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IV B.Tech.

ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

BHOJ REDDY ENGINEERING


COLLEGE FOR WOMEN

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual
ECE IV YEAR -I SEM

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &COMMUNICATION


ENGINEERING
(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru technological university & Recognized by AICTE)

17-1-209/B, Vinaynagar, Saidabad, Hyderabad-500059


Ph:No: 040-24537282,040-24531725,Fax: 040-2537281
www.brecw.ac.in Email:brecweced@rdiffmail.com

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

INDEX
Sl.No.

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

Page No.

PART - A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

FREQUENCY AND WAVE LENGTH MEASUREMENT


REFLEX KLYSTRON MODE CHARACTERISTICS
SCATTERING MATRIX OF A MAGIC TEE
CHARACTERISTICS OF GUNN OSCILLATOR
DIRECTIONAL COUPLER CHARACTERISTICS
MEASUREMENTS OF A SCATTERING PARAMETERS OF
CIRCULATOR
MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDENCE OF A GIVEN LOAD

4
8
11
14
17
20
23

PART B
1
2
3

PULSE CODE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION


TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING & DEMULTIPLEXING
FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

27
30
34

PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND


DEMODULATION

38

DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION


AND DEMODULATION

42

6
7

DELTA MODULATION AND DEMODULATION


DIFFERENTIAL PULSE CODE MODULATION &
DEMODULATION

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46
50

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

PART A
Microwave
Engineering

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Experiment No 1
FREQUENCY AND WAVE LENGTH MEASUREMENT
AIM:
To measure the frequency and wavelength of the microwave signal generated by
Reflex Klystron in a wave-guide by two methods.
1. Frequency meter or Cavity meter method
2. Slotted line method
APPARATUS:
Klystron power supply
Klystron mount with Reflex klystron
Isolator
Frequency meter
Variable attenuator
Slotted line
Tunable probe
Short circuit & Matched Termination
VSWR meter
Cables
Cooling fan
Wave guide Stands
Block Diagram:
Klystron power
Supply

Klystron mount
with tube

Isolator

Variable
Attenuator

Frequency Meter

Slotted line

Matched
Terminator

Short
circuit
Terminator

VSWR
meter

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Crystal
Detector

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

THEORY:
The relationship among the free space wave length , guide wave length g and the
cutoff wave length c is given by
1/ 2 =1/ g2+1/ c2
The cutoff wavelength c is given by
c=2/ [m/a)2+(n/b)2]

For the dominant TE10 mode m=1 n=0


c=2a where a is the broader side dimension of wave guide
X band frequency range is 8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz
For X band rectangular wave guide(WR90), the dimensions of rectangular
waveguide are 0.9 0.4
A =0.9 2.54 = 2.286 cm
c = 2a =2 2.286 = 4.572 cm
The guide wavelength g varies with respect to free space wavelength and
which is governed by frequency of oscillations. Though the guide wavelength g
doesnt depend upon the type of termination we use short circuit for getting a clear
standing wave pattern as shown in fig
The resonant frequency of the Cavity can be varied between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz. In
an absorption type cavity meter if the resonant frequency fr doesnt equal to the
signal frequency fs no power will be absorbed by the cavity meter and the signal
will be passed on to the next section without any attenuation. If the resonant
frequency fr equals to the signal frequency fs most of the signal will be absorbed
by the cavity itself and power available to SWR meter will be quite low so a Dip
(min deflection) can be observed in SWR meter. When a Dip is observed the
resonant frequency fr and the signal frequency fs will be equal.
To find the signal frequency generated using the cavity meter, change the
resonant frequency slowly and observe the deflection in VSWR meter. If a Dip is
observed it means that fr and fs are equal. Find the resonant frequency that is
nothing but the signal frequency.

PROCEDURE:
1. Arrange the microwave bench as per the diagram shown. Put the matched
termination as a load.
2. Switch ON the klystron fan or blower.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

3. Put the select display knob in off position, Beam voltage knob in
minimum position and rep voltage knob in maximum position and now
switch on the Klystron power supply.
4. Put the select display knob in v (voltage) position and adjust the beam
voltage to 300V.
5. Put the select display knob in rep (repeller voltage) position and adjust
the repeller voltage to get VSWR as 1.
6. Tune the frequency meter to get a dip on the VSWR meter and note
down the operating signal frequency directly from the frequency or wave
or cavity meter
7. Detune the frequency meter. Now remove the matched load and put the
short circuit as a load.
8. Move the probe along the slotted section and observe the standing wave
pattern. It is moved to the minimum deflection point and its position is
noted down.
9. Move the probe to the next position and record the probe position again.
10. The guided wavelength is calculated as twice the distance between the
minima.
11. By using the expression 1/ 2 = 1/ g2 + 1/c2 calculate and then calculate
the frequency as f = c/
12. Compare this frequency with the frequency obtained through the
frequency meter. They both should be same.

MODEL GRAPH:

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

OBSERVATIONS:
(i)

Cavity meter method:Beam Voltage =


Repeller voltage =
Current =
Frequency =
Wave length =

(ii)

Slotted line method:Positions of minima:


First (d1) =
Second (d2) =
Third (d3) =
g/2 = [(d2-d1)+(d3-d2)]/2
c = 2a = 4.572 cm
1/ 2 = 1/ g2 + 1/ c2
F=c/

RESULT:
Frequency and wavelength of the microwave signal generated by
Reflex Klystron in a wave-guide measured

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTIONS:


1. Indicate the frequency Vs wave length for X-band
2. Explain the principle of isolator & circulator?
3. Explain the principle of frequency meter?
4. What type of frequency meter used in microwave test bench?
5. What is the function of the frequency meter in the microwave bench?
6. What are the techniques for measuring the frequency?
7. What technique is used for the measurement of frequency accurately?

