the Geldart classication) is considered to be a remedy to increase interfacial areas and enhance conversions while the desirable spouting

characteristics remain intact.

Spouted beds operated with Group B particles have larger gas solid

contact areas, thus leading to increased conversions. In the literature,

it has been reported that the spouting of Group B particles is signicantly different from that of Group D particles and a stable spouting can only

be achieved under strict conditions [1215]. It has been shown that

Corresponding author. Fax: +86 10 89734979.

E-mail address: weiws@cup.edu.cn (W. Wei).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2015.02.016

0032-5910/ 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

beds with ne particles [1619]. In spouted beds, as noted by Huilin

et al. [20], the solidsolid drag force is caused by particle collisions.

The internal friction for mono-sized particles is considered to be related

to the granular temperature, which takes both the particle velocity uctuations and particle collisions into account according to a kinetic theory of granular ow (KTGF) [21]. When adding coarse particles, this

stress can be greatly decreased as can be explained by KTGF. However,

excessive addition of coarse particles to the spouted bed is no longer

benecial and particle segregation is observed, thereby giving rise to a

decrease in the spouting stability. Therefore, an advanced understanding of spouting formation, mixing behavior and ow regime transition

mechanisms is still lacking. In the literature, a few diagnostic tools

have been employed to analyze ow regime transitions. In general,

they can be classied into three categories: direct measurement (visual

observation or advanced instrumentation such as PIV, LDV etc.), probe

measurement (pressure probes or optical ber probes, etc.) and X-ray

measurement. Among those tools, pressure measurement is the most

commonly adopted one due to its robustness, ease in use, and economic

advantages.

The analysis of pressure uctuations, mainly related to motions

within the bed, has been widely used for decades for identifying ow regimes in uidized beds. Various analysis methods have been described

in detail in published comprehensive reviews [2225]. In general,

there exist three methods for analyzing pressure signals, which are

method. The time domain method is typically the rst step in the data

analysis, where either the standard deviation or the average absolute

deviation is often used to identify a ow regime change [2630]. The

statistical analysis in time domain is the simplest and the most

commonly employed; it is also very fast and easily applicable. The

most commonly used method in time domain is to study the amplitude

of signals, expressed as a standard deviation (viz., square root of secondorder statistical moment). The change in amplitude with operating

conditions has been of interest to many uidization researchers for

identication of transitions between regimes. For instance, for a circulating uidized bed, the gas velocity corresponding to the peak of the

variation is typically dened as the onset of the transition to turbulent

regimes, while that corresponding to the point where the variation

levels off is dened as the onset of the turbulent regime [31]. However,

as pointed out by Dhodapkar and Klinzing [32], the amplitude of

pressure uctuations alone is not sufcient to elucidate the composition

of the uctuating signals and thus spectral analysis via Fast Fourier

Transform (FFT) has been applied on time series of pressure data in

uidized beds (e.g. [26,33]). Frequency domain analysis includes the estimation of power spectral density functions that contain information

regarding the frequency distribution in the pressure time series.

Power spectral density functions are obtained via Fourier transformation of signals. Analysis of frequency distribution has been widely applied in time series analysis of uidized beds for the characterization

of ow regimes (e.g. [34,35]) and for verication of scale-up relationships for uidized beds (e.g. [36]). Dhodapkar and Klinzing [37]

concluded that the nature of the static wall pressure uctuations in uidized beds depends on the particle size, particle density, bed height,

column diameter, location of the pressure taps and the gas velocity.

Frequency analyses of pressure uctuations on both a conventional

spouted bed [38] and a slot-rectangular spouted bed [39] have demonstrated promising results on ow regime identication. The disadvantage of power spectral density function is that deciding which peak in

the power spectrum is treated as a dominant frequency sometimes

can be subjective [40]. Therefore, a combination of different analysis

methods is needed to gain a better view of hydrodynamic behavior in

uidized beds. Therefore, the present work utilized both statistical analysis and frequency domain analysis to identify ow regime transitions

of spouted beds of binary mixtures.

