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4.1 Result
1.Soap + 3mL distilled water

Foam produced after we shake for 15 seconds

2. Mixture from No.1 + 8

0.2mL of foam produced and there are cloudy solution at the

drops of 4% calcium chloride

bottom of that

3.Mixture from No.2 + 0.5g of

3mL of white precipitate form and there are cloudy solution at

trisodium phosphate

the bottom of that precipitate.

The foam that produced is 0.1ml.

4.2 Discussion
There are lots of objectives from the experiment that we run. That is to synthesize the
sample of hard soap and to test the soap produced were successfully achieved.
Then, the theory state that saponification is a process by which triglycerides are
reacted with sodium or potassium hydroxide to produce glycerol and a fatty acid salt, called
'soap'. When sodium hydroxide is used, a hard soap is produced. Using potassium hydroxide
results in a soft soap. Lipids that contain fatty acid ester linkages can undergo hydrolysis.
This reaction is catalyzed by a strong acid or base.
In this analysis, when the mixture No. 1 was shaken, there are white foam produced,
when mixture No.2 was shaken, foam and cloudy solution produced and mixture no. 3
produced white preci pitate and cloudy solution. There are three condition that can be
explained based on the theory. Sodium and potassium salts of most carboxylic acids are water
soluble. However, the calcium, magnesium and iron salts are not. Thats why when soaps are
placed in hard water, the white precipitate forms. This process removes soap ions from
solution, and decreases the cleaning effectiveness of soaps. Soap does not react excellently as
it does not work well in hard water that contains Ca2+. For the last mixture, the trisodium
phosphate act as water softener and that was the reason white precipitate and milky solution
After analysed the mixture, the sample was scanned by using Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Based on the FTIR scanning, the presence of carboxylic acid
and alcohol, however are cant be detected in our sample based on the peak of transmittance
percentage. The assumption was proved when we refer the peak of 3381.76 that is the peak of
alcohol on the IR Correlation table.

Furthermore, we have to improvise our experiment in order to get the accurate result.
First thing to do is to make sure that all the chemicals needed in the experiment is measured
accurately, based on what is stated in the laboratory manual. Next, run the experiment based
on the correct procedure.
In conclusion, we achieved our objective to synthesize the sample of hard soap and
test the soap produced.