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Experiment No 2
REFLEX KLYSTRON MODE CHARACTERISTICS
AIM:
To study and plot & the mode characteristis of Reflex Klystron tube.
APPARATUS:
Klystron power supply
Klystron mount with Reflex klystron
Isolator
Frequency meter
Variable attenuator
Crystal detctor
VSWR meter
Cables
Cooling fan
Wave guide Stands

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Klystron power
Supply

Klystron mount
with tube

Isolator

Variable
Attenuator

Frequency Meter

Crystal Detector

VSWR meter

THEORY:
The reflex klystron makes use of velocity modulation to transform a continuous
electron beam into microwave power. Electron emitted from cathode are
accelerated & passed through the +ve resonator towards ve electron reflector,
which retards and finally reflects the electron & the electron turn back towards the
resonator. Suppose an RF field exists between the grids of resonators, the electron
traveling forward will be accelerated or retarded as the voltage at the resonator

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

changes in amplitude. The accelerated electron leaves the resonator at an


increased velocity and the retarded electron leave at the reduced velocity;
The electron leaving the resonator will need different time to return due to
change in velocity. As a result returning electron group together in bunches. As
the electron bunches pass through grids, if the bunches pass the grid at such time
that the electrons are lsowed down by the voltage energy will be delivered to
resonator and klystron will oscillate. Hence it is obvious that the e bench should
reach the resonator cavity at a time when the RF field retard the bunch and give up
energy to reinforce the oscillations i.e. it should have proper transit time.
Optimum transit
time for the bunch to arrive at the cavity is (n + ) cycles ofter the beam initially
left the cavity transit time = (n + 3/4 ) T, where n = 0,1,2,3,4, T = Time
period of RF voltage Ref klystron can be operated with diff transit times, which
across the gap are referred to as modes.
Mone number N = (n+3/4 )
The frequency is primarily determined by the dimensions of resonant cavity.
Hence by changing the volume of resonator, mechanical tuning range of klystron
is possible. Also a small frequency change can be obtained by adjusting the
reflector voltage. This is called Electronic tuning range.
PROCEDURE:
1. Arrange the microwave bench as per the diagram shown. Put the matched
termination as a load.
2. Switch ON the klystron fan or blower.
3. Put the select display knob in off position, Beam voltage knob in
minimum position and rep voltage knob in maximum position and now
switch on the Klystron power supply.
4. Put the select display knob in v (voltage) position and adjust the beam
voltage to 300V and adjust the repeller voltage to get the maximum
deflection to the meter reading. Also keep the attenuation to a desired
level.
5. Change the repeller voltage in steps of 5 to 10V and note down the output
power and also measure the frequency of the signal using cavity meter.
6. Plot the characteristics as shown in the fig below.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

OBSERVATIONS:
Mode
Number

Repeller voltage
(-ve) (volts)

Frequency
(GHz)

Power
(dB)

2
3

RESULT:
The characteristics of the reflex klystron is observed.
Questions:
1) What is klystron tube?
2) What is velocity modulation?
3) What is bunching?
4) Importance of multicavity klystron?
5) What is electronic tuning?
6) What is difference between the two cavity Klystron amplifier and the reflex
Klystron?
7) What is the frequency range of the reflex Klystron?
8) What is the output power and efficiency of the reflex Klystron?
9) List out various applications of reflex Klystron.
10) a) Define transit time
b) What is the value of reflex Klystron transit time?
12)What are the governing factors of transit time?

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Experiment No 3
SCATTERING MATRIX OF A MAGIC TEE
AIM:
To study the characteristics of Magic Tee and to obtain its scattering matrix.
APPARATUS:
Klystron power supply
Klystron mount with Reflex klystron
Isolator
Frequency meter
Variable attenuator
Magic Tee
Matched loads
Crystal detctor
VSWR meter
Cables
Cooling fan
Wave guide Stands

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Klystron power
Supply

Klystron mount
with tube

Isolator

Variable
Attenuator

Frequency Meter

Magic Tee

Crystal Detector

VSWR meter

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

THEORY:
Magic Tee is a four port device with the following properties
When power is given to port 1 it will be divided equally & in phase
between E & H arms and no power is coupled to port 2 i.e. ports 1 and
2 are isolated.
When power is given to port 2 it will be equally divided between E * H
arms but out of phase, no power is coupled to port 1.
When power is given to H arm it will be divided equally & in phase
between ports 1 & 2 and no power is coupled to E arem i.e. E & H
arms are isolated.
When power is given to E arm it will be equally divided between ports
1 & 2 but out of phase
When two powers which are equal in magnitude and in phase are given
to ports 1 and 2 they get added in H arm.
When two powers which are equal in magnitude and out of phase are
given to ports 1 and 2 they get added in E arm.

PROCEDURE:
1. Arrange the microwave bench as per the diagram shown. Put the matched
termination as a load.
2. Switch ON the klystron fan or blower.
3. Put the select display knob in off position, Beam voltage knob in
minimum position and rep voltage knob in maximum position and now
switch on the Klystron power supply.
4. Put the select display knob in v (voltage) position and adjust the beam
voltage to 300V and vary the repeller voltage frequency and amplitude of
the modulating signal for obtaining maximum deflection in VSWR meter
and also tune the probe for maximum deflection.
5. Adjust the attenuation by using the variable attenuator and make the
deflection to read 0dB in VSWR meter. The signal of 0dB reference level
will be given as input to the magic tee.
6. Now insert the Tee as shown in fig. the signal of 0dB reference is given as
input to port 1. Measure the power at port 2 by connecting the matched
termination at E and H arms, similarly measure the powers at E and H
arms by connecting matched loads at other ports.
7. Now the signal of 0dB reference should be given to port 2 and measure the
power at other ports. Repeat the procedure by giving the signals to arms E
&H.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

OBSERVATIONS:
Input Port
(0dB
reference)

Matched Ports

Output ports

Ideal
readings

-3dB

-3dB

-3dB

-3dB

-3dB

-3dB

-3dB

Practical
Readings

-3dB

RESULT:
The characteristics of the magic tee have observed and the scattering
parameters of the magic tee are calculated.
Viva Questions:
1) What is magic tee? Why it is called so?
2) How many ports does it have?
3) Difference between magic tee to directional coupler?
4) What is magic behind this?
5) What are the applications of a magic tee?
6) What is meant by scattering matrix? What is the scattering matrix of a magic tee?
7) What does an isolator mean?
8) What are the applications of an isolator?
9) Which principle is used in isolator?