135

More recently, the pressure uctuation analysis also has been used

to characterize the ow behavior in spouted beds [4145]. However,

the above analysis was predominantly carried out with pressure uctuation signals collected from spouted bed with mono-sized particles. The

pressure uctuations obtained from a binary system could be quite different. In the literature, this difference was noted in a uidized bed by

Chen et al. [46] due to the presence of particle mixing and segregation

in binary particle systems. However, to the best of our knowledge,

such an analysis for spouted beds with binary mixtures is not reported

in the literature. Recognition and characterization of ow regimes are

critical for designing and operating spouted beds, in particular, when

operated with binary mixtures. In view of this knowledge gap, the objectives of this study were to investigate pressure drop in a spouted

bed with binary mixtures and to identify the ow regime transition

and particle mixing/segregation by means of pressure signal analysis.

2. Experimental setup

A schematic diagram of the experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 1. In

this work, a plexi-glass spouted bed, with 80 mm in diameter, 410 mm

of nozzle diameters and 60 of conical base angle was adopted. The experiments were carried out at ambient conditions. The gas owrate was

controlled by a pressure regulator and measured by several owmeters

with different measuring ranges (1.616 m3/h and 660 m3/h). After

the particles were charged into the spouted bed, the air owrate was

adjusted for different bed heights to achieve ow regime transitions.

The pressure drops and pressure uctuations were measured by pressure transducers (Omega, PX164-010D5V) installed by an interval of

16.7 mm along bed wall and the pressure data were recorded by a PC

after A/D conversion. The bottom pressure trap was installed on the

wall just above the nozzle. Pressure uctuations were collected at

three bed levels, i.e., total bed, lower section and upper section of bed,

through plastic tubes installed on the column wall. The particles used

were composed by Al2O3 particles and silica gel particles with a volume

ratio of 4:1.

The properties of the particles used are presented in Table 1, including narrowly-distributed silica gel, Al2O3 and glass beads. The densities

and voidages at loosely packing state of the particles were measured by

a water displacement method for glass beads and wax was used for

silica gel and Al2O3 particles. The volume ratio refers to the bulk volume

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus. 1. Compressor; 2. Pressure regulator; 3. Buffer tank; 4. Gate valve; 5. Mass ow controller; 6. Spouted bed 80 mm; 7. Spouted bed

150 mm; 8. Pressure taps; 9. pressure transducer; 10. A/D converter; and 11. PC.

136

Table 1

Properties of experimental materials.

Fine particles

Coarse particles

Particles

Notation

dp,

mm

p, kg m-3

b, kg m-3

Geldart

groups

1# Al2O3

2# Al2O3

3# Al2O3

1# silica gel

2# silica gel

Glass beads

A1

A2

A3

S1

S2

GB

0.2

0.39

0.79

1.05

1.75

1.76

1449

1498

1551

1253

1410

2797

1058

1062

1074

868

965

1528

B

B

B

D

D

D

method with counting more than 600 particles. In this study, Al2O3

particles with diameters of 0.20 mm, 0.38 mm and 0.79 mm (Group B

particles), were used as ne particles. Coarse particles (Group D

particles) were silica gel particles of 1.05 mm and 1.75 mm and glass

beads of 1.76 mm.

Pressure drop uctuation analysis was conducted as follows:

1. Average value:

P

n

1X

P i

n i1

2. Standard deviation:

v

u

n

u 1 X

2

P i P

t

n1 i1

n

1X

P P

i

n i1

f xx lim

1X

T

T

Z

SXX

XX e

remains constant when the gas ow rate further increases.

Fig. 2 also shows that the peak pressure drop and the initial spouting

point differ among different particles investigated. For glass beads, the

peak and stable spouting pressure drop are 1.61 kPa and 0.8 kPa, respectively, which are the highest among these particles under investigation.

The peak pressure drop for A2 particle is lower than that for A3 particle.

But the stable spouting pressure drop for A2 particle is higher than that

for A3 particles. This can be explained by that the spouting of A2 particle is less stable and more bubbles are generated in the bed. From

Fig. 2, it can be concluded that for the peak pressure drop, the following order holds, GB N A3 N S1 N A2 N S2 while for stable spouting pressure drop, the order is GB N A2 N A3 N S1 N S2. As discussed by Bi [48],

the pressure drop is directly related to bgH ((s f)(1 )gH),

where b is particle bulk density, H is packing bed height, f is gas

density, and is voidage. Therefore, the whole bed pressure drop is

mainly determined by the particle density.

3.2. Pressure drop for spouted beds with binary mixtures

The effect of the particle diameter on the pressure drop was investigated in binary mixtures composed by A3 particles with two coarse

particles (S1 and S2). The mixing ratio was set at A3:S1 (or S2) = 2:1

and the packed bed height was 160 mm for both cases.

Fig. 3 presents that the trend of the bed pressure drop against supercial gas velocity in a spouted bed of binary mixtures is very similar to

standard deviation, is the average absolute deviation, fx is the dominant frequency, SXX is power spectral density and XX is the signal.

3. Pressure drop of binary particle spouting

3.1. Pressure drops for spouted beds of mono-sized particles

In order to establish a baseline, the whole bed pressure drop for different mono-sized particle systems was rstly measured. The packing

heights were 160 mm for all beds. The results are shown in Fig. 2. It

can be seen that the trend of the pressure drop against supercial gas

velocity is consistent with classical spouted bed results reported by

Mathur and Epstein [11] and Epstein and Grace [47]. In general, the

pressure drop increases with increasing supercial gas velocity (static

bed and internal cavity) until it reaches a maximum value, followed

by a decrease (inner spouting) with further increasing supercial gas

velocity. A sudden decrease in the pressure drop is observed due to

that enough solids have been displaced from the center core, indicating

137

From the above equations, it is clearly shown that the drag force differs among particles due to their different particle diameters, particles

to move upward at different velocities. As a result, more bubbles tend

to be formed between the two solid phases and particle segregation

occurs. These bubbles will penetrate into the packing bed, lowering

the peak pressure drop, evidenced by that 1.04 kPa is observed for the

A3/S2 mixture compared to 1.1 kPa for that of the A3 and S1 mixture.

Moreover, the spouting pressure drop for the A3 and S2 mixture

(0.57 kPa) is seen to be lower than that for the A3 and S1 mixture

(0.59 kPa).

The effect of the particle density on the pressure drop was investigated by mixing two coarse particles (S2 and GB) into A3 particles at a

xed volume ratio of 1:4. The packed bed height remained at 160 mm.

As shown in Fig. 4, the peak pressure drop for the A3/GB mixture is

1.4 kPa at a gas supercial velocity of 0.32 m/s, which is higher than

1 kPa at a gas supercial velocity of 0.26 m/s for the A3/S2 mixture.

The pressure drop for A3/GB and A3/S2 mixtures at stable spouting regime is 0.71 kPa and 0.58 kPa, respectively. As discussed earlier, the

larger b of the A3/GB mixture leads to a higher pressure drop. As the

diameters of mixing particles are similar to each other, the discrepancy

of the drag forces is mainly caused by the difference in the particle

density. Therefore, the peak pressure drop for a system with a higher

particle density occurs at a higher gas supercial velocity.

The peak pressures of different systems with varying mixing ratios

of coarse particles are shown in Fig. 5. It's seen that for A2 and GB

system, the peak pressure drop is 0.82 kPa at the GB content of 20%,

and then increases rapidly with increasing the GB content to 1.2 kPa

at the GB content of 67%. As noted by Bi [48], almost all correlations

showed that peak pressure drops are in a linear relationship with

bgH ((s f)(1 )gH) for spouted beds of mono-sized particles.

Therefore, it can be expected that in a spouted bed of binary mixtures,

the peak pressure drop will increase with increasing the mixture density. Since GB particles have the highest particle density among those

coarse particles investigated, increasing its content could lift the

pressure drop. However, such an increase is not in a linear manner, indicating that the drag force between ne particles and coarse particles

in a binary mixture bed differs from that for a spouted bed only with

coarse particles.

Fig. 5 also shows that the peak pressure drop decreases slightly in

the bed with binary mixtures of A2 particles with S1 and S2 particles

due to a lower density of silica particles. In the experiments, it was observed that the mixing degree of A2 and S1 system is the highest

among all mixtures while the pressure uctuation of this binary system

is the lowest. This observation is similar with that reported by Sau et al.

(2008) that in a binary mixture uidized bed, the peak pressure drop is

determined by the mixing degree as well as the particle properties and

the mixing ratio. The better the mixing degree is, the more stable the

bed is.

The nozzle diameter is known to have an important impact on the

peak pressure drop in spouted beds [48]. Fig. 6 shows a trend of the

peak pressure drop against the nozzle diameter. In this work, four

nozzle diameters employed were 4 mm, 6 mm, 7.6 mm and 10 mm.