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Page 13 of 52

IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Experiment No 4
CHARACTERISTICS OF GUNN OSCILLATOR
AIM:
To study and plot the V-I characteristics of Gunn Oscillator.
APPARATUS:
Gunn power supply
Gunn oscillator
Frequency meter
PIN modulator
Isolator
Variable Attenuator
Wave guide detector
Cables
Wave guide Stands
Cooling fan
VSWR meter
Block Diagram:
Gunn power
Supply

Gunn Oscillator

PIN
modulator

Isolator

Variable
Attenuator

Frequency Meter

Crystal Detector

VSWR meter

THEORY:
The Gunn Oscillator is based on negative differential conductivity effect in
bulk semi conductors, which has two conduction band minima separated by an energy

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

gap. In the first band the electrons have high mobility and low effective mass and in
the other it will have low mobility and high effective mass because of this the device
exhibits negative resistance.
In a Gunn oscillator the Gunn diode is placed in a resonant cavity. In this case
the oscillation frequency is determined by cavity dimensions than by the diode itself.
Although Gunn oscillator can be amplitude modulated with the bias voltage.
Separated use of PIN modulator through PIN diode has been made for square wave
modulation.
PROCEDURE:
Set the equipment as shown in the figure initially set the variable attenuator for
maximum attenuation.
Keep the control knob of Gunn power supply as shown below:
Meter Switch - OFF
Gunn bias knob - Fully anticlockwise
PIN bias knob - Fully anticlockwise
PIN MOD frequency - Any position
Set the micrometer of Gunn Oscillator for required frequency of operation.
ON the Gunn power supply and cooling fan.
1. The voltage in increased in steps of 0.25V and the corresponding current is
read from the meter on the Gunn Power supply by switching alternatively
to current & voltage.
2. Plot the voltage and current reading on the graph as shown in figure.
3. Measure the threshold voltage, which corresponds to maximum current.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

OBSERVATIONS:
Voltage (V)

Current (mA)

RESULT:

The Gunn Diode characteristics have observed and the threshold voltage
has found.
Questions:
1. What is Gunn diode?
2. Draw the equivalent Circuit for Gunn diode ?
3. What are the different modes in Gunn diode oscillator?
4. How many junctions are there in Gunn diode?
5. Explain the transferred electron effect in Gunn diode?
6. What are applications of Gunn diode?
7. What are the applications of Gunn diode?
8. What is the drawback of Gunn diode?
9. What is the frequency range and efficiency of the Gunn diode?
10 What is the basis behind the Gunn Effect?
11 What is meant by population inversion?
12 In which frequency mode the Gunn oscillator will oscillate?
13. What is the noise factor of the Gunn diode when compared to the IMPATT diode?

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Page 16 of 52

IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Experiment No 5
DIRECTIONAL COUPLER CHARACTERISTICS
AIM: To study the function of multi-hole directional coupler by measuring the
following parameters.
1. The Coupling factor, Insertion Loss and Directivity of the Directional coupler
APPARATUS:
Klystron power supply
Klystron mount with Reflex klystron
Isolator
Frequency meter
Variable attenuator
Directional Coupler
Matched loads
Crystal detctor
VSWR meter
Cables
Cooling fan
Wave guide Stands
Block Diagram:

Matched
Load

Klystron Power
Supply

Klystron Mount
with tube

Isolator

Variable
Attenuator

Frequency
Meter

Matched
load

Directional
Coupler

Crystal Detector

VSWR meter

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

THEORY:
A directional coupler is a device with which it is possible to measure the incident and
reflected wave separately. It consist of two transmission lines the main arm and
auxiliary arm, electromagnetically coupled to each other Refer to the Fig.1. The
power entering, in the main-arm gets divided between port 2 and 3, and almost no
power comes out in port (4) Power entering at port 2 is divided between port 1 and 4.
The coupling factor is defined as
Coupling (db) = 10 log10 [P1/P3] where port 2 is terminated, Isolation (dB) = 10
log10 [P2/P3] where P1 is matched.
With built-in termination and power entering at Port 1, the directivity of the coupler is
a measure of separation between incident wave and the reflected wave. Directivity is
measured indirectly as follows:
Hence Directivity D (db) = I-C = 10 log10 [P2/P1]
Main line VSWR is SWR measured, looking into the main-line input terminal when
the matched loads are placed at all other ports.
Auxiliary live VSWR is SWR measured in the auxiliary line looking into the output
terminal when the matched loads are placed on other terminals.
Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in the transmission line by
insertion of coupler, it is defined as:
Insertion Loss (dB) = 10 log10 [P1/P2]
PROCEDURE:
1. Set up the equipments as shown in the Figure.
2. Energize the microwave source for particular operation of frequency .
3. Remove the multi hole directional coupler and connect the detector mount to
the slotted section.
4. Set maximum amplitude in CRO with the help of variable attenuator, Let it be
X.
5. Insert the directional coupler between the slotted line and detector mount.
Keeping port 1 to slotted line, detector mount to the auxiliary port 3 and
matched termination to port 2 without changing the position of variable
attenuator.
6. Note down the amplitude using CRO, Let it be Y.
7. Calculate the Coupling factor X-Y in dB.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

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Laboratory Manual

8. Now carefully disconnect the detector mount from the auxiliary port 3 and
matched termination from port 2 , without disturbing the setup.
9. Connect the matched termination to the auxiliary port 3 and detector mount to
port 2 and measure the amplitude on CRO, Let it be Z.
10. Compute Insertion Loss= X Z in dB.
11. Repeat the steps from 1 to 4.
12. Connect the directional coupler in the reverse direction i.e., port 2 to slotted
section, matched termination to port 1 and detector mount to port 3, without
disturbing the position of the variable attenuator.
13. Measure and note down the amplitude using CRO, Let it be Y0.
14. Compute the Directivity as Y-Y0 in dB.
OBSERVATIONS:

Input Port
1
1
2

Matched Ports

Output ports

3
2
1

2
3
3

Output
Power dB

RESULT:
The characteristics of directional coupler are studied
SAMPLE VIVA QUESTIONS:
1) What is directional coupler?
2) How many ports does it have?
3) What is the difference between directional coupler and magic tee?
4).What is the purpose the directional couplers?
5).What is meant by coupling factor and what is its formula?
6).What is meant by directivity of D.C. and how can it express?
7).What is meant by isolation and how it can express?
8). How many types of directional coupler are there and which is the most commonly
used one?
9). Summaries the properties of an ideal directional coupler.

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Page 19 of 52

IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Experiment No 6
MEASUREMENTS OF A SCATTERING PARAMETERS
OF CIRCULATOR
AIM: To study the Isolator and circulators and measure the Insertion Loss and
Isolation of Circulator.
APPARATUS:
Klystron power supply
Klystron mount with Reflex klystron
Isolator
Frequency meter
Variable attenuator
Directional Coupler
Matched loads
Crystal detctor
VSWR meter
Cables
Cooling fan
Wave guide Stands
Block Diagram:

Matched
load

Klystron Power
Supply

Klystron Mount
with tube

Isolator

Variable
Attenuator

Frequency
Meter

Ciculator

Crystal Detector

VSWR meter
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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

CIRCULATOR:
Circulator is defined as device with ports arranged such that energy entering a port is
coupled to an adjacent port but not coupled to the other ports. This is depicted in
figure circulator can have any number of ports.

PROCEDURE:
1. Remove the isolator or circulator from slotted line and connect the detector
mount to the slotted section. The output of the detector mount should be
connected with CRO.
2. Energize the microwave source for maximum output for a particular frequency
of operation. Tune the detector mount for maximum output in the CRO.
3. Set any reference level of output in CRO with the help of variable attenuator,
Let it be V1.
4. Carefully remove the detector mount from slotted line without disturbing the
position of the set up. Insert the isolator/circulator between slotted line and
detector mount. Keep input port to slotted line and detector its output port. A
matched termination should be placed at third port in case of Circulator.
5. Record the output in CRO, Let it be V2.
6. Compute Insertion loss given as V1-V2 in db.

OBSERVATIONS:
Input Port

Matched Ports

Output ports

Ideal

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Practical

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

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Laboratory Manual

readings
3
1

2
3

Readings

0 dB
- dB

0 dB

- dB

- dB

0 dB

1
2

RESULT:
The characteristics of circulator are studied
SAMPLE VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Indicate the frequency Vs wave length for X-band?
2. Explain the principle of isolator & circulator?
3. Explain the principle of frequency meter?
4. What type of frequency meter used in microwave test bench?
1. What is the function of the frequency meter in the microwave bench?
2. What are the techniques for measuring the frequency?
3. What technique is used for the measurement of frequency accurately?
4. What does circulator mean?
5. What type of transition takes place in circulator?
6. By what angle the wave is titled as it moves from one port to another in clockwise
direction.
7. How circular acts as duplexer.
8. How VSWR measurement can be made by a circulator?

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Page 22 of 52

IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Experiment No 7
MEASUREMENT OF IMPEDENCE OF A GIVEN LOAD
AIM: To measure an unknown impedance using the smith chart.
APPARATUS:
Klystron power supply
Klystron mount with Reflex klystron
Isolator
Frequency meter
Variable attenuator
Matched loads
Crystal detctor
VSWR meter
Cables
Cooling fan
Wave guide Stands
Slotted Section with movable Probe
Short circuit
Load whose impedence is tobe measured
Block Diagram:
load

Klystron
Power Supply

Klystron
Mount with
tube

Isolato
r

Variable
Attenuator

Frequency
Meter

Slotted Line

Crystal Detector

VSWR meter

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

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Laboratory Manual

THEORY:
The measurement is performed in the following way.
The unknown device is connected to the slotted line and the position of one minima is
determined. The unknown device is replaced by movable short to the slotted line.
Two successive minima portions are noted. The twice of the difference between
minima position will be guide wave length. One of the minima is used as reference for
impedance measurement. Find the difference of reference minima and minima
position obtained from unknown load. Let it be d. Take a smith chart, taking 1 as
centre, draw a circle of radius equal to S. Mark a point on circumference of smith
chart towards load side at a distance equal to d/g.
Join the center with this point. Find the point where it cut the drawn circle. The coordinates of this point will show the normalized impedance of load.
PROCEDURE:
1. Calculate a set of Vmin values for short or movable short as load.
2. Calculate a set of Vmin values for S-S Tuner + Matched
termination as a load. Note: Move more steps on S-S Tuner
3. From the above 2 steps calculate d = d1~d2
4. With the same setup as in step 2 but with few numbers of turns (2 or
3).
5. Calculate low VSWR.
Note: High VSWR can also be calculated but it results in a complex procedure.
6. Draw a VSWR circle on a smith chart.
7. Draw a line from center of circle to impedance value (d/g) from which
calculate admittance and Reactance (Z = R+jx)
Model Graph:

Observations:

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Beam Voltage =
Current =
Repeller Votage =
Power =
When Load is Connected:
First min =
Second min =
Third min =
When Short circuit is Connected:
First min =
Second min =
Third min =
Average Value of VSWR=
Reflection Co-effiecent =
dmin=

RESULT;.
The method of measuring unknown load impedance is studied by measuring
VSWR and the position of the voltage minimum.

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTIONS:


1. Indicate the frequency Vs wave length for X-band?
2. Explain the principle of isolator & circulator?
3. Explain the principle of frequency meter?
4. What type of frequency meter used in microwave test bench?
1. Mention the methods used for the measurement of impedance?
2. For measuring low impedance which method is used?
3. In which method both impedance and reflection coefficient can be measured?

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PART B
Digital
Communication

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EXPERIMENT 1
PULSE CODE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION
AIM
i.

To study the PCM bit pattern (8 bits) corresponding to the applied a.c. or d.c.
voltage signals
ii. To study the demodulated output corresponding to the applied 8-bit pattern.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
i. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit.
ii. Dual Trace and dual channel CRO 20/30MHz
iii. Patch Chords and CRO BNC Probes
BLOCK DIAGRAM

THEORY
PCM means Pulse Code Modulation. The message signal is sampled (Sampling) and the
amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of allowable values
(Quantization), so that both time and amplitude will be in discrete form. This allows the
message to be transmitted by the means of coded electrical signals (Encoder), thereby
distinguishing PCM from all other methods of modulation.
The essential operations in the transmitter of a PCM system are sampling, quantizing and
encoding. The encoding and quantizing operations are usually performed in the same circuit
called analog to digital converter (ADC). The essential operations in the receiver are
regeneration of quantized samples.
Sampling The incoming message wave is sampled with narrow rectangular pulses so as to
closely approximate the nearest one of a finite set of allowable values, so that time will be in
discrete form. To avoid loss of message signal, in ideal case infinite number of samples must
be generated.
Quantizing The conversion of an analog sampled amplitudes of signal to a discrete amplitude
signal is called quantizing process. In this the difference between two adjacent discrete values
is called a quantum. The amplitude difference between quantized level and sampled
amplitude is called quantization error.