The data reveal that the peak pressure drop decreases with increasing

the nozzle diameter. For the A2 and GB mixture, the peak pressure

decreases from 1.3 kPa at di = 4 mm to 0.97 kPa at di = 10 mm. It's

observed that the spouting became unstable and the maximum

that the peak pressure drop for a mixture of A3 and S2 particles occurs

at a higher gas velocity compared to that for a mixture of A3 and S1 particles. This observation is due to that the mixing degree for A3 and S2

particles is relatively low and small bubbles are very likely generated

when the inner cavity appears close to the bed surface. The experimental studies show that the segregation would happen in binary mixtures

of particles with a certain range of density difference and mixing ratio,

operated even when the bed was fully spouted. In this study, the

onset of spouting can be reected by pressure drop curves, for example,

in Fig. 3, when the mixture has a smaller density difference (A3 mixed

with S1), the pressure drop curve has a clearly identied maximum,

which indicates nearly no segregation occurred. However, when the

particles has a larger difference (A3 mixed with S2), a at peak is observed in the pressure drop curve, which interprets that the pressure

drop rst reaches to the frontier of at peak when the velocity increased

to a velocity that light particle become uidized. After that, because of

particle segregation, the pressure drop did not change much until the

velocity reached a velocity that heavy particle become uidized

(as seen from the gure, the velocity is still far from that for the heavy

particle become spouted). With further increasing the supercial gas

velocity, the bed was fully spouted and pressure drop decreased quickly.

In a binary particle system, there exist three inter-phase forces, that is,

gasprimary solid drag force, gassecondary solid drag force, and

solidsolid force. In principle, the drag force between solid and gas

phase can be estimated according to the Ergun [49] equation

(for g b 0.8) and the WenYu [50] equation (for g N 0.8) given by:

2

Ergun 150

WenYu

s g

g d2p

1:75

s g

jvuj; g b 0:8

dp

3 s g

2:65

C

; g 0:8:

jvuj g

4 D dp

138

during the spouting and spreading to annulus region, some portion of

gas also pass through the viodage between segregated solid phases,

thereby the bed pressure drop decreases more rapidly than those for

other mixture spouted beds.

4.1. Pressure uctuations and statistical analysis

approached 10 mm. For a spouted bed, gas is easier to penetrate into

the annulus with a larger nozzle due to a resultant larger spout diameter, therefore leading to particles in this region being uidized and consequently, decreasing the total pressure drop of the bed. For the spouted

regime transition map shows that below the maximum spoutable bed

height, the bed changes from static bed regime to stable spouting

regime, and then to slugging regime with increasing the gas velocity

[47]. In a spouted bed of mixed particles, similar ow patterns were

observed. Representative pressure uctuations for three typical ow

regimes, static bed, stable spouting and slugging, are shown in Fig. 7.

Relatively smooth pressure signals are found for both static bed and stable spouting bed, with larger uctuations observed for the latter ow

pattern. In contrast, the pressure signal becomes irregular and highly

uctuating in slugging ow. Pressure uctuations in the spouted bed

for a binary particle system are similar to those results for a single particle size system [45]. The bed pressure drop signals are more irregular

and uctuating in spouting and slugging ow regimes. The difference

Fig. 7. The whole bed pressure signals in different regimes. (For Dc = 80 mm, = 60, di = 7.6 mm, P = 0.1 MPa, H = 0.13 m, VA2:VS1 = 4:1). a. Comparison of different ow patterns;

b. static bed (u = 0.09 m/s); c. spouting (u = 0.22 m/s); and d. slugging (u = 0.39 m/s).

139

Fig. 8. Probability distribution of pressure uctuations in different regimes. 1. For upper cylindrical section; 2. For lower cylindrical section; and 3. For total bed. (For Dc = 80 mm, = 60,

di = 7.6 mm, P = 0.1 MPa, H = 0.13 m, VA2:VS1 = 4:1).

spouted bed with binary mixture.

In the statistical analysis, the probability distribution of pressure

signal is a direct measure of deviations between time series pressure

data and their averaged value. Fig. 8 shows the probability distributions

of pressure signals for different ow regimes presented in Fig. 7. It

appears that there are considerable differences among the probability

distributions for the regimes observed. In static bed regime, the pressure

has the narrowest distribution, with the lowest deviation ( 10%) of

pressure uctuations from the averaged value. In the stable spouting

regime, the probability distribution becomes wider, which is mainly

concentrated in the region of 40% around the averaged value. In the

slugging regime, the widest probability distribution range, 60%, is

observed.

Table 2

Average value and standard deviation of pressure uctuations for three different ow

regimes. 1-For upper cylindrical section; 2-for lower cylindrical section; and 3-for the total

bed.