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Encoding In this process, each of the discrete value from the above two processes is
represented by discrete events called codes. The binary code (i.e. 0 & 1) representation is
more advantageous since it withstands a relatively high level of noise & is easy to regenerate
using regenerative repeater at regular distances of channel.
PROCEDURE
i.
Connect the clock generator output to clock input.
ii. Connect the variable d.c. output of the signal generator to input of A/D
converter.
iii. Minimum amplitude d.c. signal is applied. Note down the PCM output bit
pattern and measure its corresponding demodulated output voltage using
multimeter.
iv. The d.c. voltage is incremented in steps of 0.5V and step 3 is repeated until
reaching the maximum d.c. out voltage.
v. From the above DC Voltage values an analog signal and its corresponding
demodulated signal is constructed.
vi. Apply an analog a.c. signal of frequency 1KHz to input of A/D converter.
vii. The modulated PCM output and the demodulated PCM output are observed.
viii. Observe that the demodulated a.c. signal output is in phase with the message
signal applied
OBSERVATIONS
Analog a.c. Signal
Amplitude=
Frequency=
Demodulated a.c signal
Amplitude=
Frequency=
GRAPHS
The modulated and its demodulated outputs with input d.c. signal & a.c. signal are plotted by
taking time on X-axis and voltage on Y-axis.

Modulating a.c. signal

De modulating a.c. signal

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PCM Modulated and Demodulated Waves


15
10
5
Voltage
0
-5

10

15

20

-10
-15
Time
Modulated Output

Demodulated Output

RESULT
For a.c. and d.c. input voltages, Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation techniques are
studied.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the expression for transmission bandwidth in a PCM system?
2. What is the expression for quantization noise /error in PCM system?
3. What are the applications of PCM?
4. What are the advantages of the PCM?
5. What are the disadvantages of PCM?

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EXPERIMENT 2
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING & DEMULTIPLEXING
AIM :
To study the Time Division multiplexing and De multiplexing using the following
1. Using four sine waves with different frequency and amplitudes
2. Using a sine wave, Triangular wave and square wave with different
frequency and amplitudes
APPARATUS REQUIRED
i. Time Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing trainer.
ii. Dual Trace and dual channel CRO 20/30MHz
iii. Patch Chords and CRO BNC Probes

THEORY
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a technique used for transmitting several analog
message signals over a single common communication channel by dividing the time frame
into slots, one slot for each message signal. The important feature of pulse amplitude
modulation is conversation of time. For a given message signal, transmission of the associated
PAM wave engages the communication channel for only a fraction of the sampling interval
on a periodic basis. Hence, some of the time interval between adjacent pulses of the PAM
wave is cleared for use by other independent message signals on a time shared basis. By
doing so, we obtain a time division multiplex system, with operation of the pulse modulator.
The narrow samples produced at the pulse demodulator output are distributed to the
appropriate low pass reconstruction filter by means of a decommutator, which operates in
synchronism with the commutator in the transmitter. The synchronization is essential for a
satisfactory operation of the system. TDM is immune to amplitude non linearities in the
channel as a source of cross talk, because the different message signals are not simultaneously

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impressed on the channel. The maximum channel bandwidth required to avoid cross talk in a
channel containing N inputs is N.fm.
Comparison of TDM & FDM shows that the band width required for both the techniques is
the same i.e., N.fm, but FDM can be used only when the message signal is in analog form,
whereas TDM can be used for both analog and digital signals. But the disadvantage of TDM
is that it requires synchronization between the commutator and decommutator. TDM and
FDM are dual of each other. Also, in TDM a guard band is provided because the commutator
switch cannot move from one slot to another immediately.

PROCEDURE
i.
ii.
iii.

The amplitude of each message signal is set to different amplitudes.


The natural sampled PAM outputs are observed at TP5, TP6, TP7 & TP8.
The outputs are observed by varying the duty cycle pot (P5) with 10% to 50%
duty cycle.
iv. The TDM output is observed at TP9 and all the multiplexer channels are during
the full period of the clock 1/ (32 KHz).
v. The TDM output is observed by varying the amplitude of the modulating signal
using pots P1, P2, P3 and P4.
vi. TDM multiplexer output (TP9) is connected to TDM de multiplexer input
(TP12).
vii. The demodulated outputs are observed at TP13, TP14, TP15 & TP 16
respectively.
viii. The low pass filter outputs for each channel are observed at TP17, TP18, TP19
& TP20. These signals are observed to be true replica of the inputs with lower
amplitudes.
ix. Steps I to viii are repeated with different frequency and amplitudes of a sine
wave, triangular wave and square waves.
GRAPHS
The output wave forms of modulating signals, Multiplexed signal, de multiplexed signal and
demodulated signal are drawn correspondingly.

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RESULT

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The Time Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing are studied.

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is meant by multiplexing technique and what are the different types of Multiplexers?
2. Briefly explain about TDM&FDM?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. Define crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. What are major differences between TDM&FDM?
7. Give the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system and give some example?
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?

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EXPERIMENT 3
FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING
AIM
i. To generate FSK Modulation and Demodulate FSK signals.
ii. Study of different line codes for the given data input signal 0011001100.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
i. Frequency Shift Keying trainer kit.
ii. Dual Trace and dual channel CRO 20/30MHz
iii. Patch Chords and CRO BNC Probes
BLOCK DIAGRAM

THEORY
Binary FSK is a form of constant amplitude non linear angle modulation and the modulating
signal is a binary pulse stream that varies between two discrete voltage levels but not
continuously changing analog signal. In FSK the carrier amplitude (Vc) remains constant with
modulation and the carrier radian frequency (Wc) shifts by an amount equal to (w/2). The
frequency shift (w/2) is proportional to the amplitude and polarity of the input binary signal.
For example a binary 1 could be +1 Volt and a binary 0 could be -1 Volt producing frequency
shifts of +w/2 and -w/2 respectively. The rate of change the binary input signal Vm(t). Thus
the output carrier frequency deviates (shifts) between Wc + w/2 and Wc - w/2 at the rate
equal to fm.
Non Return to Zero Level (NRZ-L):
This is a level type code and is one that is widely used in serial data transmission. Logic 1 is
represented by High amplitude level and Logic 0 is represented by another level lower than
logic 1 but not zero amplitude.

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Non Return to Zero Mark (NRZ-M):


This encoding is commonly referred to as just NRZ in other contexts. Here logic 1 is
represented by a change in amplitude level and logic 0 is represented by no change n level
Return to zero (RZ):
This is an impulse type code where a 1 is represented by a high level that returns to zero
after a half bit interval. Its advantage is power conservation as transmission takes place only
for a 1.
Biphase (Mark):
It is inverse to the Manchester coding
Biphase (Manchester):
In telecommunication, Manchester code (also known as Phase Encoding) is a form of data
communications line code in which each bit of data is signified by at least one voltage level
transmission. Manchester encoding is therefore considered to be self clocking, which means
that accurate synchronization of a data stream is possible. Each bit is transmitted over a
predefined time period. It provides simple way to encode arbitrary binary sequences without
ever having long periods without level transitions, thus preventing the loss of clock
synchronization or bit errors from low frequency drift on poorly equalized analog links. In
this Manchester code ( as per IEEE 802.3)used in Ethernet communications as: logic 1 is
represented by High and low amplitudes each for a half bit duration and logic 0 is represented
by Low and High amplitudes each for a half bit duration.
PROCEDURE
i.
Switch on the power supply.
ii. Select the data selection switch (DATA SELECTION) to the desired code (say
11001100).
iii. Set the switch (DATA ON-OFF) in ON position. Observe the 8 bit pattern at TP
12.
iv. Observe the data clock at TP 1 and also observe the NRZ (L) at TP 2, RZ at TP
3, NRZ () at TP 4, BIPHASE (MARK) at TP 5 and BIPHASE
(MANCHESTER) at TP 6.
v. Connect the patch chord as shown in fig 1. Observe the corresponding FSK
output at TP 8 (when data is logic 1 the frequency is high and data is logic 0
the frequency is low).
vi. Repeat step 5 for other inputs (like NRZ (M), RZ, BIPHASE), observe
corresponding FSK outputs.
vii. Now change the data selection and repeat above 3 to 6 steps and observe the
corresponding outputs.
viii. For demodulation connect the circuit as shown in fig: 2.
ix. The incoming FSK input is observed at TP 9.
x. The output of square wave converted is available at TP 10. The serial data
output is available at TP 11.
xi. Repeat above steps for other serial data input and observe corresponding serial
data output. These output are true replica of original input.

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GRAPHS
The output wave forms of data input, clock signal, modulated and the demodulated signals are
drawn.
Data Clock

Data

NRZ (L)

RZ

Bi Phase Mark

Manchester

NRZ (L)

FSK Output

NRZ (L)

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RESULT
Frequency shift keying Modulation and Demodulation are studied.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1.Explain the concept of FSK?
2.Compare ASK, FSK & PSK?
3.Draw the waveforms of FSK?
4.What is M-ray signaling? What is its advantages over 2-ary signaling?
5.What are the different data coding formats & draw the waveforms and what is advantages
of Manchaster coding over other formats?
6.Explain the demodulation scheme of FSK?
7.What is the formula for Band Width required in FSK?
8.What is the minimum B.W for an FSK signal transmitting at 2000bps(half duplex),if
carriers are separated by 3KHz?
9.Is the FSK spectrum, a combination of two ASK spectra centered around two frequencies?
10.Is the FSK band width is more than ASK band width for a given band rate?
11.Is it more susceptible to noise than ASK?
12.What are the limiting factors of FSK?
13.Is the band rate & bit rate are same for FSK?

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EXPERIMENT 4
PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND DEMODULATION
AIM
i.

To study the operation of Phase shift keying modulation and demodulation


techniques.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
i. Phase Shift Keying trainer.
ii. Dual Trace and dual channel CRO 20/30MHz
iii. Patch Chords and CRO BNC Probes

THEORY
To transmit the digital data from one place to another we have to choose transmission
medium. The simplest possible method to connect the transmitter to receiver with a piece of
wire. This works satisfactorily for short distances in some cases. But for long communication
with the aircraft ship vehicle this is not feasible. Here we have to obtain for the radio
transmitter. It is not possible to send the digital data directly over the antenna because the
antenna of practical size works on very high frequencies, much higher than over data
transmission rate and processing and have continued to develop into a major industry
providing the interconnection of computer peripherals and transmission of data between
distant sites, phase shift keying is relatively new system in which the carrier may be phase
shifted by 90 for a mark and -90 for a space. PSK has a no. of similarities to PSK in many
aspects as in PSK frequency of the carrier is shifted according o modulation square wave.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
In this IC 8038 is a basic wave form generator which generates sine, square and triangular
wave forms. The sine wave generated by this 8038 IC is used as carrier signal to the system.
This square wave is used as a circuit input to a decade counter (IC 7490) which generates the
modulating data outputs. The digital signal applied to the modulating input for PSK
generation is bipolar having equal positive and negative voltage levels. When the modulating
input is negative for output of modulator is sine wave in phase with carrier input where as for
the positive voltage levels the output modulator is a sine wave which is shifted out of
differential data stream. This happens because the carrier output is now multiplied by negative
constant level. Thus the output changes in phase when a change in polarity of modulating
signal results.
Modulation: IC CD 4051 is an analog multiplexer to which carrier is applied with and without
180 phase shift to the two multiplex inputs of IC. Modulating data input is applied to control
input, depending upon the level of control, signal, carrier signal applied with or without phase
shift to the carrier signal created by an operational amplifier using IC 741.
Demodulation: During the demodulation of PSK signal is converted into a +5V sequence
wave signal using a transistor and is applied to one input of an EX-OR gate. To the second
input of the gate carrier signal is applied after conversion into a +5V signal, so the EX-OR
gate output is equivalent to the modulating data signal.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
i.
ii.
iii.