Average value

(Pa)

Standard deviation

(Pa)

Curve 1

Curve 2

Curve 3

Curve 1

Curve 2

Curve 3

Static bed

Stable spouting

Slugging

16.8

161

557

0.87

12.6

49.8

12.7

125

514

1.49

24.9

81.9

15.4

144

526

3.31

46.2

203

Standard deviations of the pressure uctuations have been widely used to identify a regime change in gassolid uidized beds

[2630]. Table 2 shows the averaged values and standard deviations

of differential pressure uctuations collected at different bed

sections in a spouted bed. It is seen in this table that at the same

bed section, the differential pressure drop at static bed regime has

the highest average value while the lowest value is observed at

stable spouting regime. However, the standard deviation generally

increases at the air ow and rate is increased from a static bed

through spouting regime to slugging. The sharp increase in the

standard deviation from spouting to slugging is due to unstable

ow states of gas and solids within the bed, though the average

pressure drops for the two regimes are similar.

Table 2 also indicates that there are signicant differences in the

pressure drops and their standard deviations at different bed sections.

In the upper section of the bed, the lowest pressure drop and its standard deviation are found because the ow is in the fountain region

where the gas and solid ows show minimal impacts on the pressure

drop. In the lower section of the bed, the pressure drop and its standard

deviation are also low as the ow is in the annulus region where gas and

solids are in regular motion. However, near to the nozzle, the solids are

circulated back into the spout region by the highest gas velocity. The induced intense motions lead to the highest pressure drop and the largest

standard deviation. Thus, the total bed pressure drop uctuations can be

adequately utilized to reect ow characteristics of spouted beds of

mixed particle systems.

140

From the above discussions, it can be seen that the statistic characteristics of time series pressure drop, that is, average value, standard

deviation and probability distributions, are quite different for different

ow regimes in spouted beds with binary mixtures. Thus, statistical

analysis of pressure uctuations, in particular, the total bed pressure

signal, can reect dynamics of a spouted bed of binary mixtures and

recognize prevailing ow patterns therein. But the pressure uctuation

for a binary system is more irregular than that of a single sized particle

system which is consistent with the current results.

4.2. Frequency domain analysis

4.2.1. Effect of particle diameter of binary mixtures

As noted previously, frequency domain analysis transforms the

information from the time domain to the frequency domain, which

includes estimation of spectral density or spectral amplitude in the

pressure time series. After analysis, dominant frequencies are usually

identied and correlated to various underlying physical phenomena.

In the literature, spectral analysis has been employed to characterize

different ow regimes in spouted beds [4345,51]. However, all previous studies were conducted with the pressure time series measured

for single sized particles in spouted beds. In a binary mixture, more

complex dynamic behaviors are expected due to inherent interactions

among particles with different particle sizes and densities. In experimental observation, it was found that with introducing a secondary

coarse particle into a primary ne particle system, the stable spouting

range could be considerably widened. The spouting stability of this binary mixture is further investigated by power spectrum analysis. Fig. 9

illustrates effect of particle diameters of binary mixtures on amplitudes

determined by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The pressure time series

were measured in binary mixtures composed of A2 particles and two

large particles (S1 and S2 particles) at two different volume ratios

(ne/coarse particles = 2:1 and 1:1). In Fig. 9a, at a supercial gas

velocity of 0.22 m/s, stable spouting was attained for both A2/S1 and

A2/S2 mixtures at the same volume ratio of 2:1. A dominant frequency

with amplitude of 12 is found at about 6 Hz for the A2/S2 mixture while

there is no distinct dominant frequency observed for the A2/S1 mixture.

Instead, a broader distribution of frequencies, ranging from 5 Hz to

15 Hz, is observed, which is presumably associated with low frequency

gas turbulence. This also suggests that the spouting stability of the A2/S1

mixture is lower than that of the A2/S2 mixture. When raising the

coarse particle content to a ratio of 1:1, the spouting was obtained at a

supercial gas velocity of 0.28 m/s. Fig. 9b illustrates that a dominant

frequency is found at about 10 Hz for the A2/S2 mixture, and the signal

is more distinct than that of a mixture at the ratio of 2:1. However, the

dominant frequency is still not clearly shown for the A2/S1 mixture

and again the frequencies are widely distributed. From the above

analysis, it can be concluded that larger particles show more profound

impact on improving spouting stability of ne particles.