Switch on the power supply.


Observe the carrier output at TP1, data outputs at D1, D2, D3, D4.
Connect the carrier output to the carrier input (TP2) and D1 to data input of the
PSK modulator (TP3).
iv. Observe the PSK modulated output wrt data input.
v. For demodulation connect the PSK modulated output to the input of the
demodulation (TP4).
vi. Connect the carrier output to the demodulator (TP5).
vii. Now observe the demodulated output wave wrt data input on the CRO.
viii. Observe that the demodulated output is true replica of data input.
ix. By connecting the different data inputs observe the modulated and demodulated
waves.

GRAPHS

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the output wave forms of data input, carrier, modulated and the demodulated signals.

D1

D2

D3

D4

CARRIER SIGNAL

D1 INPUT

PSK MODULATED OUTPUT

PSK DE-MODULATED OUTPUT

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RESULT
Phase shift keying Modulation and Demodulation techniques are studied.
SAMPLE VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS
1. What is the What are the types of digital modulation schemes?
2. difference between analog modulation and digital modulation?
3. How PSK is non linear modulation scheme?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of PSK over other digital modulation
schemes?
5. What are the applications of PSK?
6. What is the difference between PSK & DPSK?
7.

Explain the concept of PSK?

8.

Compare ASK, FSK, PSK?

9.

Draw the waveforms of PSK?

10. What is M-ary signaling? What are its advantages over 2-ary signaling?
11. Explain the demodulation scheme of PSK?.
12. What is the advantage of PSK over ASK, FSK?
13. Will the smaller variations in the signal can be detected reliably by PSK?
14. Can we transmit data twice as for using 4-PSK as we can using 2-PSK?
15. What is the minimum B.W required in PSK?
16. Is the B.W in PSK is same as in ASK?
17. Is the maximum bit rate in PSK is greater than ASK?
18. Is the maximum baud ate in PSK & ASK are same?

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EXPERIMENT 5
DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND
DEMODULATION
AIM:
i.

To study the operation of Differential Phase shift keying modulation and


demodulation techniques.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
i. Differential Phase Shift Keying trainer.
ii. Dual Trace and dual channel CRO 20 MHz
iii. Patch Chords and CRO Probes
THEORY:
Modulation also allows different data streams to be transmitted over the same channel
(trans medium). This process is called as multiplexing and result in considerable saving in
band width no. of channels to be used. Also it increases the channel efficiency. Some of the
basic modulation techniques are ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK and QPSK.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:
In this IC 8038 is a basic wave form generator which generates sine, square and
triangular wave forms. The sine wave generated by this 8038 IC is used as carrier signal to the
system. This square wave is used as a circuit input to a decade counter (IC 7490) which
generates the modulating data outputs. The digital signal applied to the modulating input for
DPSK generation is bipolar i.e., having equal positive and negative voltage levels. When the
modulating input is negative for output of modulator is sine wave in phase with carrier input
where as for the positive voltage levels the output modulator is a sine wave which is shifted
out of phase by 180 from the carrier input.
Thus the output changes in phase when a change in polarity of modulating signal
results. Figure shows the functional blocks of the modulator & demodulator.
Modulation: The differential signal to the modulating signal is generated using ex-or gate and
1 bit delay circuit. IC CD 4051 is an analog multiplexer to which carrier is applied with and
without 180 phase shift (created by using an op-amp connected in inverting amplifiers mode)
to the two inputs of IC TL084. Differential signal generated by ex-or gate (IC 7486) is given
to the multiplexers control signal input. Depending upon the level of the control signal,
carrier signal applied with or without phase shift is steered to the input. 1-bit delay generation
of drift signal to the i/p created by using a D flip flop (IC 7474).

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Demodulation: During the demodulation, the DPSK signal is converted into a +5V square
wave signal using a transistor and is applied to one input of an EX-OR gate. To the second
input of the gate carrier signal is applied after conversion into a +5V signal, so the EX-OR
gate output is equivalent to the differential data and the second input after first delay the
same signal is given so the output of this ex-or gate is modulating signal.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
i.
ii.
iii.

Switch on the power supply.


Observe the carrier output at TP 1, data outputs at D1, D2, D3, D4.
Connect the carrier output to the carrier input (TP 2) and D1 to data input of the
DPSK modulator (TP 3).
iv. Observe the differential data output at TP 9.
v. Observe the DPSK modulation output wrt to differential output.
vi. Connect the modulation output (TP 11) to modulation input (TP 12) of the
demodulator, the carrier output (TP 2) to carrier input (TP 13) of the
demodulator and the clock output to the clock input (TP 14) of the demodulator.
vii. Observe the demodulated output at TP 15.

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GRAPHS:
Draw the output wave forms of data input, carrier, modulated and the demodulated
signals.

D1

D2

D3

D4
Carrier signal

Clock Signal

D1
Differential data

DPSK

D1

Demodulated message signal

D1
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RESULT:
Differential Phase shift keying Modulation and Demodulation techniques are studied.
1.How does DPSK differ from PSK?
2.Explain theoretical modulation & demodulation of DPSK using arbitrary bit sequence and
assuming initial bit 0 and 1?
3.What is the advantage of DPSK over PSK?
4.Why do we need 1 bit delay in DPSK modulator & demodulator?
5.What does a synchronous detector (multiplier) do in DPSK demodulator?
6.what is the relation between carrier frequency & the bit interval T?
7.What is the disadvantages of DPSK.?
8.Is the error rate of DPSK is greater than PSK?
9.What is the expression for DPSK error?
10.What are the applications of DPSK?

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EXPERIMENT 6
DELTA MODULATION AND DEMODULATION
AIM
i.

To study the Delta Modulation and Demodulation process by comparing the


present signal with the previous signal of given modulating signal.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
i. Delta Modulation and Demodulation trainer.
ii. Dual Trace and dual channel CRO 20/30MHz
iii. Patch Chords and CRO BNC Probes
THEORY
In Delta Modulation, an incoming message signal is over sampled to purposely increase the
correlation between the adjacent samples of the signal. This is done to permit the use of a
simple quantizing strategy for constructing the encoded signal. Delta Modulation is one bit
version of DPCM. In its basic form DM provides a stair case approximation to the over
sampled version of the message signal. The difference between the input and the
approximation is quantized into only two levels, , corresponding to positive and negative
differences respectively. Thus if the approximation level falls below the signal at any
sampling epoch, it is increased by . If, on the other hand, the approximation lies above the
signal, it is diminished by provided that the signal does not change too rapidly from sample
to sample. We find that the stair case approximation remains with in of the input signal.
The principle virtue of DM is its simplicity. It may be generated by applying the sampled
version of the incoming base band signal to a modulator that involves a summer, quantizer
and accumulator.
DPCM and DM are basically similar; except for two important differences namely, the use of
a one bit (2 level) quantizer in the delta modulator and the replacement of the prediction filter
by a single delay element. Delta Modulation systems are subjected to two types of quantizing
error.
1. Slope overload distortion
2. Granular noise
If the step size is of too small for the stair case approximation slope overload occurs and the
error is known as slope overload distortion. If the step size is too long granular noise occurs.
The use of delta modulation is only in certain special cases (1) If it is necessary to reduce the
bit rate below 40kbps and limited voice quality is tolerable. (2) If extreme circuit simplicity is
of over riding importance and the accompanying use of high bit rate is acceptable.
Slope Overloading: A serious problem in delta modulation scheme arises due to the rate of
noise overloading. When x (t) is changing x (t) & x (t) follow x (t) in a step wise fashion as
long as successive samples of x (t) do not differ by an amount greater than the step size 8.
When the difference is greater than , x (t) and x (t) can no longer follow x (t). This type of
over load not determined by amplitude of the message signal x (t) but rather by its slope.
Hence, the name slope overload.
To drive a condition for preventing slope overload in DM systems let us assume that x (t) = A
Cos (2fxt). Than the maximum signal is [dx(t)/dt]max = A2fx.The maximum sample to

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sample change in the value of x (t) then is A2fx Ts < or the peak signal amplitude at
which slope overload occurs is given by A = /2 * fs/fx.
A better way to avid slope overload is to detect the overload condition and make step size
larger when overloading is detected. Hunting occurs in DM systems when the signal changes
very slowly and slope overloading occurs when the slope of the signal is very high.
BLOCK DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE
i.
ii.
iii.

Switch on the power supply.


Connect the transmitter clock (TP2) to transmitter clock input (TP6).
In order to ensure the correct operation of the system, we first take the input to
0V from DC variable at TP 3. So the positive input is connected to the delta
modulators & voltage comparator to 0V.
iv. Observe the integrator output at TP9 and output of level change at TP8.
v. The relative amplitudes of level changers positive and negative output levels can
be varied by adjusting the level adjust present in the bi stable and level changer
circuit.
vi. Disconnect the positive input from 0V and connect it to the 2KHz sine wave
from TP1.
vii. Observe the integrator output is by varying the amplitude of modulating signal.
viii. Observe the modulator output at TP7 together with the analog input at TP4.
ix. Connect the modulation output to integrator input and observe the output at
TP11.
x. Connect the TP 11 to LPF input (TP12) and observe the output.
xi. Connect TP13 to amplifier input (TP14) and observe the demodulation output at
TP15.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

Graphs:
Draw the output wave forms of data input, carrier, modulated and the demodulated

Message Signal

Sampling Signal

DM Output Signal

Demodulated message signal

Slop Overload distortion

Hunting/ Granular distortion

Normal

signals.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

RESULT
Delta Modulation and Demodulation techniques are studied.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What are the advantages of Delta modulator?
2. What are the disadvantages of delta modulator?
3. How to overcome slope overload distortion?
4. How to overcome Granular or ideal noise?
5. What are the differences between PCM & DM?
6. Define about slope over load distortion?
7. What is the other name of Granular noise?
8. What is meant by staircase approximation?
9. What are the disadvantages of Delta modulator?
10. Write the equation for error at present sample?

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

EXPERIMENT 7
DIFFERENTIAL PULSE CODE MODULATION & DEMODULATION
AIM
i.

To study the Differential Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation by sending


variable 10Hz to 500Hz frequency sine wave.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
i. Differential Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation trainer.
ii. Dual Trace and dual channel CRO 20/30MHz
iii. Patch Chords and CRO BNC Probes
THEORY
These systems are particularly more efficient when the sampled message signal has high
sample to sample correlation. For example in the transmitter of picture (video) information,
appreciable portions of the signal describe background level; if these tonal values do not
change appreciably. Then we are essentially transmitting repeated sample values. One way to
improve the situation is to send only the digitally encoded differences between successive
samples. Thus a picture that has been quantized to 256 levels (eight bits) may be transmitted
with comparable fidelity using 4-bit differential encoding. This reduces the transmission band
width by a factor of 2. PCM systems using differential quantizing schemes are known as
Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) systems.
A DPCM system that is particularly simple to implement results when the difference signal is
quantized into two levels. The output of the quantizer is represented by a single binary digit,
which indicates the sign of the sample to sample difference. This PCM system is known as
Delta Modulation (DM). Delta Modulation systems have an advantage over M-ary PCM and
M-ary DPCM systems. In that the hardware required for modulation at the transmitter and
demodulation at the receiver are much simpler.
BLOCK DIAGRAM:

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual

PROCEDURE
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

v.
vi.

Switch on the power supply and observe the sine wave (TP 1) and clock (TP 5)
on the CRO. This is the sampling rate for the system.
Observe the 2 MHz clock on the circuit; this is the system clock for ADC.
Observe the control signals ALE, SOC, EOC for ADC are observed.
Observe the modulation and demodulation outputs on CRO.

The demodulated output may not be same as the input signal because in DPCM
differential present sample pulse provision sample is shunt to receiver.
At higher frequencies the difference will be greater than 4 bits so receiver will
not be able to reconstruct the input signal. The maximum frequency + amplitude
at which this kit will be able to demodulate the transmitted signal is 500 Hz, 1
Vpp amplitude. If the frequency is greater than 500 Hz the difference will be
more than 4 bits and some information is lost so demodulated signal will not
represent the transmitted signal.

RESULT
Differential Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation techniques are studied.

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IV B.Tech. ECE-I Semester

Microwave and Digital Communications


Laboratory Manual
Message Signal

Clock Signal

DPCM Output

Demodulated Signal

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