4.2.2. Effect of mixture particle density

To investigate the effect of particle density, experiments were performed in binary mixtures of A2 particles with two coarse particles

(S2 particles and glass beads) at three volume ratios of A2/coarse

particles = 4:1, 2:1 and 1:1. Fig. 10a shows the power spectrum of

different mixtures at a volume ratio of 4:1. It can be seen in this gure

that the dominant frequencies cannot be found and frequencies are

widely distributed for both mixtures, implying that the spouting is not

stable and low frequency gas turbulence dominates dynamics in the

bed. However, the A2/GB mixture shows relatively stable spouting as

narrower distributions of frequencies, ranging from 5 Hz to 15 Hz, is observed, compared to a range of 4 Hz18 Hz for the A2/S2 mixture. With

increasing the coarse particle content to 2:1 A2/coarse particles ratio, a

dominant frequency appears at about 6 Hz for the A2/S2 mixture as

shown in Fig. 10b. Similarly, the dominant frequency for the A2/GB mixture is clearly shown at 10 Hz, but two interference frequencies appear

sized A2 and GB systems, respectively. The results reveal that the mixing

degree for mixtures with larger density difference such as the A2/GB

system becomes poor and particle separation occurs in the spouted

bed. Further evidence can be found from Fig. 10c for 1:1 mixing ratio

mixtures. It is clearly shown that a dominant frequency of 10 Hz is observed for the A2/S2 mixture and interference frequencies are greatly

dampened. However, for the A2/GB system, the two enhanced interference frequencies appear at 6 Hz and 15 Hz, indicate that the particle

separation is remarkable in the mixtures. In addition, the amplitude of

dominant frequency decreases from 30 to 20 as compared with that

shown in Fig. 10b. Therefore, the density difference in the mixture

cannot be too big even their particle sizes are similar for purposes of

improving spouting stability.

Despite that the spouting stability can be improved in the binary system, the separation of particles may occur due to too large differences in

particle densities and particle sizes. The poor mixing will lead to undesired ow patterns. In order to further understand the effect of mixing

degree on the spouting, spectrum analysis was conducted with the

pressure signals collected in binary mixtures with A2 particles mixed

with three coarse particles, S1, S2, and GB. As the density and the size

of GB particles are greatly larger than those of the A2 particles, particle

segregation is notable and the stratied spouting and bubbling are observed as shown in Fig. 11a. The dominant frequency in this mixture is

found to be at about 10 Hz, whereas two interference frequencies appear at 6 Hz and 15 Hz, indicating the three particle circulations in the

system, i.e., the separated GB and A2 particles and the uniform mixture.

In the A2/S2 mixture, the system shows a better spouting as illustrated

in Fig. 11b with the dominant frequency more clearly shown at 10 Hz.

However, there still exists an interference frequency at 6 Hz, indicating

that some A2 particles are separated from the mixture in the spouting

process. Since the A3 and S1 particles have closest particle sizes and

densities, the particles are well mixed without segregation and the

141

mixture has the best spouting stability. Fig. 11c shows that the

dominant frequency is 14 Hz, and the narrowest frequency distribution

is obtained. The results are in close agreement with Chao et al., [52] that

the ne particle content is of crucial important for stable uidization of

binary particle system.

4.2.3. Effect of mixing particle ratio

As stated earlier, the spouting stability for the single A2 particle system is poor due to its smaller size. However, adding S2 particles with a

similar particle density to A2 particles, the spouting range and stability

can be greatly improved. This nding can be further veried by the pressure uctuation analysis. Fig. 12 shows the relationships of the average

pressure drops and the standard deviations against the coarse particle

content. All measurements were taken at minimum spouting velocities.

In general, the average pressure drop for the single sized A2 particle

(625 Pa) decreases to 410 Pa for a single sized S2 particle spouted bed

when the coarse particle content increases from 0 to 1. A slight increase

in the standard deviation from that for the single sized A2 particle in the

spouted bed is attributed to that the lower supercial gas velocity is required for spouting a single sized A2 system. As the content of the coarse

particle increases, it starts to increase and then drops after the volume

ratio reaches 4:1. This decrease in the standard deviations indicates

that the particle motion in the spouted bed becomes more regular and

a more stable spouting is attained.

The results of spectral analysis of the total bed pressure uctuations

are shown in Fig. 13. As the content of coarse particles increases, the frequency distribution becomes narrower, as illustrated in Fig. 13a towards

Fig. 13e. A dominant peak at around 10 Hz appears in Fig. 13e for a mixture with more coarse particles. When the binary mixture contains

more ne particles (A2), the spouting is not stable and the frequency

distribution is broad with no dominant frequency found. In addition,

the multiple peaks observed in Fig. 13a and 13b could be related to

the existence of several periodical circulating components in the bed.

As the peak frequency turns to be more distinct, the amplitude also

increases. For instance, it increases from 7 in Fig. 13c to 24 in Fig. 13e

at 10 Hz. Compared to denser coarse particles such as glass beads,

lighter coarse particles (density similar with that of ne particles) are

more favorably utilized to improve spouting stability for ne particles,

as evidenced by more distinct dominant frequencies with higher amplitudes observed in the pressure time series.

5. Conclusions

In this work, the pressure drop and uctuation signals were measured in spouted beds of binary mixtures. Both statistical and frequency

Fig. 12. Effect of mixing ratio on average value and standard deviation.

142

Nomenclatures

b1 b6

CD

Dc

dp

dp

dpl

dps

di

fm

f(x)

g

H

Pm

Ps

?P

SXX

U

V

VA1

VA2

VA3

Vs1

Vs2

VGB

xl

xs

the spouted bed. The following main conclusions can be drawn:

1. The trend of the pressure drop against supercial gas velocities for

mixed particles in spouted beds is similar with that for single sized

particle systems. However, the peak pressure drop is related to the

mixing degree of the mixture, which is mainly determined by the

inter-particle forces. The mixture density and mixing ratios both

show an impact on the pressure drop uctuations. The stress

between coarse and ne particles in a binary particle system is greatly less than the internal friction for a single sized particle system,

leading to a better spouting stability in the binary system.

2. The pressure drop signals at static bed and stable spouting bed are

regular but highly uctuating in slugging regime. More irregular

and uctuated signals are found for binary particle mixtures as compared with that for single sized particle systems at the same spouting

regime. The statistic characteristics of pressure drop time series

(average value, standard deviation and probability distributions)

are different for different ow regimes. Therefore, it can be used for

the reorganization of these ow regimes and their transitions.

3. The spouting stability of a binary system was evaluated by a power

spectrum analysis. Narrower frequency distribution has been observed for well mixed systems while no dominant frequency is

shown for spouted beds at unstable spouting conditions.

4. Our results suggest that spouting stability in spouted beds with ne

particles can be improved by mixed with coarse particles. However,

the density difference in the mixture cannot be too large even if the

particle sizes of the two particles are quite similar. Addition of lighter

(similar density with that of ne particles) but larger (in diameter)

coarse particles is more effective in improving spouting stability of

ne particles in spouted beds.

non-linear analysis

drag coefcient

column diameter

particle diameter

average particle diameter

diameter of small particles

orice diameter

dominant frequency

probability density function

gravitational constant

packing bed height

maximum bed pressure drop

spouting pressure drop

averaged pressure drop

mm

mm

mm

Hz

supercial gas velocity

bulk volume

bulk volume of 1# Al2O3

bulk volume of 2# Al2O3

bulk volume of 3# Al2O3

bulk volume of 1 silica gel particles

bulk volume of 1 silica gel particles

bulk volume of glass beads

the mass content of the large particles

the mass content of the small particles

W/Hz

m/s

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

%

%

Greek letters

s

g

b

g,f

p

xs

pl

ps

XX

gas volume fraction

uidparticle interaction coefcient

gas viscosity

particle bulk density

gas density

particle density

mixing particle density

density of the large particles

density of the small particles

delay time of reconstruction

particle sphericity

autocorrelative function

standard deviation

average absolute deviation

voidage

power spectral function

Subscripts

c

Ergun

WenYu

g

s

f

l

m

ms

P

Pl

Ps

i

column

Ergun equation

WenYu equation

gas

solid

uid

large

maximum

minimum spouting

particle

large particle

small particle

inlet

mm

mm

mm

m/s2

mm

Pa

Pa

Pa

Kg/m3s

Pa.s

kg/m3

kg/m3

kg/m3

kg/m3

kg/m3

kg/m3

s

Acknowledgments

Authors should thank the National Natural Science Foundation of

China under Grant No. 21076230 and No. 21176256 and the Science

Foundation of China University of Petroleum, Beijing (No. KYJJ201203-01) for funding this project.

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